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Daily Prelims Test – 23_February 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Vertical Launch Short Range Surface to Air Missile

It is an indigenously designed and developed by DRDO for the Indian Navy.

It is meant for neutralizing various aerial threats at close ranges including sea-skimming targets.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: DRDO conducts two successful launches of Vertical Launch Short Range Surface to Air Missile

  • Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has conducted two successful launches of Vertical Launch Short Range Surface to Air Missile (VL-SRSAM). 
  • The launches were carried out from a static vertical launcher from Integrated Test Range, Chandipur off the coast of Odisha
  • Indigenously designed and developed by the DRDO for Indian Navy, VL-SRSAM is meant for neutralizing various aerial threats at close ranges including sea-skimming targets. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is correct.
  • The current launches were carried out for demonstration of vertical launch capability as part of its maiden launch campaign. 
  • The missiles intercepted the simulated targets with pinpoint accuracy.
  • The missiles were tested for minimum and maximum range. VL-SRSAM with Weapon Control System were deployed during the trials.

Source: http://www.newsonair.com/News?title=DRDO-conducts-two-successful-launches-of-Vertical-Launch-Short-Range-Surface-to-Air-Missile&id=410403#:~:text=8%3A03AM-,DRDO%20conducts%20two%20successful%20launches%20of%20Vertical,Range%20Surface%20to%20Air%20Missile&text=Indigenously%20designed%20and%20developed%20by,ranges%20including%20sea%2Dskimming%20targets.


Consider the following Statements regarding Uttam

  1. It is an AESA (Active electronically scanned array), multi-mode, solid state phased array radar.
  2. It has been developed by Electronics and Radar Development Establishment

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: Self reliance: 1-in-2 Tejas fighters to have desi radar

  • In a major boost to indigenous defence technologies, at least 51% of the 123 LCA Tejas fighters that will be inducted into the Indian Air Force (IAF) will have the desi Uttam radar.
  • The UTTAM radars will replace Israeli radars that the first batch of aircraft will be equipped with.
  • In all IAF will get 123 Tejas fighters and 83 Tejas Mark-1A.
  • While the first 40 will have mechanical radars (all Israeli) 83 Mk-1A planes will have Active electronically scanned array (AESA) radars.
  • The 63 of the 83 will be indigenous Uttam radars developed by LRDE (Electronics and Radar Development Establishment).

About Uttam

  • Uttam is an AESA (Active electronically scanned array), multi-mode, solid state phased array radar. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It has been developed by Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE), a laboratory of the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO). Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is intended to be used with HAL Tejas Mk.1A, HAL Tejas Mk.2 and HAL TEDBF aircraft with plans to implement a larger variant on-board India’s 5th Generation fighter aircraft HAL AMCA.
  • It is a liquid cooled AESA radar featuring quad band modules that can be stacked to form a larger unit.
  • This allows the manufacturer to scale the radar to be used in larger aircraft.
  • The radar development started in 2008.
  • The Uttam radar will be used with DRDO’s Unified Electronic Warfare suite.

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/self-reliance-1-in-2-tejas-fighters-to-have-desi-radar/articleshow/81140150.cms


Which of the following reasons are closely associated with decreasing trend of rainfall in Cherrapunji region?

  1. Changes in Indian Ocean Temperature
  2. Reduction in Vegetation Area
  3. Increase in Cropland Area and Deforestation

Select the correct options from the given below codes

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2, and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2, and 3

Explanation:

  • In NEWS: Wettest place on Earth sees decreasing trend in rainfall
  • The study looked at the rainfall pattern of the past 119 years (period of 1901–2019).It found a decreasing rainfall trend at Cherrapunji and nearby areas.
  • The 1973–2019 period shows a decrease of about 0.42 mm per decade in rainfall. This trend was statistically significant at seven stations (Agartala, Cherrapunji, Guwahati, Kailashahar, Pasighat, Shillong and Silchar).

Need for this study

  • Northeast India is highly sensitive to changes in regional and global climate. The first signs of the effect of climate change will be evident in extreme cases such as the rainfall at Cherrapunji.
  • Northeast India also has the highest vegetation cover in India. It includes 18 biodiversity hotspots of the world,
  • Thus, it is important in terms of its greenery and climate-change sensitivity.

Decreasing trend

  • The team analysed daily rain gauge measurements during 1901–2019, and noted that the changes in the Indian Ocean temperature have a huge effect on the rainfall in the region. 
  • They also analysed satellite data and add that there was a reduction in the vegetation area in northeast India in the past two decades, implying that human influence also plays an important role in the changing rainfall patterns.
  • The traditional way of cultivation known as Jhum cultivation or shifting cultivation is now decreased and being replaced by other methods. Also, previous studies have noted there is sizable deforestation in the region. Our study also saw the decrease in vegetation cover and increase in the areas of cropland mainly from the year 2006 onwards. Hence option (d) is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/wettest-place-on-earth-sees-decreasing-trend-in-rainfall/article33889697.ece#:~:text=The%20quiet%2C%20sleepy%2C%20yet%20mesmerising,to%20The%20Hindu%20subscribers%20only.


Consider the following Statements regarding Additional Judges

  1. It can be appointed by the President of India under Article 224 of the Constitution.
  2. No person appointed as an additional of a High Court for such period not exceeding six months
  3. No person appointed as an additional of a High Court shall hold office after attaining the age of sixty two years

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2, and 3 

Answer: (a) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Four Additional Judges elevated as Judges in Karnataka High Court

  • The President of India, in exercise of the power conferred by clause (l) of Article 217 of the Constitution of India, appointed
  • Article 217 of the Indian Constitution states that the Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the State, and, in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court

About Article 224 

  • Appointment of additional and acting Judges
  • If by reason of any temporary increase in the business of High Court or by reason of arrears of work therein, it appears to the President that the number of the Judges of that Court should be for the time being increased, the President may appoint duly qualified persons to be additional Judges of the Court for such period not exceeding two years as he may specific. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • When any Judge of a High Court other than the Chief Justice is by reason of absence or for any other reason unable to perform the duties of his office or is appointed to act temporarily as Chief Justice, the President may appoint a duly qualified person to act as a Judge of that Court until the permanent Judge has resumed his duties. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • No person appointed as an additional or acting Judge of a High Court shall hold office after attaining the age of sixty two years. Hence statement 3 is correct

Source: PIB


Recently the region Pancha Gangavali estuary is seen in news, it is located in 

  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. Odisha
  3. Tamilnadu
  4. Karnataka

Answer: (d) Karnataka

Explanation:

In NEWS: Panchagangavali Kandla forests to get ‘biodiversity hotspot’ tag

  • The Karnataka Biodiversity Board will soon pass a resolution to declare the expansive Kandla Forests in the Panchagangavali Estuary in Kundapur taluk, Udupi district as a biodiversity hotspot. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Kandla forest at the estuary was spread over 100 acres and the Forest Department was making every effort to protect and preserve the same. The biodiversity hotspot tag would enhance protection and conservation efforts
  • Kandla forests along the Karnataka coast, the one in Panchagangavali River perhaps has been the largest. It has grown over the years inside the water and the marshy land

About Biodiversity Hotspots

  • Biodiversity hotspots are regions with high species richness and a high degree of endemism.
  • Conservation International (CI) adopted Myers’ hotspots and in 1996, the organization made the decision to undertake a reassessment of the hotspots concept.
  • According to CI, to qualify as a hotspot a region must meet two strict criteria:
  • It must contain at least 1,500 species of vascular plants (> 0.5% of the world’s total) as endemics – which is to say, it must have a high percentage of plant life found nowhere else on the planet. A hotspot, in other words, is irreplaceable.
  • It has to have lost at least 70% of its original habitat. (It must have 30% or less of its original natural vegetation). In other words, it must be threatened.

Biodiversity hotspots in India

  • Himalaya: Includes the entire Indian Himalayan region (and that falling in Pakistan, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, China and Myanmar).
  • Indo-Burma: Includes entire North-eastern India, except Assam and Andaman group of Islands (and Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and southern China)
  • Western Ghats and Sri Lanka: Includes entire Western Ghats (and Sri Lanka).
  • Sundalands: Includes Nicobar group of Islands (and Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Philippines).

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Mangalore/panchagangavali-kandla-forests-to-get-biodiversity-hotspot-tag/article33892031.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding SFURTI

It is an initiative by Ministry of MSME to promote Cluster development

It aims to organize the traditional industries and artisans into clusters to make them competitive and provide support for their long term sustainability

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: Gadkari inaugurates 50 SFURTI clusters in 18 States, which will support over 42,000 artisans in traditional crafts

  • In the 50 clusters over 42,000 artisans have been supported in the traditional segments of muslin, khadi, coir, handicraft, handlooms, wood craft, leather, pottery, carpet weaving, bamboo, agro processing, tea, etc.  The Ministry of MSME, Govt. of India has funded an amount of around Rs.85 crore for development of these 50 clusters.

About Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries

  • SFURTI is Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries.
  • Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME), Govt. of India has launched this scheme in the year 2005 with the view to promote Cluster developmentHence statement 1 is correct
  • As per the revised guidelines, the following schemes are being merged into SFURTI:
  • The Scheme for r Enhancing Productivity and Competitiveness of Khadi Industry and Artisans
  • The Scheme for Product Development, Design Intervention and Packaging (PRODIP)
  • The Scheme for Rural Industries Service Center (RISC) and
  • Other small interventions like Ready Warp Units, Ready to Wear Mission, etc.
  • Objectives of Scheme
  • To organize the traditional industries and artisans into clusters to make them competitive and provide support for their long term sustainability and economy of scale; Hence statement 2 is correct
  • To provide sustained employment for traditional industry artisans and rural entrepreneurs;
  • To enhance marketability of products of such clusters by providing sup port for new products, design intervention and improved packaging and also the improvement of marketing infrastructure;
  • To equip traditional artisans of the associated clusters with the improved skills and capabilities through training and exposure visits;
  • To make provision for common facilities and improved tools and equipment for artisans to promote optimum utilization of infrastructure facilities;
  • To strengthen the cluster governance systems with the active participation of the stakeholders, so that they are able to gauge the emerging challenges and opportunities and respond to them in a coherent manner;
  • To build up innovated and traditional skills, improved technologies, advanced processes, market intelligence and new models of public – private partnership s, so as to gradually replicate similar models of cluster – based regenerated traditional industries
  • To look for setting up of multi-product cluster with integrated value chain and a strong market driven approach for viability and long term sustainability of the cluster;
  • To ensure convergence from the design stage with each activity of the cluster formation and operations thereof.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1700034


Consider the following Statements regarding Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

  1. It is an abnormal condition where fat accumulate in liver in the absence of secondary causes of fatty liver including the viral hepatitis
  2. India has become the first country in the world that has identify the need for action to control NAFLD

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: Dr. Harsh Vardhan launches Operational Guidelines for integration of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) with NPCDCS

  • The Union Minister of Health & Family Welfare, Dr Harsh Vardhan, has launched the operational guidelines to Integrate the Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) with National Programme for Prevention & Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke
  • It is an abnormal condition where fat accumulate in liver in the absence of secondary causes of fatty liver including the viral hepatitis, alcohol use or medicationsHence statement 1 is correct
  • It is a serious health concern as it encircles a spectrum of liver abnormalities. It can lead to more advanced liver abnormalities like non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis or Liver cancer from a simple non-alcoholic fatty liver or simple fatty liver disease.
  • In the last two decades global burden of NASH has doubled.
  • NASH led to the 40 lakh cases of compensated cirrhosis in 1990 globally. This burden increased further to 94 lakhs in the year 2017.
  • It is also emerging as an important cause of liver disease in India.
  • India has become the first country in the world that has identify the need for action to control NAFLD. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Government of India has realized that the existing NCD programme’s strategies can now be aligned to achieve the objectives to prevent and control NAFLD with:
  • behavior and lifestyle changes,     
  • early diagnosis and management of NAFLD,     
  • building of capacity at various levels of healthcare for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD.        

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1699904


The term Laschamps Excursion is often mentioned in the news , it is associated with 

Major geomagnetic reversal

Prehistoric stone row

Largest stars in the universe

Nuclear powered cave

Answer: (a) Major geomagnetic reversal

Explanation:

In NEWS: Earth’s magnetic field broke down 42,000 years ago and caused massive sudden climate change

  • The world experienced a few centuries of apocalyptic conditions 42,000 years ago, triggered by a reversal of the Earth’s magnetic poles combined with changes in the Sun’s behaviour. Hence option (a) is correct
  • This last major geomagnetic reversal triggered a series of dramatic events that have far-reaching consequences for our planet. They read like the plot of a horror movie: the ozone layer was destroyed, electrical storms raged across the tropics, solar winds generated spectacular light shows (auroras), Arctic air poured across North America, ice sheets and glaciers surged and weather patterns shifted violently.
  • During these events, life on earth was exposed to intense ultraviolet light, Neanderthals and giant animals known as megafauna went extinct, while modern humans sought protection in caves.
  • The magnetic north pole — where a compass needle points to — does not have a permanent location.
  • One of the most dramatic of these pole migrations took place some 42,000 years ago and is known as the Laschamps Excursion, named after the village where it was discovered in the French Massif Central.
  • The Laschamps Excursion has been recognised around the world, including most recently in Tasmania, Australia. But up until now, it has not been clear whether such magnetic changes had any impacts on climate and life on the planet. Our new work draws together multiple lines of evidence that strongly suggest the effects were indeed global and far-reaching.
  • To investigate what happened, we analysed ancient New Zealand kauri trees that had been preserved in peat bogs and other sediments for more than 40,000 years. Using the annual growth rings in the kauri trees, we have been able to create a detailed timescale of how Earth’s atmosphere changed over this time.

The Adams Event

  • Because of the coincidence of seemingly random cosmic events and the extreme environmental changes found around the world 42,000 years ago, we have called this period the “Adams Event” — a tribute to the great science fiction writer Douglas Adams, who wrote The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy and identified “42” as the answer to life, the universe and everything. Douglas Adams really was onto something big, and the remaining mystery is how he knew?

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/earth-s-magnetic-field-broke-down-42-000-years-ago-and-caused-massive-sudden-climate-change-75611


Which of the followings are the eligible beneficiaries under the Animal Husbandry Infrastructure Development Fund Scheme?

  1. Farmer Producer Organizations
  2. MSME
  3. Individual entrepreneurs.

Select the correct options from the given below codes

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2, and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2, and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: New paradigm in animal husbandry

  • In June 2020, while the country was reeling under the initial wave of COVID-19 and subsequent lockdowns, the Central government unveiled a string of measures to cushion the economy, as a part of which the Animal Husbandry Infrastructure Development Fund (AHIDF) was announced

Benefits: 

  • The AHIDF has been set up with an outlay of ₹15,000 crore.
  • As per the provisions of AHIDF, a project will be eligible for a loan amount that covers up to 90% of the estimated cost – with an interest subvention of 3% for all eligible entities. 
  • Applicants can submit the proposal with a complete Detailed Project Report through the Udyami Mitra Portal.
  • There will be 2 years moratorium period for principal loan amount and 6 years repayment period thereafter.
  • Beneficiaries: 
  • The first major fund launched by the government that includes a diverse set of stakeholders such as FPOs, private dairy players, individual entrepreneurs, and non-profits within its ambit. Hence option (d) is correct

Significance

  • The AHIDF has been designed to support the establishment of animal feed plants of varying capacities – including setting up of mineral mixture plants, silage making units, and animal feed testing laboratory.
  • To spur on innovative solutions, the Ministry in collaboration with Invest India has invited ideas from domestic start-ups for the development of new varieties of green fodder and enriched animal feed. 
  • The infrastructure gap of 10-18 MMT in the production and supply of affordable compound cattle feed translates into an investment potential of around ₹5,000 crore.
  • There are not only economic but nutritional benefits to boosting the poultry segment’s output, efficiency and quality. 
  • India is the fourth largest chicken meat producer and the second largest egg producer in the world and is well-positioned to help mitigate rampant malnutrition given that chicken meat provides the cheapest source of protein per unit.
  • The AHIDF also has the potential to create over 30 lakh jobs, even as it overhauls domestic infrastructure towards giving greater prominence to India’s dairy and livestock products in the global value chain.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/new-paradigm-in-animal-husbandry/article33907193.ece


Which of the following statements can help in water conservation in agriculture? 

  1. Reduced or zero tillage of the land 
  2. Applying gypsum before irrigating the field 
  3. Allowing crop residue to remain in the field

 Select the correct answer using the code given below: 

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only 
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2, and 3

Explanation:

  • No-till farming (also called zero tillage or direct drilling) is a way of growing crops or pasture from year to year without disturbing the soil through tillage. No-till is an agricultural technique which increases the amount of water that infiltrates into the soil and increases organic matter retention and cycling of nutrients in the soil. Gypsum improves the ability of soil to drain and not become waterlogged thus increasing water-use efficiency of crops.

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