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Daily Prelims Test – 22_June 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Securities Appellate Tribunal:

1.  It is a statutory body established under the provisions of SEBI Act, 1992.

2. The Presiding officer of SAT shall be appointed by the Chief Justice of India.
3. It has the same powers as vested in a civil court.

 Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

 a) 2 only

b) 1 and 3 only

c) 1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

 Answer: (b) 1 and 3 only

 Explanation:

  • In NEWS: SAT overrules SEBI, allows PNB HF’s EGM on Carlyle
  • Securities Appellate Tribunal (SAT) allowed PNB Housing Finance to go ahead with the shareholders’ meeting to consider the proposed ₹4,000 crore-investment by private equity firm Carlyle and others in the mortgage firm.
  • About Securities Appellate Tribunal
  • SAT is a statutory body established under the provisions of Section 15K of the SEBI Act, 1992. SAT consists of a Presiding Officer and Two other members. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The Presiding officer of SAT shall be appointed by the Central Government in consultation with the Chief Justice of Indiaor his nominee. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • It has the same powers as vested in a civil court. Further, if any person feels aggrieved by SAT’s decision or order can appeal to the Supreme Court. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • Functions:
  • To hear and dispose of appeals against orders passed by the SEBI or by an adjudicating officer under the SEBI Act,1992.
  • To hear and dispose of appeals against orders passed by the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA).
  • To hear and dispose of appeals against orders passed by the Insurance Regulatory Development Authority of India (IRDAI).
  • Source: TH Pg:No: 12
  • 2. Consider the following Statements regarding the Indira Gandhi Canal:
  • It originates in Punjab.
  • It is the largest canal system of India.

 Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

 a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

 Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

 Explanation:

 In NEWS: Indira Gandhi Canal repair accomplished in record time

  In an engineering feat, the repair and relining of the Indira Gandhi Canal, the country’s longest canal which terminates in irrigation facilities in Thar desert, was accomplished in a record 60-day period amid the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic, restoring 70 km of both the main canal and the feeder distributaries.

  • The project was a race against time, as the repairs required closure of the canal system, which directly impacted the drinking and irrigation needs of 1.75 crore people as well as numerous cattle, Army cantonment along the international border and industrial usage in the border districts.
  • About Indira Gandhi Canal
  • The Indira Gandhi Canal (originally, Rajasthan Canal) is the longest canal of India. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It starts from the Harike Barrage at Harike, a few kilometers below the confluence of the Satluj and Beas rivers in the Indian state of Punjab and terminates in irrigation facilities in the Thar Desert in the north west of Rajasthan state. Previously known as the Rajasthan Canal. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It runs parallel to the Pakistan border at an average distance of 40 km in Thar Desert (Marusthali) of Rajasthan.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/indira-gandhi-canal-repair-accomplished-in-record-time/article34895956.ece

Consider the following Statements regarding Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR):

  • It is an autonomous organisation under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education.
  • It is the apex body for coordinating, guiding and managing research and education in agriculture including horticulture, fisheries and animal sciences in the entire country.

 Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

 a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

 Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

 Explanation:

 In NEWS:

  • Researchers from various institutes under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya found depleting trends in grain density of zinc and iron in rice and wheat cultivated in India.
  • The researchers collected seeds of rice (16 varieties) and wheat (18 varieties) from the gene bank maintained at the ICAR’s Cultivar repositories.
  • Zinc and iron concentrations in grains of rice cultivars released within the 1960s were 27.1 mg/kg and 59.8 mg/kg. This depleted to 20.6 mg/kg and 43.1 mg/kg, respectively within the 2000s.
  • The concentrations of zinc and iron were 33.3 mg/kg and 57.6 mg/kg in cultivars of the 1960s, dropped to 23.5 mg/kg and 46.4 mg/kg, respectively in cultivars released during the 2010s.

 About Indian Council of Agricultural Research:

  It is an autonomous organisationunder the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare. Hence statement (1) is correct.

  • It is the apex body for coordinating, guiding and managing research and education in agricultureincluding horticulture, fisheries and animal sciences in the entire country. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It was established on 16thJuly 1929 as a registered society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
  • It is headquartered at New Delhi.With 102 ICAR institutes and 71 agricultural universities spread across the country this is one of the largest national agricultural systems in the world.
  • Cultivar repositoriesare nodal institutes that preserve and archive the old cultivars or varieties from our country.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/agriculture/are-your-staple-rice-and-wheat-losing-their-nutrients/article34860539.ece

With respect to Summer Solstice, consider the following Statements:

  • It is the longest night and shortest day of the year in the Southern
  • At the Arctic Circle, the sun never sets during the solstice.

 Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

 a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

 Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

 Explanation:

 In NEWS: Summer solstice explained: Why June 21 will be the longest day of the year in Northern Hemisphere

  21st June is the longest day in the Northern Hemisphere, technically this day is referred to as Summer solstice. In Delhi, the day length is around 14 hours.

  • The amount of light received by a specific area in the Northern Hemisphere during the summer solstice depends on the latitudinal location of the place.
  • About Summer Solstice
  • It is the longest day and shortest night of the year in the Northern Hemisphere. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • During this, countries in the Northern Hemisphere are nearest to the Sun and the Sun shines overhead on the Tropic of Cancer (23.5° North).
  • At latitudes of 23.5° are the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, north and south of the Equator.
  • At 66.5° are the Arctic and Antarctic Circles, to the north and south.
  • Latitudes are a measure of a location’s distance from the Equator.
  • During the solstice, the Earth’s axis — around which the planet spins, completing one turn each day — is tilted in a way that the North Pole is tipped towards the sun and the South Pole is away from it.
  • Typically, this imaginary axis passes right through the middle of the Earth from top to bottom and is always tilted at 23.5 degrees with respect to the sun.
  • At the Arctic Circle, the sun never sets during the solstice. Hence statement (2) is correct.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/summer-solstice-explained-why-june-21-will-be-the-longest-day-of-the-year-in-northern-hemisphere-7367636/

Consider the following Statements regarding Chennai-Kanyakumari Industrial Corridor:

  • It is part of India’s East Coast Economic Corridor which stretches from West Bengal to Tamil Nadu.
  • It is a World Bank led project connecting India to the production networks of South, Southeast and East Asia.

 Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

 a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

 Explanation:

In NEWS: ADB, India sign $484 million loan to upgrade road network in Tamil Nadu industrial corridor

  • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of India today signed a $484 million loan to improve transport connectivity and facilitate industrial development in the Chennai–Kanyakumari Industrial Corridor (CKIC) in the state of Tamil Nadu.
  • CKIC is part of India’s East Coast Economic Corridor(ECEC), which stretches from West Bengal to Tamil Nadu and connects India to the production networks of South, Southeast and East Asia. ADB is the lead partner of the Government of India in developing ECECHence statement (1) is correct and (2) is incorrect.
  • It will upgrade about 590 km of state highways in the CKIC influence areas that cover 23 of the 32 districts between Chennai and Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu.
  • Objectives: To spur industrial transformation through provisioning of essential transport, energy and urban infrastructure for holistic development of industrial growth centres.

 Significance

  Seamless road connectivity across industrial clusters, transport gateways and consumption centers, and help reduce logistics and production costs.

  • Enhanced connectivity will help increase the participation of Indian manufacturing in global production networks and global value chains, thereby creating jobs along the corridor.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1727501

With respect to NISHTHA, Consider the following Statements:

  • It is a national flagship program of NCERT.
  • It is aimed to build competencies among teachers and school principals and Improving Quality of School Education through Integrated Teacher Training.

 Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

 a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

 Explanation:

In NEWS: Ministry of Tribal Affairs and NCERT come together on a joint mission for NISHTHA Capacity Building Programme for EMRS Teachers and Principals

To fulfill the long-standing vision of Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA) to achieve academic excellence in Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRSs), 120 EMRS teachers and principals from 3 states completed a 40 days’ NISHTHA

About NISHTHA-National initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement Program

It is a national flagship program of NCERT. Hence statement (1) is correct.

The capacity building program is aimed to build competencies among teachers and school principals and Improving Quality of School Education through Integrated Teacher Training.  Hence statement (2) is correct.

It affirms the National Education Policy (NEP-2020) recommendation of “Providing In-service continuous professional development, as these will be strengthened and substantially expanded to meet the needs of enriched teaching-learning processes for quality education.”

The Department of School Education and Literacy has launched a National Mission to improve learning outcomes at the elementary level through an Integrated Teacher Training Programme called NISHTHA under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Samagra Shiksha in 2109-20.

NISHTHA is a capacity building programme for “Improving Quality of School Education through Integrated Teacher Training”. It aims to build competencies among all the teachers and school principals at the elementary stage.

NISHTHA is the world’s largest teachers’ training programme of its kind.

The basic objective of this massive training programme is to motivate and equip teachers to encourage and foster critical thinking in students.

The initiative is first of its kind wherein standardized training modules are developed at national level for all States and UTs.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1728867

The word ‘Denisovan’ is sometimes mentioned in media in reference to

a) Living fossils of a kind of fish

b) an early human species

c) a cave system found in North -East India

d) a geological period in the history of Indian subcontinent

 Answer: (a) Living fossils of a kind of fish

 Explanation:

In NEWS: Coelacanth: Weird ‘living fossil’ fish from dinosaur times lives 100 years, pregnant for 5

  • The coelacanth — a giant weird fish still around from dinosaur times — can live for 100 years, a new study found. Hence option (a) is correct.
  • These slow-moving, people-sized fish of the deep, nicknamed a “living fossil,” are the opposite of the live fast, die young mantra. These nocturnal fish grow at an achingly slow pace.
  • Coelacanths, which have been around for 400 million years, were thought extinct until they were found alive in 1938 off South Africa. Scientists long believed coelacanths live about 20 years. 
  • Coelacanths are so endangered that scientists can only study specimens already caught and dead.
  • Based on the fossil record, they were thought to have vanished during the mass extinction that wiped out about three-quarters of Earth’s species following an asteroid strike at the end of the Cretaceous Period.
  • After being found alive, the coelacanth was dubbed a “living fossil”.
  • It is called a lobe-finned fish based on the shape of its fins, which differ structurally from other fish.
  • Such fins are thought to have paved the way for the limbs of the first land vertebrates to evolve.
  • Coelacanths reside at ocean depths of as much as half a mile (800 meters). During daylight hours they stay in volcanic caves alone or in small groups.
  • The two extant species, both endangered, are the African coelacanth, found mainly near the Comoro Islands off the continent’s east coast, and the Indonesian coelacanth.
  • The researchers said late sexual maturity and a lengthy gestation period, combined with low fecundity and a small population size, makes coelacanths particularly sensitive to natural or human-caused environmental disturbances such as extreme climate events or too much accidental fishing.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/fish-once-labeled-a-living-fossil-surprises-scientists-again/article34857609.ece

Consider the following Statements regarding Indian Certification of Medical Devices (ICMED) Plus Scheme:

  • It will be an end to end quality assurance scheme for the medical devices sector in India.
  • It is launched by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).

 Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

 a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

 Explanation:

In NEWS: Quality Council of India (QCI) launches Indian Certification of Medical Devices (ICMED) Plus Scheme

Quality Council of India (QCI) launches Indian Certification of Medical Devices (ICMED) Plus SchemeHence statement (2) is incorrect.

 ICMED 13485 PLUS

  The Quality Council of India (QCI) and the Association of Indian Manufacturers of Medical Devices (AiMeD) have added further features to the ICMED, the Scheme that had been launched for Certification of Medical Devices in 2016.

  • The ICMED 13485 PLUS, as the new scheme will undertake verification of the quality, safety and efficacy of medical devices.
  • ICMED 13485 Plus has been designed to integrate the Quality Management System components and product related quality validation processes through witness testing of products with reference to the defined product standards and specifications.
  • This is the first scheme around the world in which quality management systems along with product certification standards are integrated with regulatory requirements.
  • This scheme will be an end to end quality assurance scheme for the medical devices sector in India. Hence statement (1) is correct
  • This scheme provides the much-needed institutional mechanism for assuring the product quality and safety.
  • It will assist the procurement agencies to tackle the challenges relating to the menace of counterfeit products and fake certification.
  • This will also help in eliminating the circulation and use of sub-standard medical products or devices of doubtful origin that could prove to be serious health hazards.

 About The Quality Council of India

  It is an autonomous body set up by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India jointly with the Indian Industry represented by the three premier industry associations i.e. Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM), Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), to establish and operate national accreditation structure and promote quality through National Quality Campaign.

  • Quality Council of India (QCI) is registered as a non-profit society with its own Memorandum of Association and is governed by a Council with equal representations of government, industry and consumers.
  • The Council plays a pivotal role at the national level in propagating, adoption and adherence to quality standards in all important spheres of activities including education, healthcare, environment protection, governance, social sectors, infrastructure sector and such other areas of organized activities that have significant bearing in improving the quality of life and wellbeing of the citizens of India.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1728368

Consider the following Statements regarding Global Peace Index:

  • It is released by the World Economic Forum.
  • It’s indicators include ongoing conflict, safety and security and militarization.

 Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

 a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

 Explanation:

In NEWS: Bangladesh improves 7 notches in Global Peace Index 2021

  • Bangladesh improved its position by 7 notches in the Global Peace Index 2021 compiled by the Institute of Economics and Peace (IEP) based in Sydney, Australia. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • In its 15th edition ranking 163 countries according to their level of peacefulness, the Index placed Bangladesh at 91st position compared to 98th last year.
  • Bangladesh has scored an overall score of 2.68 making it the third most peaceful country in South Asia placed behind Bhutan and Nepal. Afghanistan has been ranked as the least peaceful country in the South Asian region.
  • The index measures the peacefulness of 163 countries and territories. It covers 99.7% of the world’s population.
  • The index is composed of 23 qualitative and quantitative indicators from highly respected sources. These indicators are grouped into three key domains:
  • ongoing conflict
  • safety and security and
  • Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • Key Takeaways from the index:
  • Iceland has topped the peace index. It was followed by New Zealand, Denmark, and Portugal.
  • Out of the 10 most peaceful countries in the world, 8 are from Europe.
  • Afghanistan is the least peaceful country in the world for the fourth consecutive year.
  • Only three out of nine regions in the world improved in the peace index. The largest improvement took place in the Middle East and North Africa.
  • The economic impact of violence on the global economy in 2020 was $14.96 trillion in purchasing power parity(PPP) terms. It is equivalent to 11.6% of the world’s economic activity.
  • There was an increase in military expenditure as a percentage of GDP for the second straight year. This indicator has deteriorated in 105 countries.
  • Moreover, the average level of global peacefulness deteriorated by 0.07% in the Index. This is the ninth time in the last 13 years that global peacefulness has deteriorated.
  • India:
  • India has been ranked 135th in the 2021 Global Peace Index.
  • Bhutan and Nepal are the first and second most peaceful in the South Asia region. India is the 5th most peaceful country in this region.
  • Bangladesh was 91st out of 163 countries across the world, while it was at 3rd place in South Asia.
  • Pakistan witnessed the most improvement in peacefulness, with 150th rank globally and 6th in the South Asia region.

Source: http://newsonair.com/2021/06/17/bangladesh-improves-7-notches-in-global-peace-index-2021/

The most important fishing grounds of the world are found in the regions where

a) Warm and cold atmospheric currents meet

b) Rivers drain out large amounts of freshwater into the sea

c) Warm and cold oceanic currents meet

d) Continental shelf is undulating

 Answer: (c) Warm and cold oceanic currents meet

 Explanation:

Planktons are abundant where warm and cold currents meet. That makes these areas important fishing grounds of the world. Hence option (c) is correct.