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Daily Prelims Test – 24_January 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Elephanta Caves

They are a collection of cave temples exclusively dedicated to Lord Vishnu

It was declared a world heritage site by UNESCO in 1987

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:In Elephanta Caves, artistic carvings, spiritual callings, and a religious monolith

  • The six-metre monolith of the three-headed Trimurti Sadashiva, the primary attraction at Elephanta Caves, is so iconic, it has been immortalised as the official logo of the state tourism department
  • The colossal basalt rock structure is the depiction of Lord Shiva with three visible faces; the other two are left to the viewer’s imagination.
  • The Trimurti is misinterpreted by many, who think it is a representation of Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh, which it is not. In 1939, Austrian scholar Stella Kramrisch published an article on the Elephanta Caves, where she mentioned it is a Pashupata cave and a place where Pashupatasadhak (seeker) went to do his sadhna (meditation). Technically it is Trimurti — as you can see three faces — but then the interpretation is of Sadashiva, the omnipresent Shiva who has five heads and not three.

About Elephanta Caves:

  • It is located on Elephanta Islands in Mumbai, Maharashtra.
  • They are the rock-cut Caves and were constructed around the mid-5th to 6th centuries AD.
  • They are a collection of cave temples primarily dedicated to Lord Shiva but also have Buddhist caves. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Elephanta anciently known as Gharapuri, believed to be the island capital of Konkan Mauryas, is celebrated for its colossal image of Mahesamurti with three heads each representing a different form.
  • It is a small island about 10 km from Apollo Bunder on the Mumbai mainland adjoining the Gateway of India.
  • The island was renamed by Portuguese invaders after a giant stone sculpture of an elephant, which was removed from the island and now stands outside the Dr. BhauDaji Lad Museum.
  • The 7-meter-high masterpiece “Sadashiva” dominates the entrance to Cave 1.
  • There are also ancient Buddhist stupa mounds on the same island.
  • The Elephanta Caves in their entirety, and the forested areas around them, were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site way back in 1987. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/art-and-culture/in-elephanta-caves-artistic-carvings-spiritual-callings-and-a-religious-monolith-7147385/


Consider the following Statements regarding Non-Banking Financial Company

It cannot accept demand deposits.

They do not form part of the payment and settlement system and cannot issue cheques drawn on itself.

It is a company registered under the Companies Act, 1956

Select the correct options from the given below codes

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:RBI proposes 4-tier structure for tighter regulation of NBFCs

  • In its discussion paper on revised regulatory framework for NBFCs, the RBI has said the regulatory and supervisory framework of NBFCs should be based on a four-layered structure: Base Layer, Middle Layer, Upper Layer and a possible Top Layer.
  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has proposed a tighter regulatory framework for non-banking financial companies (NBFCs) by creating a four-tier structure with a progressive increase in intensity of regulation

About Non-Banking Financial Company

  • An NBFC is a company registered under the Companies Act, 1956. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • It is engaged in the business of loans and advances, acquisition of shares/ stocks/ bonds/ debentures/ securities issued by Government or local authority or other marketable securities.
  • NBFCs whose asset size is of ₹ 500 crore or more as per last audited balance sheet are considered as systemically important NBFCs.
  • NBFC cannot accept demand deposits. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • NBFCs do not form part of the payment and settlement system and cannot issue chequesdrawn on itself.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Deposit insurance facility is not available to depositors of NBFCs, unlike in case of banks.

NBFC does not include any institution whose principal business is:

  • Agriculture activity
  • Industrial activity
  • Purchase or sale of any goods (other than securities)
  • Providing any services and sale/purchase/construction of immovable property.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/business/economy/rbi-proposes-4-tier-structure-for-tighter-regulation-of-nbfcs-7157880/


Consider the following Statements regarding HunarHaat

It is an exhibition of handicrafts and traditional products made by artisans from the minority communities.

These are organized by the Ministry of Minority Affairs under USTTAD scheme.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:UP artisans to showcase creativity at HunarHaat

Chief minister Yogi Adityanath will inaugurate the 24th edition of the HunarHaat, a flagship programme of the ministry of minority affairs to promote indigenous handicraft and speciality products

About HunarHaat

  • HunarHaat is an exhibition of handicrafts and traditional products made by artisans from the minority communities.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • These are organised by the Ministry of Minority Affairs under USTTAD (Upgrading the Skills & Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development) scheme. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • These Haat aim to provide market exposure and employment opportunities to artisans, craftsmen and traditional culinary experts.
  • It envisages boosting the skills of craftsmen, weavers and artisans who are already engaged in the traditional ancestral work.
  • The prime focus of the HunarHaat is ”vocal for local”, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s mantra for an Aatmanirbhar Bharat or self-reliant India. PM Modi has repeatedly urged the country to embrace the “vocal for local” pledge and use its vast natural resources to “Make in India and Make For the World”.

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/lucknow/up-artisans-to-showcase-creativity-at-hunar-haat/articleshow/80417326.cms


JerengaPothar , often seen in news, it is located at

West Bengal

Assam

Nagaland

Kerala

Answer: (b) Assam

Explanation:

In NEWS:Explained: At PM Narendra Modi’s venue today, recalling an Assam icon

  • The venue for Modi’s programme — where he will launch an Assam government initiative to distribute over one lakh land pattas (documents) to indigenous communities of the state — is the historic JerengaPothar in Upper Assam’s Sivasagar district. Hence option (b) is correct
  • It was formerly known as Rangpur, Sivasagar.It was the seat of the powerful Ahom dynasty, who ruled Assam for six centuries (1228-1826).
  • It is an open field in Sivasagar town and popularly connected to the valour of 17th century Ahom princess Joymoti.
  • According to historians, the JerengaPothar episode is not officially recorded in any buranji, or Ahom-era chronicle.
  • The turn of the 20th century saw a number of publications record the episode, beginning with one in Jonaki magazine by RatneshwarMahanta.
  • In 1935, cultural icon Jyoti Prasad Agarwala made the first Assamese feature film, Joymati, based on LakshminathBezbaroa’s drama JoymotiKonwari (1915).
  • Joymoti’s story signified not just the strength and loyalty of the Assamese woman, but her resistance and courage represented the relationship between familial/domestic life and national life.
  • It isnot a protected archaeological site but its vicinity includes a number of protected sites, including the Na Pukhuri tank to its east and the PohuGarh, a natural zoo built during the Ahom era, to its west.
  • The large Joysagar tank, built by Ahom king SwargadeoRudraSinghain 1697, and the Vishnu Dol temple are located near JerengaPothar.
  • The JerengaPothar was initially called JerengaHaabi or Jerenga forest.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/assam-jerenga-pothar-narendra-modi-7157492/


Consider the following Statements regardingSree Narayana Guru

  • He laid great emphasis on the idea of one caste, one religion and one god and was a re-evaluators of Advaita Vedanta.
  • He lent his support to the Vaikkom Satyagraha which was aimed at temple entry in Travancore for the lower castes

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Vice President launches book of poems of Sree Narayana Guru, ‘Not Many But One’

  • The virtual book launch of “Not Many, But One” (Two Volumes), an English translation of poems of Sree Narayana Gurudev by Prof G.K. Sasidharan. Recalling the saint’s enormous influence on modern India, the Vice President said Sree Narayana Guru was “was a multifaceted genius, a great Maharshi, an eloquent proponent of Advaita philosophy, a talented poet and a great metaphysician”.

About Sree Narayana Guru

  • The Vice President further highlighted the role of Sree Narayana Guru as a remarkable social reformer. He was at the forefront of the temple entry movement and against the social discrimination of untouchables.
  • He was a pioneer reformer who rejected the caste system and stressed the equality of man. He also gave the universal message, “One caste, one religion, one God.” Hence statement 1 is correct
  • In 1888, he built a temple dedicated to Lord Shiva at Aruvippuram which was against the caste-based restrictions of the time .This is popularly known as Aravippuram movement.
  • He also lent his support to the Vaikkom Satyagraha which was aimed at temple entry in Travancore for the lower castes. Mahatma Gandhi met Guru during this time.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Rabindranath Tagore also had met Narayana Guru. I
  • Sree Narayana Guru also emphasized the practice of ideals of cleanliness, promotion of education, agriculture, trade, handicrafts and technical training as a part of the Sivagiri pilgrimage
  • He also founded an Advaita Ashram in Kalady.
  • He taught Sanskrit and the Upanishads to students from all castes, including the ‘low caste’ students who were not permitted to study the scriptures.
  • He travelled all over Kerala and the Madras State visiting people and spreading his message of unity and ‘one God’.
  • Shri Narayana Dharma ParipalanaYogam (also known as SNDP Yogam) is an Indian spiritual organization that was formally founded by Dr. PadmanabhanPalpu in 1903, with the guidance of Shri Narayana Guru. The main aim of SNDP Yogam was to spiritually uplift the people of the Ezhava/Tiyyar communities.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1691265


Recently the term Ooceraeajoshii is seen in news, it is related to

Freshwater Fish Species

Giant wood spider

A rare mushroom species

A rare ant species

Answer: (d) A rare ant species

Explanation:

In NEWS:New ant species discovered from Kerala named after JNCASR researcher, evolutionary biologist Prof. Amitabh Joshi

  • Two new species of a rare ant genus have been discovered in India. The species of the ant genus Ooceraea found in Kerala, and Tamil Nadu add to the diversity of this rare They differ from others of the same genus on the basis of the number of antennal segments.Hence option (d) is correct
  • One of them found in the Periyar Tiger Reserve of Kerala, has been named Ooceraeajoshii, in honour of Prof. Amitabh Joshi, a distinguished evolutionary biologist from Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR)
  • New species are typically named after some distinguishing attribute or location but are often named after scientists as a means of honoring their research contributions to biology, especially in the fields of evolutionary and organismal biology, ecology or systematics.
  • The genus is currently represented by 14 species of which eight possess nine-segmented antennae, while five possess eleven- segmented antennae and one species has recently been reported with eight-segmented antennae. In India, the genus was so far represented by two species with nine- and eleven-segmented antennae respectively.
  • The newly discovered ant species with ten segmented antennae discovered, establish an old world lineage that contains a species emerging as the only model organism among the ant subfamily.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1691484


Consider the following Statements regardingIndian Telecom Services Performance Indicator Report

  • It presents the growth trends of the Telecom Services as well as Cable TV, DTH & Radio Broadcasting services in India
  • It is released byTelecom Regulatory Authority of India

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:TRAI releases “Indian Telecom Services Performance Indicator Report” for the Quarter ending July – September 2020

  • Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), a statutory authority under Department of Telecommunications, Ministry of Communications, has released today the “Indian Telecom Services Performance Indicator Report. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • This Report provides a broad perspective of the Telecom Services in India and presents the key parameters and growth trends of the Telecom Services as well as Cable TV, DTH & Radio Broadcasting services in India. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • According to the Index number of telephone subscribers in India increased from 1,160.52 million at the end of Jun-20 to 1, 168.66 million at the end of Sep-20, registering a growth rate of 0.70% over the previous quarter.
  • This reflects a decrease of 2.22% in the same quarter compared to the same period last year. The total number of Internet users also increased this quarter, increasing by 3.66%.
  • Although the number of broadband users has increased this quarter, the number of narrowband users has declined. Since its launch in 2003, DTH (direct to home) services have shown amazing growth

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.aspx?PRID=1690929


Consider the following Statementsregarding Poona pact

  • Dr Ambedkar and MahatmaGandhi made the Poona Pact which laid down reserved seats for the Depressed Classes in the provincial legislatures for which elections would be through joint electorates.
  • It was made on 1922 at Yerwada Central Jail
  • It was signed by Dr Ambedkar and Jawaharlal Nehru on behalf of the MahatmaGandhi

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Maharashtra to unlock history in prisons           

  • The Maharashtragovernment is set to launch “jail tourism” under which historically significant jails in Maharashtra, which are still being used as penal centres, will be opened to visitors to see the barracks where freedom fighters were imprisoned by the British
  • The well-known Poona Pact between Dr. BabasahebAmbedkar and Mahatma Gandhi passed off beneath a mango tree at Yerawada jail. In 1899, the Chapekar brothers got dying sentence on this jail.

What is Poona Pact?

  • In late September 1932, B.R. Ambedkar negotiated the Poona Pact with Mahatma Gandhi.
  • The background to the Poona Pact was the Communal Award of August 1932, which, among other things, reserved 71 seats in the central legislature for the depressed classes.
  • The Award was made by then British PM Ramsay MacDonald on 16 August 1932 to extended separate electorate.
  • Gandhi, who was opposed to the Communal Award
  • Poona Pactrefers to an agreement between B. R. Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi on behalf of depressed classes and upper caste Hindu leaders on the reservation of electoral seats for the depressed classes in the legislature of British India government.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • However, Gandhi was not involved in signing the pact.
  • It was made on 24 September 1932 at Yerwada Central Jail in Poona, India. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • It was signed by Ambedkar on behalf of the depressed classes and Madan Mohan Malviya on behalf of the Upper Caste Hindus as a means to end the fast that Gandhi was undertaking in jail as a protest against the MacDonald communal award.Hence statement 3 is incorrect
  • They finally agreed upon 147 electoral seats.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/maharashtra-to-unlock-history-in-prisons/article33645105.ece#:~:text=The%20Maharashtra%20government%20is%20set,were%20imprisoned%20by%20the%20British.’’


Consider the following Statements with respect to Flash drought

A flash drought is characterized by rapid onset and intensification caused by high evapotranspiration due to extreme heat, wind and high incoming solar radiation

Increased air temperature and precipitation deficit together cause a rapid depletion of soil moisture leading to flash drought.

The core monsoon region of central and eastern India witnessed the highest frequency of flash droughts.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: More flash droughts in India by end of century

  • In 1979, India faced a severe flash drought, affecting about 40% of the country and taking a toll on agriculture. About 21.5 per cent of median area under rice and maize cultivation was affected by flash droughts during 1951-2018 monsoon season.
  • The top five flash droughts based on the overall severity score occurred in 1979 followed by 2009, 1951, 1986 and 2005.
  • To predict the future flash droughts the team used a Community Earth System Model which simulates the summer monsoon precipitation, sea surface temperature, role of El Nino Southern Oscillation, and air temperature over India.

What is a ‘flash drought’?

  • A flash drought is characterized by rapid onset and intensification caused by high evapotranspiration due to extreme heat, wind and high incoming solar radiation. It can develop in as little time as 10 to 15 days.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It has the potential to affect crop production and pose challenges in meeting increased irrigation demands.
  • A considerably long dry spell with significantly low precipitation anomalies during the monsoon results in an increase in air temperature. Increased air temperature and precipitation deficit together cause a rapid depletion of soil moisture leading to flash drought.Hence statement 2is correct
  • Therefore, flash droughts in the monsoon season are primarily caused by the monsoon breaks. However, flash droughts can also occur due to delayed onset of the summer.
  • The core monsoon region of central and eastern India witnessed the highest frequency of flash droughts.Hence statement 3 is correct
  • In contrast, arid and semi-arid regions of western India, Deccan plateau, and the peninsular region experienced the least frequency of flash droughts during monsoon

Source: TH


In the South Atlantic and South-Eastern Pacific regions in tropical latitudes, cyclone does not originate. What is the reason?

Sea surface temperatures are low

Inter-tropical Convergence Zone seldom occurs

Coriolis force is too weak

Absence of land in those regions

Answer: (a) Sea surface temperatures are low

Explanation:

Tropical cyclones originate and intensify over warm tropical oceans. The conditions favourable for the formation and intensification of tropical storms are: (i) Large sea surface with temperature higher than 27° C; (ii) Presence of the Coriolis force; (iii) Small variations in the vertical wind speed; (iv) A preexisting weak- low-pressure area or low-levelcyclonic circulation; (v) Upper divergence above the sea level system.