1. Consider the following statements regarding the river Thamirabarani:

1) It is mentioned in the Sangam work Purananooru.

2) It was famed in the Early Pandyan Kingdom for its pearl and trade.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2


In NEWS: TN Archaeology Dept to conduct reconnaissance survey in sea, off the coast of Korkai

●    A reconnaissance survey in the sea off the coast of Korkai in Thoothukudi district, which finds mention in Sangam literature, will be undertaken by the Tamil Nadu Archaeology Department in collaboration with the Indian Maritime University & National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chief Minister M.K. Stalin announced.

Porunai or Thamirabarani river civilization:

●    The Porunai or Thamirabarani river is mentioned several times in Sangam-era literature composed from the first to fourth centuries Common Era. The Sangam corpus is considered to be a ‘treasure trove’ containing crucial records of the subcontinent’s ancient history.

●    The only major perennial river in Tamil Nadu, Thamirabarani has been mentioned as Porunai, Than Porunai, Porunal and Poruntham in Tamil literature right from the Sangam era.

●    Then Porunai finds a place in Tholkappiam, an ancient treatise on Tamil grammar. Then Porunai is also mentioned in the Sangam work Purananooru. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●    Recognised as a holy river in Sanskrit literature Puranas, Mahabharata and Ramayana, the river was famed in the Early Pandyan Kingdom for its pearl and conch fisheries and trade. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●    The movement of people, including the faithful, trade merchants and toddy tapers from Tamraparni river to northwestern Sri Lanka led to the shared appellation of the name for the closely connected region.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/tn-archaeology-dept-to-conduct-reconnaissance-survey-in-sea-off-the-coast-of-korkai/article38297147.ece

2. Consider the following statements regarding Sammakka-Sarakka Jatara:

1) It is the only tribal fair devoted to paying tribute to tribal warriors defending the rights of aboriginal tribal people.

2) It is associated with tribal revolt against the Kakatiya rulers.

3) It takes place once every two years.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 and 3 only

b) 3 only

c)  1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3


In NEWS: Explained | Significance of Telangana’s tribal fair Sammakka-Sarakka jatara

●    Medaram, a tiny village in Telangana’s tribal heartland of Mulugu district, is getting ready to host the Sammakka-Sarakka jatara, billed as the country’s biggest tribal fair, to commemorate a tribal revolt led by Sammakka and Saralamma, a mother-daughter duo, against levy of taxes on tribal people during drought conditions by the then Kakatiya rulers in the 12th century. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●    The mega four-day jatara, scheduled to begin on February 16 in Medaram, is perhaps the only tribal fair devoted to paying tribute to tribal warriors who made supreme sacrifices defending the rights of aboriginal tribal people. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●    It takes place once every two years. Hence statement (3) is correct.

●    The jatara epitomises the courage displayed by the mother-daughter duo, along with other family members, in the struggle against a despotic regime bent on collecting taxes from the people of Medaram during turbulent times induced by severe drought.

Why do tribals come to Medaram?

●    Tribals (and others) flock to Medaram during the jatara not just from Telangana and Andhra Pradesh but also from as far as Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra.

●    Sammakka and Saralamma are revered by devotees as tribal goddesses, and devotees make offerings to propitiate them to bestow health and wealth. All the rituals at the jatara site are held in tune with tribal traditions under the aegis of tribal priests.

●    Legend has it that in the 12th century, a tribal chieftain Medaraju of ‘Polavasa’ region (undivided Karimnagar district in modern times) found a baby in a forest during a hunting spree. He named her Sammakka, brought her up and got her married to Pagidigidda Raju, a tribal leader of Medaram, who was a feudatory of Kakatiya rulers. Sammakka had three children Nagulamma, Saralamma (Sammakka) and Jampanna.

●    When the then Kakatiya king insisted on payment of taxes by people of Medaram despite drought, Pagidigidda Raju refused to obey his diktat. Enraged over this, the king announced a war on Medaram and deployed a large contingent of his army.

●    Undeterred by the military might of the Kakatiya reign, Sammakka and her husband joined the battle. Sammakka, unfazed by the death of her husband, daughter and son, continued the fight and suffered grievous injuries. She vanished into Chilakalagutta hillock nearby and the locals found a container of vermillion on the hillock. They believed Sammakka had turned into a goddess to protect them with her divinity.

●    The jatara symbolises the traditions and heritage of the Koya tribal people.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/telangana/explained-significance-of-telanganas-tribal-fair-sammakka-sarakka-jatara/article38295929.ece

3. Consider the following statements regarding Global Tiger forum:

1) It is the only intergovernmental platform of tiger range countries.

2) It is headquartered in New Delhi.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2



Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Bhupender Yadav delivers India’s statement at the Fourth Asia Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation, an important event for reviewing progress towards the Global Tiger Recovery Programme and commitments to tiger conservation.

●    The Government of Malaysia and Global Tiger Forum (GTF) organized the 4th Asia Ministerial Conference on tiger conservation. India is one of the Founding members of the intergovernmental platform of Tiger Range Countries – Global Tiger Forum.

●    He appreciated the efforts of the Government of Malaysia in creating a role model for mitigation measures with respect to linear infrastructure in tiger habitat, in the form of “Central Spine and landscape level planning.

●    The Minister said that India will facilitate Tiger Range Countries towards finalisation of New Delhi declaration for the Global Tiger Summit to be held at Vladivostok, Russia later this year.

●    A “Pre-Tiger Summit” meeting was held at New Delhi in 2010, wherein the draft declaration on tiger conservation for Global Tiger Summit was finalised.

●    India has achieved the remarkable feat of doubling the tiger population in 2018 itself, 4 years ahead of the targeted year 2022.

●    He informed that the model of success of India’s tiger governance is now being replicated for other wildlife like the Lion, Dolphin, Leopard, Snow Leopard and other small wild cats, while the country is on the threshold of introducing Cheetah in its historical range.

●    The budgetary allocation for tiger conservation has increased from Rs 185 crore in 2014 to Rs 300 crore in 2022 and informed that 14 Tiger Reserves in India have already been awarded with international CA|TS accreditation and efforts are on to bring in more Tiger Reserves under CA|TS accreditation.

Global Tiger forum

●        Global Tiger forum is the only intergovernmental platform of tiger range countries which has been consolidating Tiger Action Plans of the range countries. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        The forum was formed in 1993 on recommendations of an international symposium on Tiger Conservation. It is headquartered in New Delhi, India. Hence statement (2) is correct.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1791473

4. Consider the following statements regarding Somnath Temple:

1) The present temple is built in the Chalukyan style.

2) This temple is also referred to as Ahilyabai Temple.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2


In NEWS: Somnath Temple circuit house inauguration: PM Modi lists 4 ways to boost tourism sector

Cleanliness, facilities, time and thinking should be put to use to increase footfall at tourist destinations

Somnath Temple:

●    Somnath temple is located on the western coast of Gujarat. It is believed to be the first among the twelve jyotirlinga shrines of Shiva.

●    The present temple is built in the Chalukyan style. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●    This Architecture is also known as the “Kailash Mahameru Prasad” style.

●    It reflects the skill of the SompuraSalats, one of Gujarat’s master masons.

●    Pratishtha King Nag Bhatt II constructed the temple for the third time in 815 using a red stone (sandstone) stone.

●    In 1026, Mahmud Ghazni lent the precious jewels and property of Somnath temple.

●    In 1706, Mughal ruler Aurangzeb again demolished the temple.

●    Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the Iron man of India, was instrumental in the construction of the present temple.

●    This temple is also referred to as Ahilyabai Temple since it was built by Queen Ahilyabai of Indore when she found that the old temple was in ruins. Hence statement (2) is correct.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/somnath-circuit-house-inauguration-pm-modi-lists-4-ways-to-boost-tourism-sector-101642743867645.html

5. With respect to Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), consider the following statements:

1) Lack of access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene for both humans and animals are the main drivers of antimicrobial resistance.

2) Antimicrobial resistant organisms are found in people, animals, food, plants and the environment.

3) They cannot spread from person to person.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 and 3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)  1 and 2 only

d) 3 only

Answer: (c) 1 and 2 only


In NEWS: Explained: The global toll of bacterial resistance to drugs

●    The Global Research on Antimicrobial Resistance (GRAM) report used statistical modelling to estimate deaths linked to 23 pathogens and 88 pathogen-drug combinations.

●    Hundreds of thousands of deaths occur today due to previously treatable infections — such as lower respiratory and bloodstream infections — because the bacteria that cause them have become resistant to treatment.

●    A comprehensive estimate of the global impact of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), covering 204 countries and territories and published in The Lancet, has found that 1.27 million people died in 2019 as a direct result of AMR, which is now a leading cause of death worldwide, higher than HIV/AIDS or malaria.

●    Of the 23 pathogens studied, drug resistance in six (E coli, S aureus, K pneumoniae, S pneumoniae, A baumannii, and P aeruginosa) led directly to 9.29 lakh deaths and was associated with 3.57 million.

●    One pathogen-drug combination – methicillin-resistant S aureus, or MRSA – directly caused more than 1 lakh deaths.

●    Resistance to two classes of antibiotics often considered the first line of defence against severe infections – fluoroquinolones and beta-lactam antibiotics – accounted for more than 70% of deaths caused by AMR.

What is antimicrobial resistance?

●    Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites change over time and no longer respond to medicines making infections harder to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death. 

What accelerates the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance?

●    AMR occurs naturally over time, usually through genetic changes. Antimicrobial resistant organisms are found in people, animals, food, plants and the environment (in water, soil and air). Hence statement (2) is correct.

●    They can spread from person to person or between people and animals, including from food of animal origin. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.

●    The main drivers of antimicrobial resistance include the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials; lack of access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for both humans and animals; poor infection and disease prevention and control in health-care facilities and farms;  poor access to quality, affordable medicines, vaccines and diagnostics; lack of awareness and knowledge; and lack of enforcement of legislation.  Hence statement (1) is correct.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-global-toll-bacterial-resistance-to-drugs-7732479/

6. Consider the following statements regarding Denison barb:

1) It has been included in Schedule VI of the Wild Life Protection.

2) It is a native freshwater fish species commonly found in parts of Karnataka and Kerala.

3) It is listed as Endangered in the IUCN red list.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 and 3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)  1 and 2 only

d) 3 only

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only


In NEWS: Miss Kerala not endangered: aquarists

●    A section of aquarists and ornamental fish breeders are surprised that the Denison barb (Miss Kerala), a native freshwater fish species commonly found in parts of Karnataka and Kerala, has been included in Schedule I of the Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Bill, 2021. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●    Denisonii itself is a re-discovery because of the ornamental aquatic trade.

●    The income from the collection of denisonii for the ornamental fish trade acts as an incentive for fishermen to protect habitats

●    It would have been preferable to better regulate the trade in wild collected fishes and promote captive bred fish perhaps by including the species in Schedule IV instead of Schedule I. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.

●    Even then, the species is found in the States of Kerala and Karnataka. He doubts whether the species can be considered endangered based on the available data. Hence statement (3) is correct.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/miss-kerala-not-endangered-aquarists/article38295881.ece

7. Consider the following statements in respect of District Planning Committee:

1) It is the committee created as per article 243ZD of the Constitution of India.

2) The Committee in each district should consolidate the plans prepared by the Panchayats and the Municipalities in the district.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2


In NEWS: Union Minister Shri Giriraj Singh releases revised Rural Area Development Plan Formulation and Implementation (RADPFI) Guidelines:

●    All Panchayati Raj Institutions should have a vision for respective Panchayat for the next twenty-five years till India’s centenary of Independence in 2047; should embark on formulating a master plan for all-round development and should take all possible efforts to boost local infrastructure, other developmental   requirements, employment opportunities and resource base of Panchayats

●    In India, rural areas cover 94% of land and 69% of population while urban areas hold 6% of land and 31% of population.

●    Although many spatial development initiatives have been implemented in urban areas, there has been no comprehensive exercise for rural spatial planning of panchayats/villages.

●    RAPDPFI aims to perform the similar function by providing norms for planned spatial development for overall integrated development of villages

●    There are 2,38,617 Gram Panchayats in India and RADPFI suggests the Gram Panchayat Boundary as a planning boundary for Gram Panchayat Spatial planning and constitution of Village Planning Committee for the purpose.

●    The Plan so prepared will be approved by the Gram Panchayat and submitted for District Planning Committee who will in turn recommend state government for final notification

District Planning Committee:

●    District Planning Committee (DPC) is the committee created as per article 243ZD of the Constitution of India at the district level for planning at the district and below. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●    The Committee in each district should consolidate the plans prepared by the Panchayats and the Municipalities in the district and prepare a draft development plan for the district. Hence statement (2) is correct.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1791267

8. Consider the following statements with respect of Vikas Engine:

1) It is used in the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle.

2) It is a liquid fuelled rocket engine indigenously developed by ISRO.

3) It uses a mixture of unsymmetrical di-methyl hydrazine and hydrazine hydrate as fuel and nitrogen tetroxide as oxidiser.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 and 3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)  2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3


In NEWS: Qualification testing of VIKAS Engine for Gaganyaan Programme

●    High Thrust VIKAS Engine for Gaganyaan programme has successfully undergone qualification test for a duration of 25 seconds at ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC), Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu.

●    With regard to the Vikas engine qualification for the Gaganyaan Programme, two engines have already undergone tests under nominal operating conditions for a total duration of 480 seconds.

●    The test carried out today is to verify the robustness of the engine by operating beyond its nominal operating conditions (fuel-oxidiser ratio and chamber pressure). The performance of the engine met the test objectives and the engine parameters were closely matching with the predictions during the entire duration of the test.

VIKAS Engine:

●    Vikas Engine is a liquid fuelled rocket engine indigenously developed by ISRO, India. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●    It is used in the PSLV and GSLV vehicles for space launching satellites Vikas engines are employed in the second stage of India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) as well as the second and the four strap-on stages of the Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). Hence statement (1) is correct.

●    The engine uses UH25 (a mixture of unsymmetrical di-methyl hydrazine and hydrazine hydrate) as fuel and nitrogen tetroxide as oxidiser with maximum thrust of about 725 kN. Hence statement (3) is correct.

●    ISRO tested the Vikas Engine this time as part of the engine qualification requirements for the Gaganyaan Mission.

Source: https://www.isro.gov.in/update/20-jan-2022/qualification-testing-of-vikas-engine-gaganyaan-programme

9. Krishna Murthy vs. The Union of India case is closely associated with which of the following areas?

a)  Reserving seats in local body polls.

b) Drugs and Psychotropic Substances

c)  Allocating S-band spectrum

d) Marital rape

Answer: (a) Reserving seats in local body polls


In NEWS: SC declines to recall order staying quota for OBCs in local body polls

●    In its order, the bench noted that it was for the respective state backward commissions to examine the data on OBCs as submitted by states and UTs, and then take a suitable view.

●    The state election commission (SEC) will have to notify all OBC seats as open category seats for future elections to local bodies if states and UTs fail to satisfy the triple conditions laid down by the top court.

Triple test:

●    In Krishna Murthy vs. Union of India (2010), the constitution bench laid down a triple test for reserving seats in local body pollsHence, option (a) is correct

These are:

●        Set up a commission to conduct rigorous empirical inquiry into nature and implications of the backwardness qua local bodies.

●        Specify the proportion of reservation required to be provisioned local body wise in light of recommendations of the Commission, so as not to fall foul of overbreadth

●        In any case such reservation shall not exceed 50 per cent of the total seats reserved in favour of SCs/STs/OBCs taken together.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/sc-declines-to-recall-order-staying-quota-for-obcs-in-local-body-polls-101642616663212.html

10. Consider the following statements in respect of Bharat Ratna and Padma Awards:

1) Bharat Ratna and Padma awards are titles under the Article 18 (1) of the Constitution of India.

2) Padma Awards, which were instituted in the year 1954, were suspended only once.

3) The number of Bharat Ratna Awards is restricted to a maximum of five in a particular year.

Which of the above statements are not correct?

a)  1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)  1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3


●    National awards such as Bharat Ratna, Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri do not amount to titles within the meaning of Article 18(1) of the Constitution and thus are not to be used as prefixes or suffixes to the name of the recipient in any manner. Hence, statement (1) is incorrect.

●    Article 18(1) abolishes all titles. It prohibits the State to confer titles on anybody whether a citizen or a non-citizen. Military and academic distinctions are, however, exempted from the prohibition. Thus, a university can give title or honor to a man of merit.

●    The total number of Padma awards to be conferred each year is limited to 120. But the count excludes posthumous awards and any non-resident Indian or Overseas Citizen of India or foreign-based winners. Hence, statement (2) is incorrect.

●    The government suspended the practice of granting the Padma awards for two years in 1977. It was again suspended during mid-1992 when 2 PILs were filed in the High Courts of India

●    A maximum of 3 people can be awarded the Bharat Ratna. The total number of Padma awards to be conferred each year is limited to 120. Hence, statement (3) is incorrect.