KingMakers IAS Academy logo

Daily Prelims Test – 25 August 2020

Consider the following statements regarding National Council for Transgender Persons

  1. It has constituted under the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019.
  2. The Social Justice and Empowerment Minister will be the ex-officio Chairperson  of the council.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Centre constitutes National Council for Transgender Persons

  • The Central Government has constituted the National Council for Transgender Persons under the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019.Hence statement 1 is correct  
  • The Social Justice and Empowerment Minister will be the ex-officio Chairperson and Union Minister of State for Social Justice and Empowerment will be ex-officio Vice-Chairperson.Hence statement 2 is correct  
  • The National Council will advise the Centre on the formulation of policies, programmes, legislation and projects with respect to transgender persons. 
  • It will monitor and evaluate the impact of policies and programmes designed for achieving equality and full participation of transgender persons. 
  • The National Council will also review and coordinate the activities of all the departments of Government and other Governmental and non-Governmental Organisations which are dealing with matters relating to transgender persons.
  • It will redress the grievances of transgender persons and perform such other functions as may be prescribed by the Centre.

Members:

  • The council will have joint secretary-level members from the ministries of health, home, minority affairs, education, rural development, labour and law.
  • Five members of the community and five experts, from non-governmental organisations have also been named to the commission.The tenure of the community members and experts shall be three years.
  • Representatives from five states or Union Territories on a rotational basis will be members of the commission.

Source: http://newsonair.com/Main-News-Details.aspx?id=398092

Consider the following statements regarding Statutory Liquidity Ratio

  1. It is the percentage of deposit that the banks have to keep as liquid assets in the RBI
  2. The eligible assets for SLR mainly include cash, gold and approved securities by the RBI.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:A large chunk of new  deposits  find haven in G-Secs

  • The RBI has mandated banks to maintain a statutory liquidity ratio of 18%. The SLR maintained by banks is usually much higher than this. Particularly after the covid-19 outbreak, banks took to maintaining an even higher SLR.
  • The SLR was at a high of 38.5% in the early 1990s when banks in the country were government-owned. Since then, the SLR has been gradually brought down to 18%. 
  • Between 27 March and 31 July, banks have invested 89.4% of the fresh deposits in government and other approved securities, as against the mandated 18%. 
  • Over the years, banks have invested higher than required in government securities. This has risen sharply in the aftermath of the spread of the covid-19 pandemic.
  • Following the spread of coronavirus, and implications of curbs on activity, people began saving more, sensing a looming crisis. This had a direct impact on bank deposits. 

About statutory liquidity ratio

  • The RBI Act instructs that all commercial banks (and some other specified institutions) in the country have to keep a given proportion of their demand and time deposits (NDTL or net demand and time liabilities) as liquid assets in their own vault. This is called statutory liquidity ratio.
  • SLR is the percentage of deposit that the banks have to keep as liquid assets in their own vault.Hence statement 1 is incorrect  
  • The eligible assets for SLR mainly include cash, gold and approved securities by the RBI.Hence statement 2 is correct  
  • Treasury bills, dated securities issued under market borrowing programme and market stabilisation schemes (MSS), etc also form part of the SLR. 
  • Banks have to report to the RBI every alternate Friday their SLR maintenance, and pay penalties for failing to maintain SLR as mandated.

Source: https://www.livemint.com/news/india/a-large-chunk-of-new-deposits-find-haven-in-g-secs-11598196551088.html

Consider the following statements regarding Dengue

  1. It is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected a male Aedes aegypti mosquito.
  2. It is found in tropical and sub-tropical climates worldwide

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Dengue virus tests may sometimes return ‘positive’ for coronavirus, says study

The study from Israel, that was published in the peer-reviewed Clinical Infectious Diseases last week, describes testing 55 people, who had been confirmed to have a SARS-CoV-2 infection, for dengue. 

This was done by using a serology test, or a blood-based test, where antibodies that are produced by the body during a dengue infection are used to probe for the presence of the virus.

About Dengue

  • Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection.
    • The virus responsible for causing dengue is called dengue virus (DENV). 
  • Dengue is found in tropical and sub-tropical climates worldwide, mostly in urban and semi-urban areas.Hence statement 2 is correct  
  • The dengue virus (DEN) comprises four distinct serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4) which belong to the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae.
  • The Aedes aegypti a female mosquito is the main vector that transmits the viruses that cause dengue.These mosquitoes are also vectors of chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika viruses.
  • The virus is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female mosquitoes, primarily the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Hence statement 1 is incorrect  
  • Dengue can be spread through sexual contact.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/dengue-virus-tests-may-sometimes-return-positive-for-coronavirus-study/article32416613.ece

Consider the following statements regarding Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY)

  1. It covers the poorest of the poor families from amongst the BPL families covered under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) within the States.
  2. Households under AAY are entitled to 35 Kg of food grains per household per month.
  3. Under AAY, food grains at a highly subsidized rate of Rs.1/ per kg coarse grains, Rs.2/ per kg for wheat and Rs. 3/ per kg for rice are distributed to beneficiaries.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:Centre directs states, UTs to cover eligible disabled persons under food law

  • The Union Food Ministry said it has written to all state governments and union territories to provide subsidized food grains to all eligible disabled persons under the National Food Security Act
  • States have also been asked to issue fresh ration cards to eligible disabled persons not covered under the NFSA
  • It is also reiterated that disability is one of the criteria for inclusion of beneficiaries under AAY households and as disabled persons are vulnerable section of the society

About Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY)

  • AAY was launched in December, 2000.
  • It covers the poorest of the poor families from amongst the BPL families covered under Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) within the States.Hence statement 1 is correct  
  • Households under AAY are entitled to 35 Kg of food grains per household per month.Hence statement 2 is correct  
  • Under AAY, food grains at a highly subsidized rate of Rs.1/ per kg coarse grains, Rs.2/ per kg for wheat and Rs. 3/ per kg for rice are distributed to beneficiaries.Hence statement 3 is correct  
  • The States/UTs were required to bear the distribution cost, including margin to dealers and retailers as well as the transportation cost.
  • The Section 10 of the NFSA provides for coverage of persons under the Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY).

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/economy/centre-directs-states-uts-to-cover-eligible-disabled-persons-under-food-law/2063346/

Recently, the term Fujiwhara effect is seen in news, it is related to

1.innermost geologic layer of the Earth

2.tornadic waterspouts

3.two hurricanes combine to form a mega hurricane

4.reinfection of corona case

Answer: (c) two hurricanes combine to form a mega hurricane

Explanation:

In NEWS:Tropical storms Marco, Laura head for the Gulf of Mexico, spark Fujiwhara effect scare

  • Two tropical storms, formed in the western Atlantic Ocean at nearly the same time, are likely to impact the Gulf of Mexico, sparking concerns of the rare Fujiwhara effect that occurs when two hurricanes combine to form a mega hurricane. The last time two tropical storms formed at the same time and struck the region was in 1933.
  • The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) said the effect occurs “when two hurricanes spinning in the same direction pass close enough to each other, and begin an intense dance around their common center. If one hurricane is a lot stronger than the other, the smaller one will orbit it and eventually come crashing into its vortex to be absorbed.”

What is the Fujiwhara Effect?

  • The FujiwharaEffect (also named as the Fujiwhara interaction or the binary interaction) is an interesting natural phenomenon that takes place when two nearby hurricanes or cyclonic vortices interact with each other. Hence option c is correct. 
  • The Fujiwhara Effect was first described by a Japanese meteorologist, Dr. SakuheiFujiwhara in 1921. The phenomenon was thus named after him.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/natural-disasters/tropical-storms-marco-laura-head-for-the-gulf-of-mexico-spark-fujiwhara-effect-scare-72998

https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/hE4d0Vvz7WBt0qc8-TnloYLP7b4uQV5xp78MGCJydO01fMR5ui1npoS2hLLJkYapXMRRnJpuiiBATVfvhfnd8MVVFyFS2Dz8xu2aVluLjzNFc16d13w2P9nxdybrUauq6ENaiU9nTF2Dc_6ZEA

Consider the following statements regarding Participatory Notes

  1. P Notes are issued by registered foreign portfolio investors (FPIs) to overseas investors who wish to be part of the Indian stock market without registering themselves directly.
  2. P Notes are issued by brokers and FIIs registered with SEBI.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Inflows from P-notes continue to soar; climb to Rs 63,000 crore

Investments through participatory notes (P-notes) in the domestic capital market soared to Rs 63,288 crore till the end of July, making it the fourth consecutive monthly rise.

About P Notes:

  • P-notes are issued by registered foreign portfolio investors (FPIs) to overseas investors who wish to be a part of the Indian stock market without registering themselves directly after going through a due diligence process.Hence statement 1 is correct  
  • Participatory notes are issued by brokers and FIIs registered with SEBI. The investment is made on behalf of these foreign investors by the already registered brokers in India.Hence statement 2 is correct  
  • Foreign institutional investors (FIIs) and their sub-accounts mostly use these instruments for facilitating the participation of their overseas clients, who are not interested in participating directly in the Indian stock market.
  • The brokers that issue these notes or trades in Indian securities have to mandatorily report their PN issuance status to SEBI for each quarter.
  • They are offshore derivative instruments with Indian shares as underlying assets.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/markets/inflows-from-p-notes-continue-to-soar-climb-to-rs-63-000-crore-120082101670_1.html

Consider the following statements regarding Santa Ana winds

  1. They are strong, extremely dry downslope winds that originate inland and affect coastal Southern California and northern Baja California.
  2. They originate from cool, dry high-pressure air masses in the Great Basin.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Explained: Why does California have so many wildfires?

  • California’s climate has always been fire-prone, the link between climate change and bigger fires is inextricable
  • The second stage of this year’s fire season is yet to come :Each fall, strong gusts known as the Santa Ana winds bring dry air from the Great Basin area of the West into Southern California.
  • Driven by the Santa Ana winds. Those fires tend to spread three times faster and burn closer to urban areas. They were responsible for 80% of the economic losses over two decades beginning in 1990.

About Santa Ana winds

  • The Santa Ana winds are strong, extremely dry downslope winds that originate inland and affect coastal Southern California and northern Baja California.Hence statement 1 is correct  
  • They originate from cool, dry high-pressure air masses in the Great Basin.Hence statement 2 is correct  
  • The winds are known for the hot, dry weather that they bring in autumn (often the hottest of the year).
  • They often bring the lowest relative humidities of the year to coastal Southern California.
  • The tendency of climate change to make dry places drier over time is a warning to the West of a fiery future.
  • This low humidity, combined with the warm, compressionally-heated air mass, plus high wind speeds, create critical fire weather conditions.
  • https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/u-x2y8-196CViEHV0bTJuJ60R9q66GvN9SxKSI4ZcDxhpdYjrK5hAaHTg1G0RhFqci-xPWIpcAHBXAIzf8mQ5yxAexAZFgXqyT5Zyh9D2Yz7XvbGBAbiTG2bRX13jTEqkztQe0Br7lV6FtwBvA

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-does-california-have-so-many-wildfires-6565166/

India’s longest passenger ropeway is built over which of the following river in india?

  1. Teesta River
  2. Indus River
  3. Bhagirathi River
  4. Brahmaputra river

Answer: (d) Brahmaputra river

Explanation:

In NEWS:Guwahati gets India’s ‘longest’ river ropeway

  • India’s longest passenger ropeway over the Brahmaputra river was formally inaugurated in Assam’s Guwahati city. Hence option (d) is correct  
  • The 1.8-kilometre-long ropeway, built at a cost of Rs 56 crore, extending from central to northern Guwahati, will reduce travel time between both banks to just eight minutes.
  • Each cabin on the ropeway will be able to ferry 30 passengers at a go and nearly 250 persons would be able to cross the river every hour.
  • The ropeway, which operates on a twin-track, single-haul, bi-cable double reversible jig back system, was constructed by Kolkata-based Samir Damodar Ropeways, with technical and logistical support from Swiss firms.
  • The work came to a halt in 2011 as the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) objected to it, saying it posed threat to Urvashi island on the Brahmaputra.
  • The ropeway passes over the midriver Peacock Island that houses Umananda, a medieval Shiva temple. 

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/guwahati-sports-indias-longest-river-ropeway/article32429259.ece#:~:text=The%201.82%20km%20bi%2Dcable,North%20Guwahati%20on%20the%20other.

Consider the following statements regarding Devasthal Fast Optical Telescope

  1. It is installed in Nainital in the central Himalayan region.
  2. It is a clear-aperture telescope built by Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:ARIES astronomers trace the mystery behind dwarf galaxy aberrations of massive star formation

  • The scientists used the Devasthal Fast Optical Telescope (DFOT) and the Giant Meter wave Radio Telescope (GMRT) for observation of dwarf galaxies.
  • The high rate of star formation requires very high densities of Hydrogen in galaxies.
  • The hydrogen in the dwarf galaxies was found to be irregular and sometimes not moving in well-defined orbits.
  • The research suggests that recent collisions between two galaxies trigger intense star formation in these galaxies.

About Devasthal Fast Optical Telescope (DFOT)

  • It is installed in Devasthal, Nainital in the central Himalayan region.Hence statement 1 is correct  
  • It is a clear-aperture Ritchey–Chrétien telescope built by Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES). Hence statement 2 is correct  
  • It is equipped with low noise and fast modern Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD) detectors and high transmission filters.
  • The site has an added advantage of being in the zone of a crucial geographical location on the globe for a number of time-critical observations of cosmic events.
  • It is the product of an Indo-Belgian collaborative effort and was assisted by the Russian Academy of Sciences.
  • It replaced the VainuBappu Observatory in Kavalur, Tamil Nadu to be Asia’s largest ground-based optical telescope.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1648135

For election to the LokSabha, a nomination papercan be filed by

  1. anyone residing in India.
  2. a resident of theconstituency from which theelection is to be contested.
  3. any citizen of India whosename appears in theelectoral roll of aconstituency.
  4. any citizen of India.

Answer: (c) any citizen of India whose name appears in the electoral roll of a constituency.

Explanation:

Qualifications for election to LokSabha:

– must be a citizen of India

– not less than 25 years of age

– must be registered as an electorfor a parliamentary constituency. Hence option c is correct