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Daily Prelims Test – 24_June

1.Consider the following statements regarding Geostationary Orbit

  • It is an elliptical orbit.
  • It lies on the same plane as the equator.
  • This orbit is good for providing television broadcasting, weather monitoring and communication services.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

Answer: (d) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: China successfully launches last satellite for its BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

  • China successfully launched the last satellite of its BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, touted to be a competitor to the US” Global Positioning System (GPS), taking another step to becoming a major space power.
  • The launch will mark the completion of the country”s domestically developed BeiDou network, one of the four global navigation networks alongside the US” GPS, Russia”s GLONASS and the European Union”s Galileo.
  • India too is building its navigation satellite system called the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), with an operational name of NAVIC.
  • Compared with other global systems in the world, the design of the BDS constellation is unique, including medium earth orbit (MEO), inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) and geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellites.

About geostationary orbit:

  • A geostationary orbit or geosynchronous equatorial orbit is a circular geosynchronous orbit above Earth’s equator and following the direction of Earth’s rotation. Hence statements 1 is incorrect and statements 2 is correct
  • The satellite in this orbit has the same orbital period as the rotation of the earth around its axis, making it appear stationary relative to a fixed spot on the earth. This allows for them to provide constant coverage of an area.
  • This orbit is good for providing television broadcasting, weather monitoring and communication services. Hence statements 3 is correct
  • Difference :While geosynchronous satellites can have any inclination, the key difference to geostationary orbit is the fact that they lie on the same plane as the equator. While the geostationary orbit lies on the same plane as the equator, the geosynchronous satellites has a different inclination.

Source: https://www.outlookindia.com/newsscroll/china-successfully-launches-last-satellite-for-its-beidou-navigation-satellite-system/1875242

2.Consider the following statements regarding Black hole

  • The event horizon of a black hole represents a boundary from which nothing can escape.
  • The force of gravity from black hole is very strong
  • Black holes are not invisible

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 2 and 3 only

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Study of optical properties of super-massive black-hole can provide clue to emission mechanism from its close vicinity

  • Through 153 nights, 17 scientists from 9 countries in Europe and Asia including researchers from Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Nainital, an autonomous institution of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India took 2263 image frames and observed the changes in a very high energy gamma-ray emitting blazar ‘1ES 0806+524’ using seven optical telescopes in Europe and Asia.
  • A blazar is a feeding super-massive black-hole (SMBH) in the heart of a distant galaxy that produces a high-energy jet viewed face-on from Earth.
  • Blazars are one of the most luminous and energetic objects in the known universe with a jet composed of ionized matter traveling at nearly the speed of light directed very nearly towards an observer.
  • The team studied in great details 1ES 0806+524’ flux, color, and spectral index variations within a day and long timescales of the blazer and explained the mechanism behind the variations.
  • Blazars are among one of the most favourite astronomical transient objects because they emit radiation in the complete EM spectrum, and their flux and polarization are highly variable

About Black Hole:

  • A black hole is a region in space where the pulling force of gravity is so strong that light is not able to escape. Hence statements 2 is correct
  • The strong gravity occurs because matter has been pressed into a tiny space. This compression can take place at the end of a star’s life. Some black holes are a result of dying stars.
  • Because no light can escape, black holes are invisible. However, space telescopes with special instruments can help find black holes. They can observe the behavior of material and stars that are very close to black holes. Hence statements 3 is incorrect
  • Black holes can be detected by x-rays, light, or other forms of electromagnetic radiation.
  • For anything approaching a black hole, the point of no return is called the event horizon – anything that comes within the event horizon will be consumed foreverHence statements 1 is correct
  • They were predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole.
  • Due to high density, Black holes are small in size. According to NASA, a black hole 20 times the mass of the sun could fit inside a ball 16 kilometres wide.
  • There are four types of black holes: stellar, intermediate, supermassive, and miniature. The most commonly known way a black hole forms is stellar.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1633390

3.Consider the following statements regarding National Disaster Relief Fund (NDRF)

  • It is defined in Section 46 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005 as a fund managed by the Central Government
  • NDRF amount is used to compensation for loss/damage to properties and crops

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Finance Ministry clears way for individual, institutional contributions to NDRF

  • The Finance Ministry has cleared the way for individual and institutional contributions to the National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF)
  • Department of Economic Affairs and the department has no objection to the proposal of contributions/grants from individuals/institutions towards the NDRF as per Section 46(1)(b) of the Disaster Management Act, 2005

About National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF)

  • The National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF), constituted under Section 46 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005, supplements SDRF of a state, incase of a disaster of severe nature, provided adequate funds are not available in SDRF. Hence statements 1 is correct
  • The financial assistance from SDRF/NDRF is for providing immediate relief and is not compensation for loss/damage to properties /crops. In other words, NDRF amount can be spent only towards meeting the expenses for emergency response, relief and rehabilitation. Hence statements 2 is incorrect
  • National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) was renamed as National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) with the enactment of the Disaster Management Act in 2005.
  • The National Executive Committee (NEC) of the National Disaster Management Authority takes decisions on the expenses from National Disaster Response Fund, in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Central Government in consultation with the National Authority.
  • The DM Act defines “disaster” to mean ‘a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or man-made causes, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damage to, or degradation of, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area.’

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/finance-ministry-clears-way-for-individual-institutional-contributions-to-ndrf/article31890128.ece

4.YUKTI web portal is launched by which of the following Ministry?

  • Ministry of Human Resource Development
  • Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
  • Ministry of External Affairs
  • Ministry of Civil Aviation

Answer: (a) Ministry of Human Resource Development

Explanation:

In NEWS: HRD minister launches YUKTI 2.0 to identify incubators’ ideas relevant for coronavirus pandemic

Union Minister of Human Resource Development, Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’, launched an initiative ‘YUKTI 2.0’ to help systematically assimilate technologies having commercial potential and information related to incubated startups in our higher education institutions. Hence option (a) is correct

Key Features:

  • YUKTI 2.0 is logical extension of earlier version of ‘YUKTI’, an initiative of MHRD, to identify ideas relevant in COVID pandemic.
  • The mission of making Bharat ‘Atmanirbhar’ and, YUKTI 2.0 initiative is a very important step in that direction.
  • Youngsters are very capable of thinking innovatively and we should make every possible effort to help them convert their ideas into enterprises.
  • Students, faculty members, startups and other stakeholders of higher education institutions can register on the YUKTI portal and share their technologies and innovations.

Significance Of Yukti Portal:

  • This portal will prove to be a milestone towards promoting innovations and entrepreneurship culture in our higher education system and involving youth in nation building.
  • This database will provide a clear picture of the state of the innovation ecosystem of our higher educational institutions.
  • This will also help the government to identify bottlenecks and formulate appropriate policies to strengthen the innovation ecosystem in the country.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/education/hrd-minister-launches-yukti-2-0-to-identify-incubators-ideas-relevant-for-coronavirus-pandemic/story-mMCnsRiFTrJF0aPjzZsw2J.html

https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1633700

5.What is the aim of SATAT initiative?

  • It is aimed at setting up of Compressed Bio-Gas production plants and makes it available in the market for use in automotive fuels by inviting Expression of Interest from potential entrepreneurs.
  • It aims to designed as a comprehensive resource to help businesses and investors get real-time updates on India‘s active response to COVID-19
  • It aims to unite and promote reforestation efforts worldwide through fund mobilization and political support.
  • It aims to promote greater scientific interaction especially in ocean research among Indian Ocean Rim (IOR) countries.

Answer: (a) It is aimed at setting up of Compressed Bio-Gas production plants and makes it available in the market for use in automotive fuels by inviting Expression of Interest from potential entrepreneurs.

Explanation:

In NEWS: IOC’s green fuel unit and stations at Namakkal go on stream

  • A number of compressed bio-gas (CBG) plants, entailing a total investment of about ₹450 crore, will be set up in Tamil Nadu for the supply of green fuel in the State.
  • The first CBG plant has been established at Namakkal by IOT, a joint venture of Indian Oil Corporation with Oiltanking GmbH of Germany.
  • The Namakkal plant will process 290 tonnes per day of feedstock to produce 15 tonnes per day of CBG, which shall be sold for use in vehicles from five petrol pumps in Namakkal and & Salem, besides two industrial unit
  • The plant is among the first to take off under the Government’s of India’s SATAT scheme (Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation)

About SATAT initiative:

  • SATAT is an initiative aimed at setting up of Compressed Bio-Gas production plants and makes it available in the market for use in automotivefuels by inviting Expression of Interest from potential entrepreneurs. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The initiative was launched in 2018 by the Union Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas in association with Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) Oil Marketing Companies (OMC) viz. Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd.

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/national/iocs-green-fuel-unit-and-stations-at-namakkal-go-on-stream/article31900100.ece

6.Consider the following statements regarding Compressed Bio Gas (CBG)

  • It is a purified bio gas with removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor
  • It has more than 90% of methane gas
  • It can be utilized as green renewable automotive fuel

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Centre to include Compressed Bio-Gas under priority sector lending: Minister

  • The Centre is in the process of including compressed bio-gas (CBG) in the priority sector of lending to ensure ease of financing the setting up of CBG plants in the country
  • The total CBG potential in Tamil Nadu from the existing bio-mass sources was estimated to be 2.4 metric million tonnes per year. Utilisation of the entire potential would result in setting up of about 600 plants across Tamil Nadu at investments of around Rs 21,000 crore with potential to create 10,000 jobs

About compressed bio-gas (CBG):

  • CBG is produced from bio-mass sources like agricultural residue, cattle dung and municipal solid and liquid waste through anaerobic digestion.
  • The gas can be substituted as a green renewable fuel in the transportation, industrial and commercial sectors
  • The biogas is purified to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide(CO2), water vapor and compressed as Compressed Bio Gas (CBG), which has methane (CH4) content of more than 90%. Hence statements 1 is correct and statements 2 is correct
  • CBG has calorific value and other properties similar to CNG and hence can be utilized as green renewable automotive fue Thus it can replace CNG in automotive, industrial and commercial areas, given the abundance biomass availability within the country. Hence statements 3 is correct

Conversion of agricultural residue, cattle dung and municipal solid waste (MSW) into CBG in a commercial scale is expected to have the following benefits :

  • Import reduction of natural gas and crude.
  • Utilization of agricultural residue, cattle dung and MSW for the production of CBG and thus to achieve reduction in emissions and pollution.
  • A boost towards fulfillment of National commitments in achieving climate change goals.

Source: https://energy.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/oil-and-gas/centre-to-include-compressed-bio-gas-under-priority-sector-lending-minister/76541949

7.Consider the following statements regardingTurant customs program

  • It is a flagship Programme of Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs launched at Chennai and bangalore
  • It will allow Importers to now get their goods cleared from Customs after a faceless assessment is done remotely by the Customs officers located outside the port of import

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: CBIC enables end to end paperless exports under turant customs

Chairman of the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs Ajit Kumar unveiled a Secure QR coded Shipping Bill that would be electronically sent to exporters after the Customs allows export.

This eliminates in one stroke the requirement of the exporters having to approach the Customs officers for proof of export. This also makes the end to end Customs export process fully electronic, from the filing of the Shipping Bill to the final order to allow export.

About turant customs

  • Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs, launched its flagship programme Turant Customs, at Bengaluru and Chennai. Hence statements 1 is correct
  • It is a giant leap forward to leverage technology for faster Customs clearance of imported goods.
  • Aim: Importers will now get their goods cleared from Customs after a faceless assessment is done remotely by the Customs officers locatedoutside the port of import. Hence statements 2 is correct
  • Now, the goods imported at Chennai may be assessed by the Customs officers located at Bengaluru and vice versa, as assigned by the Customs’ automated system.
  • Turant Customs is a mega reform for the ease of doing business.
  • The start of Turant Customs at Bengaluru and Chennai will be the first phase of the All India roll out which would get completed by 31st December this year. T
  • he first phase will cover imports of Mechanical, Electrical and Electronics machineries at the ports, airports and ICDs of Bengaluru and Chennai.
  • CBIC said that Turant Customs will benefit the importers by eliminating routine interface with the Customs officers and providing uniformity in assessment across the country.

Source: http://www.ddinews.gov.in/business/cbic-enables-end-end-paperless-exports-under-turant-customs

8.Consider the following statements regarding Goliath frogs

  • They are found only in the tropical rainforest of central Africa
  • It is listed as a critically endangered species under the IUCN Red List

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: World Rainforest Day: Goliath frogs need urgent conservation measures

The total population of goliath frogs has dropped by at least 50 per cent over the last 15 years. They are on the brink of extinction, warn local amphibian conservationists.

About Goliath frogs

  • Conraua goliath, also known as ‘goliath frog’ is the largest frog in the world
  • They are found only in the tropical rainforest of central Africa, within the south western part of Cameroon and north of Equatorial Guinea. Hence statements 1 is correct
  • Scientists believe the goliath frog has been around for over 250 million years.
  • Adult individuals weighing as much as 2.99 kilograms and measuring more than 33 centimetres (cm) in length, excluding their legs, when fully grown.
  • Habitat lost and encroachment has significantly contributed to the dwindling population of goliath frog in the tropical rainforest of Mount Nlonako.
  • IUCN: Endangered species

Threats:

  • This species has a limited geographic distribution, narrow ecological requirements and is largely hunted by the local communities in Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea for consumption and pet trade.
  • Goliath frogs are exported to the US for participation in frog jumping contests.
  • Climate change, deforestation, commercial agriculture, and over-hunting are some of the prime causes driving this species to extinction.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/africa/world-rainforest-day-goliath-frog-species-needs-urgent-conservation-measures-71892

9.Consider the following statements regardingArms Trade Treaty

  • It is an attempt to regulate the international trade of conventional weapons for the purpose of contributing to international and regional peace
  • This treaty was signed under the auspices of the United Nations
  • India is a member of this treaty

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (c) 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: China to join UN arms trade treaty, ‘enhance’ world peace

  • China will join a global pact to regulate arms sales that has been rejected by the United States, with Beijing saying Monday it is committed to efforts to “enhance peace and stability” in the world.
  • The Communist Party leadership’s top legislative body voted Saturday to adopt a decision on joining the UN Arms Trade Treaty that is designed to control the flow of weapons into conflict zones.

About Arms trade treaty

  • The Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) is a multilateral treatythat regulates the international trade in conventional weapons.
  • The UN General Assembly adopted ATT in 2013 and it entered into force on 4th December 2014. Hence statements 2 is correct
  • The ATT is an attempt to regulate the international trade of conventional weaponsfor the purpose of contributing to international and regional peace; reducing human suffering; and promoting co-operation, transparency, and responsible action by and among states. Hence statements 1 is correct
  • Aim: to prevent diversion of armsfor crimes and genocides.
  • The ATT does not place restrictions on the types or quantities of arms that may be bought, sold, or possessed by states.
  • India has not signed the treaty citing thatit has strong and effective national export controls on military hardware to ensure they don’t fall into the wrong hands. Hence statements 3 is incorrect

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/china-to-join-un-arms-trade-treaty-enhance-world-peace/articleshow/76510217.cms

10.Which one of the following is not a sub-index of the World Bank’s ‘Ease of Doing Business Index’? 

  • Maintenance of law and order
  • Paying taxes
  • Registering property
  • Dealing with construction permits

Answer: (a) Maintenance of law and order

Explanation:

  • Doing Business measures regulations affecting 11 areas of the life of a business. Ten of these areas are included in this Doing Business 2019 ranking on the ease of doing business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvencyHence option (a) is correct
  • Doing Business also measures labor market regulation, which is not included in this year’s ranking