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Daily Prelims Test – 23_December 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  • It works under the aegis of IUCN.
  • It aims to provide political leaders with periodic scientific assessments concerning climate change, its implications and risks, as well as to put forward adaptation and mitigation strategies.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: World to breach 1.5°C threshold by 2027-2042: Study

  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change had estimated global warming threshold will cross between 2020 and 2052
  • The IPCC uses the General Circulation Models (GCM) to express wide ranges in overall temperature projections. This makes it difficult to circle outcomes in different climate mitigation scenarios. For example, an IPCC model would predict a temperature increase of a massive range — between 1.9oC and 4.5oC — if carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is doubled.

About Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  • The IPCC provides regular assessments of the scientific basis of climate change, its impacts and future risks, and options for adaptation and mitigation.
  • Created in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the objective of the IPCC is to provide governments at all levels with scientific information that they can use to develop climate policies. Hence statement 1 is incorrect and Hence statement 2 is correct
  • IPCC reports are also a key input into international climate change negotiations.
  • The IPCC is an organization of governments that are members of the United Nations or WMO.
  • The IPCC currently has 195 members.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/world-to-breach-1-5-c-threshold-by-2027-2042-study-74746


Consider the following statements regarding National Aquifer Mapping and Management Programme

  • It was initiated as a part of the Ground Water management and Regulation scheme.
  • It aims to cover more than 25 million square kilometers that have been delineated hydro geologically map

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:CGWB and CSIR-NGRI sign MoA for High-Resolution Aquifer Mapping & Management in Arid Region of NW India

  • A Memorandum of Agreement, MoA was signed today between Central Ground Water Board, Ministry of Jal Shakti and CSIR-NGRI, Hyderabad for use of advanced heliborne geophysical survey and other scientific studies in parts of the States of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana under the Aquifer Mapping Programme.
  • This is the first time the Ministry of Jal Shakti has decided to use the State of the art technology for identification of aquifers in such a large arid or semi-arid area of the country.

About National Aquifer Mapping and Management Programme (NAQUIM):

  • NAQUIM was launched in 2012 by the Ministry of Water Resources (now Ministry of Jal Shakti).
  • It was initiated as a part of the Ground Water management and Regulation scheme.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Objective: To identify and map aquifers at the micro level to quantify the available groundwater resources.
  • It aims to cover more than 25 million km2 that have been delineated as hydro-geologically map-able area.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It also aims to promote participatory groundwater management.
  • This can be achieved by empowering communities with a seamless flow of information and understanding of local aquifers.

Stages of the Programme:

  • The programme is divided into four stages:
  • Collection, compilation and analysis of existing data.
  • The required data is then generated in data gap areas/domains through an array of scientific investigations.
  • Integration of data, developing lithological models and configuring aquifers. The hydraulic properties, resource behavior, water level regime and chemical quality is established in space-time domain.
  • Various supply and demand side interventions are worked out and recommended to sustainably use groundwater.

Source: http://newsonair.com/Main-News-Details.aspx?id=406492


Recently, the term Chillai Kalan is seen in news, it is related to

  • New Mushroom species found in western Himalayas
  • Tribal Customs
  • Coastal radar network
  • Intense winter period of Kashmir valley.

Answer: (d) Intense winter period of Kashmir valley

Explanation:

In NEWS: Intense winter begins in Jammu & Kashmir with sub-zero temperatures

  • The tourist resort of Gulmarg witnessed a temperature of minus 6.4 degrees Celsius. Gulmarg has already had four spells of snow this winter and winter games have begun on the icy slopes of the resort
  • The 40-day intense winter period “chillaikalan” started in Kashmir valley on Monday with sub-zero night temperatures across the region. Hence option (d) is correct
  • This year, winter started on a harsh note as the temperature dropped to a record minus 6.6 degrees Celsius in Srinagar on December 19, the lowest temperature of the season, and also the second-coldest December night in the past decade.
  • The mercury dipped to minus 4 degrees Celsius in Srinagar on the intervening night of Sunday and Monday, 2.5 notches below the normal. Dal Lake in Srinagar was frozen in parts.

Chillai Kalan is followed by Chillai-Khurd and Chillai-Bachha.

  • ChillaiKhurd (small cold) is a 20-day long period which starts from January 31 to February 19.
  • Chillai-Bachha (baby cold), a 10-day long period which occurs between February 20 and March

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/cities/intense-winter-begins-in-jammu-kashmir-with-sub-zero-temperatures/story-rm8hE0s1coZKQuIYp8mtEP.html


Consider the following statements regarding Shigella infection

  • It is the contagious intestinal infection caused by a genus of bacteria.
  • It causes moderate to severe diarrhea especially in children in African and South Asian regions.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Shigella explained: The intestinal infection is not deadly in most cases

People with shigellosis may start experiencing symptoms within one or two days of the entry of germs in the body.

What is shigella infection?

  • Shigellosis, or shigella infection, is a contagious intestinal infection caused by a genus of bacteria known as shigella. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The bacteria is one of the prime pathogens responsible for causing diarrhea, fluctuating between moderate and severe symptoms, especially in children in African and South Asian regions.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The bacteria, after entering the body through ingestion, attacks the epithelial lining of the colon resulting in inflammation of the cells and subsequently the destruction of the cells in severe cases.
  • It takes only a small number of shigella bacteria to enter a person’s system and get her sick.

What are the common symptoms?

  • People with shigellosis may start experiencing symptoms within one or two days of the entry of germs in the body. The common symptoms are diarrhea (often bloody and painful), stomach pain, fever, nausea and vomiting. There have been cases too where people don’t experience any signs of the bacterial infection.

How does it spread?

  • The infection is known to spread person-to-person when the bacteria is swallowed accidentally. This can happen in child-care settings if a person does not wash his hands after cleaning the baby’s diaper and then eats food with the same hands. Spread through contaminated food and water is the most common form of transmission across the world.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/shigella-explained-the-intestinal-infection-is-not-deadly-in-most-cases-7113751/


Consider the following statements

  •  Global Health Estimates released by WHO, lists the world’s top 10 causes of death.
  •  Heart disease has remained the leading cause of death at the global level for the last 20 years.
  •  Diabetes and dementia are also among the world’s top 10 causes of death.
  •  Tuberculosis is no longer in the global top 10

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 1,2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Explanation

In News: Heart disease now killing more people than ever before: WHO

  • The WHO’s 2019 Global Health Estimates, released recently, said non-communicable diseases now make up 7 of the world’s top 10 causes of death, an increase from 4 of the 10 leading causes in 2000. The new data cover the period from 2000 to 2019. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Heart disease has remained the leading cause of death at the global level for the last 20 years. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • Heart disease now represents 16 per cent of total deaths from all causes and the number of deaths from heart disease increased by more than two million since 2000 to nearly 9 million in 2019.
  • Diabetes and dementia are also among the world’s top 10 causes of death. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • While more non-communicable diseases are now causing deaths worldwide, there has been a global decline in deaths from communicable diseases, which however still remain a major challenge in low- and middle-income countries.
  • In 2019, pneumonia and other lower respiratory infections were the deadliest group of communicable diseases and together ranked as the fourth leading cause of death.
  • HIV/AIDS dropped from the 8th leading cause of death in 2000 to the 19th in 2019
  • Tuberculosis is also no longer in the global top 10, falling from 7th place in 2000 to 13th in 2019, with a 30% reduction in global deaths. Hence statement 4 is correct.
  • The estimates further confirm the growing trend for longevity: in 2019, people were living more than 6 years longer than in 2000, with a global average of more than 73 years in 2019 compared to nearly 67 in 2000.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/health/heart-disease-now-killing-more-people-than-ever-before-who-7099058/


He was the son of Bairam Khan, Akbar’s trusted guardian and mentor. He was one of the nine important ministers (dewan) in his court, also known as the Navaratnas. He had an excellent command over the Sanskrit language. In Sanskrit, he wrote two books on astrology, Khetakautukam and Dwatrimshadyogavali. Who is he?

  • Abdul rahim Khan ikhana
  • Birbal
  • AbulFazal
  • Tansen

Answer: a) Abdul Rahim Khan iKhana

Explanation:

In NEWS: Six year Project: Behind Rahim’s tomb restoration

  •  Abdul Rahim Khan-i-Khanan (1556 – 1627), popularly known as simply Rahim, was a poet who lived in India during the rule of Mughal emperor Akbar.
  •  Abdul Rahim was the son of Bairam Khan, Akbar’s trusted guardian and mentor.
  •  He was one of the nine important ministers (dewan) in his court, also known as the Navaratnas.
  • Rahim is known for his Hindi dohe (couplets) and his books on astrology.
  • Apart from writing various dohas, Rahim translated Babar’s memoirs, Baburnama from Chagatai language to Persian language.
  • He had an excellent command over the Sanskrit language. In Sanskrit, he wrote two books on astrology, Khetakautukam and Dwatrimshadyogavali.
  • The village of Khan Khana, which is named after him, is located in the Nawanshahr district of Punjab.hence option (a) is the correct answer.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/six-year-project-behind-rahims-tomb-restoration-175000-hours-and-3000-craftsmen-7114373/


Consider the following Statements

  • The Great Indian Bustard is one of the most critically threatened species in India, with fewer than 150 birds left in the wild.
  • It is listed as Endangered in IUCN Red List.

Select the incorrect answer using the code given below

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Pokhrans’s firefly bird diverters shine to save the Great Indian Bustard

  • The GIB is one of the most critically threatened species in India, with fewer than 150 birds left in the wild. It is listed as Critically Endangered in IUCN Red List. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is incorrect.
  • A 2019 report by the Ministry pointed out that power lines, especially high-voltage transmission lines with multiple overhead wires, are the most important current threat for GIBs in the Thar region, and are causing unsustainably high mortality in about 15% of their population.
  • Firefly bird diverters are flaps installed on power lines. They work as reflectors for bird species like the GIB. Birds can spot them from a distance of about 50 metres and change their path of flight to avoid collision with power lines.
  • The firefly detectors have been installed along two stretches of approximately 6.5 km, selected between Chacha to Dholiya villages in the Pokhran tehsil, Rajasthan.
  • The diverters are called fireflies because they look like fireflies from a distance, shining on power lines in the night.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/pokhrans-firefly-bird-diverters-shine-to-save-the-great-indian-bustard/article33396148.ece


Consider the following statements

  • US President has presented the prestigious ‘The Legion of Merit, Degree Chief Commander’ award to the Prime Minister of India
  • The award is given for his role in promoting India-US relations and promoting global peace and prosperity.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  •  1 only
  •  2 only
  •  Both 1 and 2
  •  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In News: Modi awarded ‘Legion of Merit’ by US President Trump

  • US President Donald Trump has presented the prestigious ‘The Legion of Merit, Degree Chief Commander’ award to Prime Minister Narendra Modi for his role in promoting India-US relations and promoting global peace and prosperity.Hencestatement 1 and statement 2 is correct.
  • The award is in recognition of the Prime Minister’s steadfast leadership and vision for India’s emergence as a global power, and exemplary contribution made by him for the advancement of the India-US strategic partnership and promoting global peace and prosperity,”

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/variety/modi-awarded-legion-of-merit-by-us-president-trump/article33390782.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Mucormycosis

  • It is a rare fungal infection with continuous headache and heaviness in the facial area
  • It cannot spread between people or between animal and people

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Gujarat: Govt issues advisory on fungal infection with ‘nearly 50% mortality rate’

  • Mucormycosis is a type of fungal disease which infects those with compromised immune system, and with other existing diseases, is a serious infection with a mortality rate of nearly 50 per cent. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Gujarat health department on Monday issued an advisory about the fungal infection, mucormycosis, which has a “mortality rate of nearly 50 per cent”, reported in “Covid-19 patients in Ahmedabad and Rajkot”.
  • It is a rare infection caused by a group of molds called Mucormycetes.
  •  It commonly affects lungs after inhaling the fungal spores from air. The fungus can also enter the human body through a cut, burn or other types of skin injury. These fungal spores can occur in any part of the body.
  • The mortality rate of the disease is 50%. Early identification and treatment can lead to better outcome.
  • People with diabetes, cancer or people who underwent organ transplant, stem cell transplant are at greater risk.
  •  The disease cannot spread between people or between animal and people. People are infected with the disease only through contact with the spores.Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/ahmedabad/health-department-issues-advisory-on-fungal-infection-with-nearly-50-pc-mortality-rate-7114109/


Consider the following statements- The Parliamentary Committee on Public Accounts.

  • Consists of not more than 25 Members of the Lok Sabha.
  • Scrutinizes appropriation and finance accounts of the Government.
  • Examines the report of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3


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