KingMakers IAS Academy logo

Daily Prelims Test – 23_August_2021

Consider the following statements regarding Greenland:

1) It is the world’s largest island located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans.

2) It is an autonomous territory within Canada.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why rain at Greenland summit is a cause for worry

  • As per the US National Snow and Ice Data Center, this was the heaviest rainfall that the ice sheet received since record keeping began in 1950, with Sunday witnessing a rate of ice melting that was seven times more than the daily average that is observed at this time of the year.

About Greenland

  1. Greenland is the world’s largest island located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  2. It has three-quarters of its surface covered with a permanent ice sheet, which is increasingly coming under threat because of climate change.
  3. .       It is an autonomous territory within the Kingdom of Denmark. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  4. .       Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe (specifically Norway and Denmark, the colonial powers).
  5. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors migrated from Alaska through Northern Canada, gradually settling across the island by the 13th century.

Why is Greenland’s melting a cause for worry?

  • Greenland, which is two-thirds the size of India, already witnessed one of its most severe melting events.
  • It has lost 8.5 billion tons of surface mass in one day– the third such extreme event in the past decade.
  • The UN’s “code red” climate report released last week concluded that the burning of fossil fuels led to Greenland melting in the last 20 years.
  • The rapid melting is also threatening polar bears, which now have to make their way hundreds of kilometers towards Greenland’s interior from the coasts, where they usually find enough food.

Sourcehttps://indianexpress.com/article/explained/greenland-summit-rain-climate-change-explained-7463441/

With reference to the history of India, Variyankunna Kunjahammed Hajiis is associated with which of the following event?

a)  The Revolt of 1857

b) The Mappila Rebellion of 1921

c)  The Indigo Revolt of 1859-60

d) Birsa Munda’s Revolt of 1899-1900

Answer: (b) The Mappila Rebellion of 1921

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why the Malabar rebellion of 1921 still courts controversy

  • Former BJP national general secretary Ram Madhav Thursday said the Moplah rebellion of 1921 was one of the first manifestations of the Taliban mindset in India, and claimed the LDF in Kerala was celebrating it as a communist revolution.

Malabar Rebellion

  • The Malabar Rebellion in 1921 started as resistance against the British colonial rule and the feudal system in southern Malabar but ended in communal violence between Hindus and Muslims.
  • There were a series of clashes between Mappila peasantry and their landlords, supported by the British, throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries.
  • It began as a reaction against a heavy-handed crackdown on the Khilafat Movement, a campaign in defence of the Ottoman Caliphate by the British authorities in the Eranad and Valluvanad taluks of Malabar.

Controversial film projects on the rebellion

  • The Mappilas attacked and took control of police stations, British government offices, courts and government treasuries. Controversial film projects on the rebellion
  • In 1988, a Malayalam film titled ‘1921’ was made based on the theme. With superstar Mammootty in the lead role, the film, directed by I V Sasi, won laurels. The protagonist had been a member of the brigade of Variyamkunnath Kunjahammed Haji, a prominent Muslim leader of the uprising. Hence option (b) is correct.
  • Who was Variyankunna Kunjahammed Haji?    
  • He was one of the leaders of the Malabar Rebellion of 1921.
  • He raised 75000 natives, seized control of large territory from the British rule and set up a parallel government.
  • In January 1922, under the guise of a treaty, the British betrayed Haji through his close friend Unyan Musaliyar, arresting him from his hideout and producing him before a British judge.
  • He was sentenced to death along with his compatriots.

Sourcehttps://indianexpress.com/article/explained/malabar-rebellion-of-1921-explained-7462838/

Consider the following statements regarding Suranga:

1) It is usually found in northern Kerala and southern Karnataka.

2) It is a traditional water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water for human settlements and irrigation.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Fate of Afghanistan’s karez system uncertain, but south India’s surangam thriving

Sourcehttps://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/water/fate-of-afghanistan-s-karez-system-uncertain-but-south-india-s-surangam-thriving-78584

Consider the following statements with respect to Mawblei or God’s Rock:

1) It is composed of the reddish-purple Mahadek sandstone belonging to the Khasi group of cretaceous age.

2) It is situated near Syntung village in East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya State.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: GSI lists geo-tourism sites in NE to visit after ‘unlock’

  • The Geological Survey of India (GSI) has identified certain geological sites across the Northeast for promotion of geo-tourism as some States in the region prepare to ‘unlock’ from September
  • Mawblei or God’s Rock is situated Situated near Syntung village in East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya State. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It is a huge balancing rock slanting at an angle of about 45 degrees in the south-southeast direction on a hill slope at 1,303 meters above mean sea level overlooking the Wahrashi River valley. The rock is composed of the reddish-purple Mahadek sandstone belonging to the Khasi group of cretaceous age. Thin partings of shale are also observed in the boulder.Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Mawblei in the Khasi language means God’s Rock and is a sacred place for the local populace. The rock is about 63 km from Shillong.

Sourcehttps://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/gsi-lists-geo-tourism-sites-in-ne-to-visit-after-unlock/article36012306.ece

. According to Desertification and Land Degradation Atlas, which of the following factors is/are the major reason for desertification occur in India?

1) Rainfall and surface runoff

2) Water erosion

3) Vegetation degradation

4) Wind erosion

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

a) 1, 3 and 4 only

b) 2 and 4 only

c) 1,2 and 3 only

d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Explanation:

In NEWS: Despite PM Modi’s assurance, land degradation, desertification increasing

  • Some 97.85 million hectares (mha) of India’s total geographical area (TGA) of 328.72 mha underwent land degradation during 2018-19, according to the Desertification and Land Degradation Atlas of India.
  • This means that 29.7 per cent of the country’s land in that year became degraded, according to the Atlas that was published in June 2021 by the Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad.
  • Some 97.85 million hectares (MHA) of India’s total geographical area (TGA) of 328.72 MHA underwent land degradation during 2018-19.
  • In 2003-05, 94.53 MHA (28.76 per cent of the TGA) underwent land degradation.
  • The number increased to 96.40 MHA (29.32 per cent of the TGA) in 2011-13.
  • Around 23.79 per cent of the area undergoing desertification/land degradation with respect to TGA of the country was contributed by Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Ladakh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and Telangana.
  • India witnessed an increase in the level of desertification in 28 of 31 states and Union territories between 2011-13 and 2018-19, a closer look at data in the atlas showed.
  • Land degradation and desertification were declining in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Telangana in 2018-2019.

Why does desertification occur?

  • Rainfall and surface runoff:  Loss of soil cover, mainly due to rainfall and surface runoff, was one of the biggest reasons for desertification. It was responsible for 11.01 per cent of the desertification in the country, the ISRO atlas said.
  • Water erosion: In 2011-13, water erosion was responsible for 10.98 per cent of desertification in the country. In 2003-05, it was responsible for 10.83 per cent of desertification.
  • Vegetation degradation: Vegetation degradation was found to be responsible for 9.15 per cent of desertification in the country. In 2003-05, it was responsible for 8.60 per cent of desertification.
  • Wind erosion: Wind erosion was found to be responsible for 5.46 per cent of the desertification in India. In 2003-05, it was responsible for 5.58 per cent of desertification. Hence option (d) is correct

Sourcehttps://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/despite-pm-modi-s-assurance-land-degradation-desertification-increasing-78586

 Consider the following statements:

1) Article 262 of the Constitution provides for the adjudication of inter-state water disputes.

2) Under this provision an Inter-State Water Dispute Act, 1956 and River Boards Act, 1956 was created.

3) Schedule 7 of the Constitution distinguishes between the use of water within a state and the purpose of regulating interstate waters.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Bommai to go to Delhi to resolve hurdles in raising height of Almatti dam

  • Chief Minister Basavaraj Bommai will be soon travelling to New Delhi to discuss the legal hurdles in raising the height of the Almatti dam to 524 metres from 519 metres
  • The Lal Bahadur Shastri Damis also known as Almatti Dam is a hydroelectric project on the Krishna Riverin North Karnataka.
  • The backwaters of the dam host several migratory birds during summer.
  • A dispute over the sharing of Krishna waters has been ongoing for many decades, beginning with the erstwhile Hyderabad and Mysore states, and later continuing between successors.

About Inter-State River Water Disputes:

  • Water in the Constitution of India Water is a State subject as per entry 17 of State List and thus states are empowered to enact legislation on water.
  • Entry 17 of State List deals with water i.e. water supply, irrigation, canal, drainage, embankments, water storage and water power.
  • Entry 56 of Union List gives power to the Union Government for the regulation and development of inter-state rivers and river valleys to the extent declared by Parliament to be expedient in the public interest.
  • Schedule 7 of the Constitution distinguishes between the use of water within a state and the purpose of regulating interstate watersHence statement (3) is correct.
  • Article 262of the Constitution provides for the adjudication of inter-state water disputes.
  • Under this, Parliament may by law provide for the adjudication of any dispute or complaint with respect to the use, distribution and control of waters of any inter-state river and river valley. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Parliament may also provide that neither the Supreme Court nor any other court is to exercise jurisdiction in respect of any such dispute or complaint.
  • The Parliament has enacted the two laws, the River Boards Act (1956) and the Inter-State Water Disputes Act (1956). Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The River Boards Act provides for the establishment of river boards by the Central government for the regulation and development of inter-state river and river valleys. A River Board is established on the request of state governments concerned to advise them.
  • The Inter-State Water Disputes Act empowers the Central government to set up an ad hoc tribunal for the adjudication of a dispute between two or more states in relation to the waters of an inter-state river or river valley.
  • The decision of the tribunal is final and binding on the parties to the dispute.
  • Neither the Supreme Court nor any other court is to have jurisdiction in respect of any water dispute which may be referred to such a tribunal under this Act.

Sourcehttps://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/bommai-to-go-to-delhi-to-resolve-hurdles-in-raising-height-of-almatti-dam/article36035618.ece

Consider the following statements with respect to Children’s Climate Risk Index:

1) It ranks countries based on children’s exposure to climate and environmental shocks such as cyclones and heat waves.

2) It is a new report released by the UNICEF .

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Children in India, 3 other S Asian nations at extremely high risk of climate crisis impacts: UNICEF

  • India is among four South Asian countries where children are most at risk of the impacts of climate change threatening their health, education, and protection, according to a new UNICEF report.
  • ‘The Climate Crisis Is a Child Rights Crisis: Introducing the Children’s Climate Risk Index’ (CCRI) is UNICEF’s first focussed on children.   Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It ranks countries based on children’s exposure to climate and environmental shocks such as cyclones and heatwaves, as well as their vulnerability to those shocks based on their access to essential services. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and India are among four South Asian countries where children are at extremely high risk of the impacts of the climate crisis, with a ranking of 14th, 15th, 25th and 26th respectively.
  • CCRI has placed India as one of the 33 extremely high-risk countries with flooding and air pollution being the repeated environmental shocks leading to socio-economic adverse consequences for women and children.
  • Approximately 1 billion children live in one of the 33 countries classified as extremely high-risk, including the four South Asian countries.
  • It is estimated that more than 600 million Indians will face ‘acute water shortages’ in the coming years, while at the same time flash flooding is to increase significantly in the majority of India’s urban areas once the global temperature increase rises above 2 Celsius.
  • Twenty-one of the world’s 30 cities with the most polluted air in 2020 were in India.

Sourcehttps://www.financialexpress.com/lifestyle/science/children-in-india-3-other-s-asian-nations-at-extremely-high-risk-of-climate-crisis-impacts-unicef/2314977/lite/

 Consider the following statements:

1) Madur mats are unique to West Bengal.

2) Madur mats are woven mainly by weavers of the mahishya caste, and predominantly by women.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Women weavers herald hope for Bengal’s unique Madur mat

  • Two women from Sabang in West Bengal’s Paschim Medinpur district have been given the National Handicraft Award in recognition of their outstanding contribution to the development of crafts
  • About Madurkathi mats
  • Madurkathi mats, or madur, are mats woven in West Bengal from a reed called madurkottir, or madurkathi, a sedge of the family CyperaceaeHence statement (1) is correct.
  • Madur mat-making is a long-standing tradition, centred on the Medinipur district, and is an important part of the rural economy.
  • Madur mats are made of natural fibres.
  • The mats are woven mainly by weavers of the Mahishya caste, and predominantly by womenHence statement (2) is correct.
  • This cottage industry contributes significantly to village household income.
  • The mats are non-conductive and sweat-absorbing, making them an essential household item in West Bengal’s hot and humid climate. These mats are also used for religious purposes.
  • On March 28, 2018, Indian Patent Office granted the Government of West Bengal a Geographical Indication (GI) Tag for madurkathi, under registration no. 567 in respect of handicrafts.
  • Masland’ a fine quality madur mat, which takes weeks to weave.
  • During the 18th century, Masland mats flourished under royal patronage. In 1744, Nawab Alibardi Khanissued a charter to landowning jagirdars in this regard, and as a result, it was obligatory to supply Masland mats for use in the Collectorate.
  • The design and the quality of material used determine the price of the madur.

Sourcehttps://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/women-weavers-herald-hope-for-bengals-unique-madur-mat/article36033136.ece

 Consider the following statements with respect to Turmeric:

1) It requires temperatures between 20 and 30 °C.

2) It can be grown with an annual rainfall of 1500 mm or more, under rainfed or irrigated conditions.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: The colourful molecules of turmeric

  • Researchers point out that there is another molecule in turmeric called piperine, which is an alkaloid, responsible for the pungency of pepper that we use every day in our cooking, along with turmeric. Piperine enhances curcumin absorption in the body.

Turmeric

  • Turmeric (Curcuma longa) (Family: Zingiberaceae) is used as condiment, dye, drug and cosmetic in addition to its use in religious ceremonies. India is a leading producer and exporter of turmeric in the world.
  • Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Karnataka, West Bengal, Gujarat, Meghalaya, Maharashtra, Assam are some of the important states cultivates turmeric, of which, Andhra Pradesh alone occupies 35.0% of area and 47.0% of production.
  • Turmeric can be grown in diverse tropical conditions from sea level to 1500 m above sea level, at a temperature range of 20-35oC with an annual rainfall of 1500 mm or more, under rainfed or irrigated conditions. Hence statement (1) is correct and statement (2) is correct.
  • Though it can be grown on different types of soils, it thrives best in well-drained sandy or clay loam soils with a pH range of 4.5-7.5 with good organic status.
  • India is the largest producer and exporter of turmeric in the world. Turmeric occupies about 6% of the total area under spices and condiments in India.
  • Telangana was the leading producer of turmeric in India during 2018. Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu were second and third in the ranking that year.

Sourcehttps://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/the-colourful-molecules-of-turmeric/article36035501.ece

Which one of the following statements correctly describes the meaning of legal tender money?

a)  The money which is tendered in courts of law to defray the fee of legal cases

b) The money which a creditor is under compulsion to accept in settlement of his claims

c)  The bank money in the form of cheques, drafts, bills of exchange etc.

d) The metallic money in circulation in a country

Answer: (b) The money which a creditor is under compulsion to accept in settlement of his claims

Explanation:

Legal tender is any official medium of payment recognized by law that can be used to extinguish a public or private debt, or meet a financial obligation. A creditor is obligated to accept legal tender toward repayment of a debt. Legal tender can only be issued by the national body that is authorized to do so. Hence option (b) is correct.