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Daily Prelims Test – 22_July

1.Manodarpan initiative is related to which of the following area?

  1. To monitor and provide psychosocial support to students, teachers and families for Mental Health
  2. To enhance the employability of Indian youth by providing on-job work exposure and stipend.
  3. To identify and encourage talented children to enrich their skills and knowledge.
  4. To bridge the digital divide for students who have hitherto remained untouched by the digital revolution

Answer: (a) To monitor and provide psychosocial support to students, teachers and families for Mental Health

Explanation:

In NEWS:HRD Minister to launch ‘Manodarpan’ initiative today to provide psychosocial support to students

  • Union Human Resource Development Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal will launch ‘Manodarpan’, an initiative under Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, to provide psychosocial support to students for their mental health and well-being.Hence option (a) is correct
  • The ‘Manodarpan’ initiative has been included in the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, as a part of strengthening human capital and increasing productivity and efficient reform and initiatives for the education sector
  • HRD ministry felt the need to focus on continuing education on the academic front and the mental well-being of the students. He further informed that the ministry has, therefore, taken up an initiative, named, ‘Manodarpan’ covering a wide range of activities to provide psychosocial support to students for their mental health and well-being during the COVID outbreak and beyond

Source:https://www.hindustantimes.com/education/hrd-minister-to-launch-manodarpan-initiative-today-to-provide-psychosocial-support-to-students/story-kZzPdY0rttNc35E2vaLN3J.html

2.Passage Exercise is a joint naval exercise between

  1. India and Australia
  2. India and USA
  3. India and UAE
  4. UAE and USA

Answer: (b) India and USA

Explanation:

In NEWS:Indian Navy holds passage exercise with ‘USS Nimitz’ carrier group

  • On July 20, 2020, Indian Navy undertook a short joint naval Passage Exercise (PASSEX) with the United States (US) Navy near the Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) islands in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) to conduct maritime drills, against the backdrop of the India-China border standoff in Ladakh. Hence option (b) is correct
  • Passage Exercise is an exercise done between two navies to ensure that the navies are able to communicate and cooperate in times of war or humanitarian relief.
  • Both naval forces conducted high-end exercises designed to maximize training and interoperability, including air defence.
  • This PASSEX was conducted at a time when the US Nimitz carrier strike group was on its way to be deployed in the Gulf region from the South China Sea which symbolizes the close strategic partnership between India & US.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/indian-navy-holds-passage-exercise-with-uss-nimitz-carrier-group/article32140656.ece

3.Consider the following statements regarding Committee on Content Regulation in Government Advertising

  • It is the only body that looks at content regulation of government advertisements.
  • It is a three member body setup by the government of india as per the directions of Supreme Court

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Kejriwal govt. gets notice over advertisement on Class 12 results

  • The Supreme Court mandated Committee on Content Regulation in Government Advertising (CCRGA) issued a notice to the Delhi government over a front page advertisement that was published in multiple newspapers recently, publicizing performance of Delhi government schools in Class 12 board exams.
  • In view of 2015 Supreme Court guidelines, the Delhi Government has been given 60 days to submit its comments on the issues of: cost of publishing this advertisement, purpose of the advertisement, how it not violets SC’s Guidelines of avoiding glorification of political personalities and number of publications that the advertisement was carried in.

About Committee on Content Regulation in Government Advertising

  • In 2016, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting had constituted a Rajat Sharma committee to see that guidelines set for government advertisements by the Supreme Court are followed.
  • The Government of India had set up a Three Member Body consisting of “persons with unimpeachable neutrality and who have excelled in their respective fields” to look into Content Regulation of Government funded advertisements in all media platforms. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The panel is the only body that looks at content regulation of government advertisements.Hence statement 1 is correct

The Committee is empowered

  • To address complaints from the general public on violation of the Supreme Court guidelines and make suitable recommendations.
  • To take suo-moto cognizance of any violation/ deviation of the Supreme Court guidelines and recommend corrective actions.

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/kejriwal-govt-gets-notice-over-advertisement-on-class-12-results/article32143153.ece

4.‘Supreme Court guidelines on regulation of government advertising’ which was in news recently, is associated with which of the following?

  1. Surjit Bhalla Committee
  2. Shailesh Nayak Committee
  3. NR Madhava Menon Committee
  4. K.SinhaCommittee

Answer: (c) NR Madhava Menon Committee

Explanation:

In NEWS:Kejriwal govt. gets notice over advertisement on Class 12 results

  • The SC issued the guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of a three-member NR Madhava Menon Committee.Hence option (c) is correct
  • Objectives:
  • Prevent arbitrary use of public funds and exclude possibility to gain political advantage using public fund.
  • To fill the gap in Directorate of Advertising & Visual Publicity (DAVP) guidelines which do not regulate the government advertising.

Provisions:

  • Government advertisements cannot use/publish photographs of ministers and party leaders.However, photographs of the President, Prime Minister and Chief Justice of India can be published in the government advertisements with their prior approval.Also, photos of late national leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru can be used in these advertisements.
  • Official advertisements should not carry the name of any political party, political symbol, logo or flag.
  • Must constitute a three member committee to regulate the issue of public advertisements.
  • According to the Guidelines, regulation of content should be guided by five fundamental principles:
  • The content of the government advertisement should be relevant to the government’s constitutional and legal obligations as well as the citizens’ rights and entitlements.
  • Advertisement materials should be presented in an objective, fair, and accessible manner and be designed to meet the objectives of the campaign.
  • Advertisement materials should not directed at promoting political interests of ruling party.
  • Advertisement Campaigns must be justified and undertaken in an efficient and cost-effective manner.
  • The advertisements must be compliant with existing laws such as election laws and ownership rights.

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/kejriwal-govt-gets-notice-over-advertisement-on-class-12-results/article32143153.ece

5.Consider the following statements regarding Casuarina

1.It is a tree species and is native to Australia

2.They are evergreen shrubs and trees growing to 35 m tall.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Award for Coimbatore scientist

  • The Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) conferred principal of Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding (IFGTB) scientist Kannan C S Warrier the National Award of Excellence for Outstanding Research in Forestry for the year 2019.
  • The scientist was involved in releasing three productive clones of casuarina, known as kattadi and savukku, that are suitable for salt-affected soils for the first time in the country.

About Casuarina

  • Casuarina is a genus of 17 tree species in the family Casuarinaceae.
  • The tree is native to Australia, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, islands of the western Pacific Ocean, and eastern Africa.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • They are evergreen shrubs and trees growing to 35 m (115 ft) tall.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Casuarinas are a versatile group of plants with wide-ranging adaptability to grow in different environments and provide multiple uses and services.
  • They fix atmospheric nitrogen through a symbiotic association with the bacteria.
  • Casuarina wood with a high calorific value and is used as fuelwood.
  • The wood is extensively used for papermaking and biomass-based power generation.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/coimbatore-based-kannan-warrier-gets-indian-council-of-forestry-research-and-educations-national-award-of-excellence/article32148696.ece

6.Consider the following statements regarding the National Financial Reporting Authority

1.It is an independent regulator to oversee the auditing profession and accounting standards in India.

2.It was constituted by the Government of India under the Companies Act, 2013.

3.It would cover all listed companies and large unlisted companies.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:NFRA constitutes technical advisory committee

The audit regulator, National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA), has constituted a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) under the Chairmanship of R Narayanaswamy, Professor, Indian Institute of Management, Bengaluru.

  • Technical Advisory Committee (TAC)is aims to aid and advise the Executive Body of the NFRA on issues related to the drafts of accounting standards and auditing standards.
  • Technical Advisory Committee will also provide inputs from the perspectives of users, preparers, and auditors of financial statements.

About National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA):

  • It is an independent regulator to oversee the auditing profession and accounting standards in India.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA) was constituted in 2018 by the Government of India under the Companies Act, 2013.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Composition: It consists of chairman, 3 full-time members and one secretary.
  • The accounts of the National Financial Reporting Authority are audited by the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
  • NFRA would cover all listed companies and large unlisted companies.Hence statement 3 is correct

Functions and Duties:

  • Recommend accounting and auditing policies and standards to be adopted by companies for approval by the Central Government;
  • Monitor and enforce compliance with accounting standards and auditing standards;

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/companies/nfra-constitutes-technical-advisory-committee/article32140340.ece

7.Consider the following statements regarding Inflammageing

  • It is a condition characterized by elevated levels of blood inflammation.
  • It carries high susceptibility to chronic morbidity, disability, frailty, and premature death.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Explained: What is inflammageing? Does it have a role in severe Covid-19?

University College London discuss the impact of inflammageing on immunity in ageing individuals. They suggest that reducing inflammation using anti-inflammatory drugs may provide a therapeutic strategy, not only for enhancing immunity but also for potentially improving Covid-19 outcomes in older patients.

  • It is a condition characterized by elevated levels of blood inflammatory markers that carries high susceptibility to chronic morbidity, disability, frailty, and premature death.Hence statements1 and 2are correct
  • Inflammageing is thought to be caused, at least partially, by the deterioration of aged cells (senescence) in tissues of the body that release inflammatory molecules.
  • Excessive inflammation due to inflammageing combined with an aged immune system can inhibit overall immunity, which can also reduce vaccination efficacy in older people.
  • The risk factors of inflammageing include cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, depression, dementia, and sarcopenia.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/inflammageing-covid-19-coronavirus-6515448/

8.Consider the following statements regarding ‘ANASIS-II’

  • It is the south korea’s first military communications satellite
  • It was deployed into a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) by a Falcon 9 rocket developed by US space firm SpaceX.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:SpaceX Launches ANASIS-II Military Communications Satellite for South Korea

  • Army/Navy/Air Force Satellite Information System 2 (ANASIS-II), previously named KMilSatCom-1, is a secure communications satellite for the South Korean Agency for Defense Development.
  • The spacecraft is the first dedicated South Korean military communications satellite. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It supplements the Koreasat-5/ANASIS-I satellite, a combined civilian and military communications satellite launched in 2006.
  • The ANASIS-II spacecraft is based on Airbus’s Eurostar E3000 satellite bus, over 80 of which have been ordered for various communications missions.
  • The military satellite, ANASIS-II is aimed at enhancing the nation’s ability to defend itself against nuclear-armed North Korea.
  • It was deployed into a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) by a Falcon 9 rocket developed by US space firm SpaceX . Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2020/07/spacex-launch-anasis-satellite-korea/

9.Consider the following statements regardingcompulsory licensing in india

  • Compulsory Licensing can only be granted for local manufacturing product.
  • When a compulsory license is granted, the patent owner loses his rights over the patent.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Why are re-purposed medicines expensive?

  • The quest for developing a vaccine and finding a definitive treatment for COVID-19 treatment is reportedly making good progress.
  • Clinical trials with re-purposed antivirals and biologicals have been approved in various countries.Drug Repurposing or Repositioning is a drug development strategy predicated on the reuse of existing licensed drugs for new medical indications.
  • These medicines are believed to have some potential in shortening the recovery time in COVID-19 positive patients.
  • Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) recently issued an approval to Glenmark Pharma to manufacture and market Favipiravir tablets for ‘restricted emergency use’.
  • Indian patent laws are also armed with sufficient powers to ensure reasonable pricing for pharmaceutical products.
  • The provisions in India enable the grant of compulsory licensing in circumstances of national emergency or extreme urgency.

About compulsory licensing

  • It is when a government allows someone else to produce a patented product or process without the consent of the patent owner or plans to use the patent-protected invention itself.
  • It is one of the flexibilities in the field of patent protection included in the WTO’s agreement on intellectual property the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement.
  • This concept is also recognized at the national level with an express mention in both (Indian) Patent Act, 1970.
  • Compulsory licenses can also be issued suomotu by the Controller under section 92, under a notification issued by the Central Government if there is either a “national emergency” or “extreme urgency” or in cases of “public non-commercial use”.
  • Compulsory Licensing is not the same as tearing up the patent. The patent owner still has rights over the patent, including a right to be paid compensation for copies of the products made under the compulsory license.Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • Under Article 31 of TRIPS, a Compulsory Licensing is available to all members for local manufacturing or import. The TRIPS Agreement was amended following a decision at the 2001 Doha Ministerial Conference when Ministers recognized that countries unable to manufacture pharmaceuticals should be able to obtain cheaper copies produced under compulsory licenses elsewhere if necessary.Hence statement 1 is incorrect

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/why-are-re-purposed-medicines-expensive/article32154508.ece

10.Which of the following are the reasons for the occurrence of multi-drug resistance in microbial pathogens in India?

  • Genetic predisposition of some people
  • Taking incorrect doses of antibiotics to cure diseases
  • Using antibiotics in livestock farming
  • Multiple chronic diseases in some people

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  • 1 and 2
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1, 3 and 4
  • 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (d) 2,3 and 4

Explanation:

  • Antimicrobial resistance occurs naturally over time, usually through genetic changes. However, the misuse and overuse of antimicrobials is accelerating this process.
  • In many places, antibiotics are overused and misused in people and animals, and often given without professional oversight. Examples of misuse include when they are taken by people with viral infections like colds and flu, and when they are given as growth promoters in animals or used to prevent diseases in healthy animals. Hence option (d) is correct.