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Daily Prelims Test – 22_July 2021

Which one of the following ministries has formulated a scheme SMILE, recently seen in the news?

  1. a) Ministry of Tribal Affairs
  2. b) Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment
  3. c) Ministry of Labour and Employment
  4. d) Ministry of Coal

Answer: (b) Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment

Explanation:

In NEWS: Government has formulated a scheme covering comprehensive measures for welfare of beggars

  • The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has formulated a scheme “SMILE – Support for Marginalized Individuals for Livelihood and Enterprise”, which includes a subscheme – ‘Central Sector Scheme for Comprehensive Rehabilitation of persons engaged in the act of Begging’. Hence option (b) is correct.
  • This scheme covers several comprehensive measures including welfare measures for persons who are engaged in the act of begging.
  • The focus of the scheme is extensively on rehabilitation, provision of medical facilities, counselling, basic documentation, education, skill development, economic linkages and so on.
  • The scheme would be implemented with the support of State/UT Governments/Local Urban Bodies, Voluntary Organizations, Community Based Organizations (CBOs) , institutions and others.
  • Scheme provides for the use of the existing shelter homes available with the State/UT Governments and Urban local bodies for rehabilitation of the persons engaged in the act of Begging.
  • A scheme “SMILE – Support for Marginalized Individuals for Livelihood and Enterprise” formulated which includes sub scheme – ‘Central Sector Scheme for Comprehensive Rehabilitation of persons engaged in the act of Begging’.
  • Focus of the scheme is on rehabilitation, provision of medical facilities, counseling, basic documentation, education, skill development, economic linkages etc.
  • Two Central Sector Schemes namely Comprehensive Rehabilitation of persons engaged in the Act of begging and Comprehensive Rehabilitation for Welfare of Transgender Persons have been merged in a single scheme named SMILE.

Sourcehttps://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1737322

 Consider the following statements regarding New Shephard:

  • It is a rocket system that has been designed to take astronauts and research payloads past the Karman line.
  • It will allow space tourists to experience microgravity by taking them 100 km above the Earth.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Jeff Bezos back on earth after 10-min flight to space on Blue Origin’s New Shepard spacecraft

  • Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos blasted off Blue Origin’s New Shepard flight from its Launch Site One in a remote location in the West Texas desert in the United States.
  • The founder of Blue Origin was accompanied by brother Mark Bezos, Wally Funk, and 18-year-old passenger Oliver Daemen.

What is New Shephard?

  • New Shephard is a rocket system that has been designed to take astronauts and research payloads past the Karman line – the internationally recognized boundary of space. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The idea is to provide easier and more cost-effective access to space meant for purposes such as academic research, corporate technology development and entrepreneurial ventures among others.
  • New Shephard will also allow space tourists to experience microgravity by taking them 100 km above the Earth. Microgravity is the condition in which people or objects appear to be weightless. The effects of microgravity can be seen when astronauts and objects float in space. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • New Shephard has been named after astronaut Alan Shephard – the first American to go to space.

How does it work?

  • The rocket system consists of two parts, the cabin or capsule and the rocket or the booster.
  • The capsule is fully autonomous and does not require a pilot.
  • The system is a fully reusable, vertical takeoff and vertical landing space vehicle that accelerates for about 2.5 minutes before the engine cuts off.
  • After separating from the booster, the capsule free falls in spacelands back with the help of parachutes, while the booster performs an autonomously controlled vertical landing back to Earth.

Sourcehttps://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/jeff-bezos-blasts-off-blue-origin-s-new-shepard-flight-to-space-101626786881235.html

Consider the following statements regarding AMLEX Device;

  • It can be easily connected between the oxygen supply line and the mask worn by the patient.
  • It is a first-of-its-kind Oxygen Rationing Device developed by IIT Ropar.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: IIT Ropar develops first-of-its-kind Oxygen rationing device – AMLEX

  • To increase the life of medical oxygen cylinders three fold, the Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar has developed a first-of-its-kind Oxygen Rationing Device – AMLEX. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • About AMLEX Device:
  • AMLEX is an Oxygen Rationing Device that increases the life of medical oxygen cylinders threefold.
  • The device can be easily connected between the oxygen supply line and the mask worn by the patient.Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It uses a sensor that senses and successfully supplies a required volume of oxygen to the patients (while inhaling) and trips when the patient is exhaling Carbon dioxide(CO2).
  • This process would help save oxygen, which gets unnecessarily wasted otherwise.
  • What was the need for an AMLEX device?
  • Generally during exhalation, the oxygen in the cylinder or pipe is pushed out along with the exhaled Co2 by the patient. This results in a large amount of oxygen wastage in the long run.
  • Also, a huge amount of oxygen escapes from the openings of the mask to the environment in the resting period (between inhalation and exhalation) due to the continuous flow of life-saving gas in the mask.
  • Hence, as the demand for medical oxygen jumps manifold amid the second wave of coronavirus, the device would save oxygen which gets unnecessarily wasted.

Sourcehttps://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1737098

Which one of the following statements is correct with reference to the ODOP scheme?

  1. a) It is a new central sector and pension scheme for only small and marginal farmers who own less than 2 hectares of land.
  2. b) It is a framework for the proliferation of public Wi-Fi networks.
  3. c) It is a direct market intervention scheme of the Department of Pharmaceuticals.
  4. d) It aims to identify one product per district based on the potential and strength of a district and national priorities.

Answer: (d) It aims to identify one product per district based on the potential and strength of a district and national priorities.

Explanation:

In NEWS: One District One Focus Product Scheme

  • The One District One Focus Product (ODOFP) programme covers products of agriculture and allied sectors for 728 districts of the country.

ODOFP programme

  • The ODOFP programme covers products of agriculture and allied sectors for 728 districts of the country.
  • The products have been identified from agricultural, horticultural, animal, poultry, milk, fisheries, aquaculture, marine sectors across the country.
  • These identified products will be supported under the PM-FME scheme of the Ministry of Food Processing Industries, which provides incentives to promoters and micro-enterprises
  • This scheme is being implemented for a period of five years from 2020-21 to 2024-25.
  • The scheme adopts One District One Product (ODOP) approach to reap the benefits of scale in terms of procurement of inputs, availing common services and marketing of products.

About ODOP

  • The ODOP scheme aims to identify one product per district based on the potential and strength of a district and national priorities. Hence option (d) is correct.
  • A cluster for that product will be developed in the district and market linkage will be provided for that.
  • It is operationally merged with the ‘Districts as Export Hub’ initiative implemented by the Director-General of Foreign Trade (DGFT), Department of Commerce.
  • Under the initial phase of the ODOP programme, 106 Products have been identified from 103 districts across 27 States.

Sourcehttps://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1737284

Consider the following statements:

  • The powers, privileges and immunities of members of either House of the Indian Parliament are laid down in the Indian Constitution.
  • The parliamentary privileges do not extend to the President and Attorney General of India.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: AAP moves privilege motion against Centre over ‘O2 death’ data; calls out Modi Sarkar for misleading the nation

  • A spokesperson of the non-ruling political party has said that he will move a privilege motion against the Health Minister for misleading Parliament that no deaths were reported specifically because of shortage of oxygen.

What is a privilege motion?

  • Parliamentary privileges are certain rights and immunities enjoyed by members of Parliament, individually and collectively, so that they can “effectively discharge their functions”.
  • When any of these rights and immunities are disregarded, the offence is called a breach of privilege and is punishable under law of Parliament.
  • A notice is moved in the form of a motion by any member of either House against those being held guilty of breach of privilege.
  • Each House also claims the right to punish as contempt actions which, while not breach of any specific privilege, are offences against its authority and dignity.
  • Rule No 222 in Chapter 20 of the Lok Sabha Rule Book and correspondingly Rule 187 in Chapter 16 of the Rajya Sabha rulebook govern privilege.
  • The Speaker/Chair can decide on the privilege motion himself or herself or refer it to the privileges committee of Parliament. If the Speaker/Chair gives consent under Rule 222, the member concerned is given an opportunity to make a short statement.

Breach of Privilege

  • Parliamentary privilege refers to the right and immunity enjoyed by legislatures, in which legislators are granted protection against civil or criminal liability for actions done or statements made in the course of their legislative duties.
  • The powers, privileges and immunities of either House of the Indian Parliament and of its Members and committees are laid down in Article 105 of the Constitution. These include the Attorney General of India and Union ministers.Hence statement (1) is correct and (2) is incorrect.
  • The parliamentary privileges do not extend to the President who is also an integral part of the Parliament. Article 361 of the Constitution provides for privileges for the President.
  • It needs to be noted that the Parliament, till now, has not made any special law to exhaustively codify all the privileges.

Sourcehttps://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/aap-moves-privilege-motion-against-centre-over-o2-death-data-calls-out-modi-sarkar-for-misleading-the-nation/videoshow/84626342.cms

Consider the following statements regarding Akash Missile:

  • 1.. Akash is a surface to surface missile system.
  • Akash missile is being developed under the integrated guided-missile development programme.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In news: Lightweight anti-tank missile tested by DRDO

  • A new generation of Akash surface-to-air missile was successfully flight-tested on Wednesday by the DRDO from an integrated test range off the Odisha coast in a boost to air defence capabilities.
  • Separately, the DRDO also successfully flight-tested an indigenously developed low weight man-portable anti-tank guided missile, paving the way for its production for the Army.
  • It is learnt that the new variant of the Akash missile (Akash-NG) has a slightly better range compared to the original version that can strike targets at a distance of around 25 km.
  • Defence Minister Rajnath Singh congratulated the DRDO, the IAF and production agencies Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) and Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) for the test-firing of the missile.

Akash Missile:

  • Akash is a surface to air missile system. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • It would be the first-ever weapon platform to be exported by our country.
  • India has been building fast patrol boats, helicopters and ammunition and radars for global customers.
  • The range of the missile is from 1.8 to 2.5 Mach.
  • It can be launched through tanks which are stable or even moving surfaces like warships and trucks.
  • The missile has already been inducted in the Indian Air Force in 2014 and the Indian Army in 2015.
  • It has a range of 25 km which aids in keeping the helicopters, fighters and drones from attacking critical installations.
  • Almost 96% of the missile manufacturing process is done indigenously.
  • The missile is capable of engaging in multiple targets in both group mode and autonomous mode in real-time.
  • There is a built-in Electronic Counter-Counter Measures (ECCM) system.
  • The system is configured on various mobile platforms.
  • The missile is solely designed by DRDO and has been produced by defence PSU Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL).
  • Akash missile was developed under the integrated guided-missile development programme/ IGMDP. which involved the development of the Nag, Agni and Trishul missiles, as well as the Prithvi ballistic missile.Hence statement (2) is correct.

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/akash-surface-to-air-missile-man-portable-anti-tank-missile-successfully-tested/article35456225.ece

Consider the following statements:

  • Bird flu or avian influenza is a disease caused by avian influenza Type A viruses found naturally in wild birds worldwide.
  • Human-to-human transmission of the H5N1 virus is very frequently possible.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is H5N1 avian influenza, its symptoms, and how fatal can it be?

  • On July 21, an 11-year-old boy died of H5N1 avian influenza in Delhi. This is the first recorded death due to the bird flu in India this year. In January, bird flu was confirmed in several states with thousands of birds, including migratory species, being found dead.

What is bird flu?

  • Bird flu or avian influenza is a disease caused by avian influenza Type A viruses found naturally in wild birds worldwide. The virus can infect domestic poultry including chickens, ducks, turkeys and there have been reports of H5N1 infection among pigs, cats, and even tigers in Thailand zoos.Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Avian Influenza type A viruses are classified based on two proteins on their surfaces – Hemagglutinin(HA) and Neuraminidase(NA). There are about 18 HA subtypes and 11 NA subtypes. Several combinations of these two proteins are possible e.g., H5N1, H7N2, H9N6, H17N10, etc.

Bird flu: Infection in humans:

  • There have been reports of avian and swine influenza infections in humans including A(H1N1), A(H1N2), A(H5N1), A(H7N9), etc. The first report of human H5N1 infection was in 1997 and currently, over 700 human cases of Asian Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian Influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 virus have been reported to the World Health Organisation from 16 countries. The infection is deadly as it has a high mortality rate of about 60%.
  • The most common route of virus transmission is direct contact — when a person comes in close contact with infected birds, either dead or alive.
  • Humans can also be affected if they come in contact with contaminated surfaces or air near the infected poultry. There is no sufficient evidence suggesting the spread of the virus through properly cooked meat.
  • The transmission of the virus from birds to humans is rare and sustained human-to-human transmission of the H5N1 virus has not yet been established and therefore there is no need to panic. But then people working closely with poultry must take precautionary measures and maintain proper personal hygiene. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-h5n1-avian-influenza-its-symptoms-and-how-fatal-can-it-be-7415702/

With reference to UNESCO World Heritage site, consider the following statements:

The World Heritage sites are embodied under the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by UNESCO in 1972.

India has 50 world heritage sites with two mixed sites.

The World Heritage sites once recognised cannot be removed by UNESCO.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c) 1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer : a) 1 only

Explanation:

IN NEWS; UNESCO strips Liverpool of its world heritage status

  • The English city of Liverpool has been removed from UNESCO’s list of world heritage sites after the United Nations’ cultural agency found new buildings, including a football stadium, undermining the attractiveness of its Victorian docks.Hence statement (3) is incorrect.
  • Liverpool was named a World Heritage Site in 2004, joining cultural landmarks such as the Great Wall of China and the Taj Mahal.
  • After a vote in China by members of its World Heritage Committee, UNESCO said on Twitter that Liverpool should be removed from the international cultu organisation’s list.
  • The only other sites stripped previously of the title are a wildlife sanctuary in Oman in 2007 after poaching and habitat loss, and the Dresden Elbe Valley in Germany in 2009 when a four-lane motorway bridge was built over the river.
  • The World Heritage Site:
  • The World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by UNESCO for its special cultural or physical significance. The list of World Heritage Sites is maintained by the international ‘World Heritage Programme’, administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee.
  • The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) seeks to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world considered to be of outstanding value to humanity.
  • This is embodied in an international treaty called the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by UNESCO in 1972.Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • India has 38 world heritage sites that include 30 Cultural properties, 7 Natural properties and 1 mixed site.Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • 9. Which among the following emperors built the historic Jama Masjid in Delhi?
  • a) Akbar
  • b) Shah Jahan
  • c) Jahangir
  • d) Aurangzeb

Answer: (b) Shah Jahan

Explanation:

Shah Jahan

This great mosque of Old Delhi is the largest in India, with a courtyard capable of holding 25,000 devotees. It was begun in 1644 and ended up being the final architectural extravagance of Shah Jahan, the Mughal emperor who built the Taj Mahal and the Red Fort. Hence option (b) is correct.

 With reference to the Parliament of India, which of the following Parliamentary Committees scrutinizes and reports to the House whether the powers to make regulations, rules, sub -rules, by -laws, etc. conferred by the Constitution or delegated by the Parliament are being properly exercised by the Executive within the scope of such delegation?

Committee on Government Assurances

Committee on Subordinate Legislation

Rules Committee

Business Advisory Committee

Answer: (b) Committee on Subordinate Legislation

Explanation:

The Committee on Subordinate Legislation examines and reports to the House whether the powers to make rules, regulations, bye – laws, schemes or other statutory instruments conferred by the Constitution or delegated by Parliament are being properly exercised. In both the Houses, the committee consists of 15 members. It was constituted in 1953.Hence option (b) is correct.