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Daily Prelims Test – 22_December 2020

Consider the following pairs:

     Indigenous Games                      Origin

  • Kalaripayattu                                Kerala
  • Gatka                                              Punjab
  • Thang-Ta                                           Manipur

Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In News: Govt approves inclusion of four indigenous sports in Khelo India Youth Games 2021

  • The Sports Ministry has approved the inclusion of four indigenous Games to be a part of Khelo India Youth Games 2021, scheduled to take place in Haryana. The games include, Gatka, Kalaripayattu, Thang-Ta and Mallakhamba.
  • India has a rich heritage of indigenous sports and it is a priority for the Sports Ministry to preserve, promote and popularise these games. He said, there is no better platform than the Khelo India Games where athletes of these games can compete
  • The four selected games represent different parts of the country. Kalaripayattu has its origin from Kerala and has practitioners all over the world. Mallakhamba has been well-known across India and Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra have been the hotspots of this sport. Gatka originates from Punjab and this traditional fighting style of the Nihang Sikh Warriors is used both as self-defense as well as a sport. Thang-Ta, a Manipur marital art has passed into oblivion in the recent decades, but the sport will get national recognition again with the help of the Khelo India Youth Games 2021. Hence Option (d) is correct

Source: http://newsonair.com/Main-News-Details.aspx?id=406417#:~:text=The%20Sports%20Ministry%20has%20approved,%2C%20Thang%2DTa%20and%20Mallakhamba.&text=Kalaripayattu%20has%20its%20origin%20from,practitioners%20all%20over%20the%20world.


Consider the following statements regarding Information Management and Analysis Centre

  • It is jointly operated by the Navy and Coast Guard.
  • It tracks only military ships passing through theIndian Ocean Region (IOR).
  • It is based in Gurgaon, India.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India looks at integrating more countries into coastal radar network

  • In a bit to further expand the coastal radar chain network meant to enable real-time monitoring of the high seas for threats as also expand India’s assistance for capacity building to Indian Ocean littoral states, efforts are in advanced stages to set up coastal radar stations in the Maldives, Myanmar and Bangladesh.
  • Mauritius, Seychelles and Sri Lanka have already been integrated into the country’s coastal radar chain network. Similar plans are in the pipeline with Maldives and Myanmar and discussions are ongoing with Bangladesh and Thailand.
  • Similar proposals are being pursued with some more countries, a second source said. Two of the coastal radar stations in the Maldives were functional as of last year and work was under way on the third station.

About Information Management and Analysis Centre (IMAC)

  • It is the nodal centre for maritime security information collation and dissemination.
  • It is jointly operated by the Navy based in GurugramHence statement 1 is correct and Hence statement 3 is correct.
  • It is the cornerstone of the National Command Control Communication and Intelligence Network for monitoring maritime traffic in India’s area of interest.

Functions of Information Management and Analysis Centre (IMAC)

  • IMAC’s task is to facilitate exchange of maritime security information among various national stakeholders, and generate a common operational picture.
  •  It is important to note that IMAC tracks only non-military or commercial ships, known as white shipping. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
  • The military ships, or grey hull ships, are tracked by the Directorate of Naval Operations.
  • IMAC focuses on ships passing through the Indian Ocean Region (IOR).
  • As part of information exchange regarding traffic on the high seas, the Navy has been authorized by the government to conclude white shipping agreements with 36 countries and three multilateral constructs. So far agreements have been concluded with 22 countries and one multilateral construct.
  • At the Navy’s Information Fusion Centre for the Indian Ocean Region (IFC-IOR) which is meant to promote Maritime Domain Awareness, three more International Liaison Officers (ILO) are expected to join soon. The ILOs from France, Japan and the U.S. have joined the centre.
  • Under Phase-I of the coastal radar chain network, 46 coastal radar stations have been set up across the country’s coastline. Under Phase-II of the project, which is currently under way, 38 static radar stations and four mobile radar stations are being set up by the Coast Guard and is in advanced stage of completion.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-looks-at-integrating-more-countries-into-coastal-radar-network/article33379243.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Positive Pay System

  • It is a fraud detection tool adopted by banks to protect customers against forged, altered or counterfeit cheques.
  • Banks will enable a new system for all account holders issuing cheques for amounts of Rs 1Lakhs and above
  • National Payments Corporation of India will develop the facility of Positive Pay in Cheque Truncation System, and make it available to participant banks.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: From January 1, the new safety features in cheques above Rs 50,000

  • On January 1, 2021, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) will introduce the ‘Positive Pay System’ for cheque transactions above Rs 50,000 in a bid to enhance safety and eliminate fraudsHence statement 1 is correct.

What is the Positive Pay System for cheque transactions?

  • The concept of Positive Pay involves a process of reconfirming key details of large-value cheques. Under this process, the issuer of the cheque submits electronically, through channels like SMS, mobile app, Internet banking and ATM, certain minimum details of that cheque (like date, name of the beneficiary, or payee and amount) to the drawee bank, details of which are cross-checked with the presented cheque by Cheque Truncation System (CTS).
  • Any discrepancy is flagged by CTS to the drawee bank and presenting bank, who then take redressal measures.

What type of cheques will come under Positive Pay?

  • Banks will enable the new system for all account holders issuing cheques for amounts of Rs 50,000 and aboveHence statement 2 is incorrect.
  • While availing of this facility is at the discretion of the account holder, banks may consider making it mandatory in case of cheques for amounts of Rs 5,00,000 and above.
  • The National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) will develop the facility of Positive Pay in CTS, and make it available to participant banks. Hence statement 3 is correct.

What will be the new dispute redressal mechanism?

  • Only those cheques that are compliant with the new system will be accepted under the dispute resolution mechanism at the CTS grids. Member banks may implement similar arrangements for cheques cleared or collected outside CTS as well.
  • The RBI has already told banks to create adequate awareness among their customers on features of the Positive Pay System through SMS alerts, displays in branches, ATMs, as well as through their websites and Internet banking. The Positive Pay System will be implemented from January 1, 2021.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/positive-pay-system-bank-cheque-rs-50000-7111239/


Consider the following statements regarding Indian swellshark

  • It is a small deep-water catshark known from the coast of Kollam, Kerala and Sri Lanka
  • They are listed as Critically Endangered species in the IUCN Red List.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: 11% of Indian sharks, rays and chimaeras face high risk of extinction, finds IUCN assessment

  • A recent assessment of sharks, rays and chimaeras by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)’s Shark Specialist Group in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) has revealed that of the 170 species found across the oceans of the country, 19 (about 11%) are facing high risk of extinction
  • Of the 19 species that have been assessed as critically endangered, there are seven species of sharks, five species of guitar fishes, two sawfishes, four wedge fishes and one species of stingray, the Maculabatis arabica, a recently discovered species.
  • In the last assessment, only 3% sharks, rays and chimaeras were Critically Endangered (CE), which increased to 11% in 2020.
  • Similarly, for the Endangered (EN) category, the number of the species increased from 5% in 2014 to 18% in 2020.
  • Shark and rays numbers in Indian waters have fallen drastically in recent years due to target fishing (when a particular type of fish is targeted) and by-catch (other fish that get caught alongside).
  • Information on deep-water species is very limited even in India.
  • There is need for more accurate species-specific data for formulating a shark conservation policy to rebuild depleted shark populations for the benefit of the ecosystem and also the people that depend on them for livelihoods and food security.

About Indian swellshark

  • This Red List update, marks for the first time one deep-water Indian swellshark Cephaloscyllium silasi as critically endangered due to very limited geographic range, and population decline. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The Indian swellshark is a small deep-water catshark known from the coast of Kollam, Kerala and Sri Lanka, and also from the Andaman & Nicobar IslandsHence statement 2 is correct.
  • It occurs on the continental slope at depths of 100-500m.
  • The species is caught as incidental catch by intensive deep-water trawl fisheries.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/11-of-indian-sharks-rays-and-chimaeras-face-high-risk-of-extinction-finds-iucn-assessment/article33365569.ece#:~:text=A%20recent%20assessment%20of%20sharks,facing%20high%20risk%20of%20extinction.


Consider the following statements

  •  Aligarh Muslim University became a university in 1920 through an act of Indian legislative council by elevating the Mohammedian Anglo Oriental College to the status of a central university.
  •  Mohammedan Anglo College was setup in 1877 by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In News: PM to address Centenary Celebrations of AMU on 22 December

  •  AMU became a University in 1920, through an Act of Indian Legislative Council by elevating the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental (MAO) College to the status of a Central University. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  MAO College was set up in 1877 by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  The University campus is located in the city of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. It also has three off-campus centres in Malappuram (Kerala), Murshidabad-Jangipur (West Bengal) and Kishanganj (Bihar).

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1682135


Recently, Asokenagar I basin was an eighth oil producing basin of India to the nation, which is located in

  • Odisha
  • West Bengal
  • Bihar
  • Sikkim

Answer: b) West Bengal

Explanation:

In NEWS: Shri Dharmendra Pradhan dedicates the 8th producing Basin of India – Bengal Basin, to the nation

  •  NGC took a major step by commencing oil production from the well Asokenagar-1, Bengal Basin in 24 Paragana district. Hence option (b) is the correct answer
  •  The well Asoknagar-1 was completed as an oil producer under Early-Monetization Plan issued by Government of India.
  •  This makes ONGC having discovered and put to production seven out of the eight producing basins of India covering 83 percent of established oil & gas reserves.
  •  ONGC is India’s largest oil and gas producer contributing 72 percent of the country’s hydrocarbon production.
  •  The well Asokenagar-1 has heralded the end of painstaking search for hydrocarbons in the region by ONGC by sending its first hydrocarbon consignment produced during well testing to IOCL’s Haldia Oil Refinery done earlier on 5 November 2020.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1682161


Whom among the following is not a member of Anusilan Samiti ?

  •  Khudiram Bose
  •  Barindar kumar gosh
  •  Arabindo gosh
  •  Lal Bhadhur Shastri

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1 and 4 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 4 only

Answer: d) 4 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Who is Khudhiram Bose?

  •  Bose was born in 1889 at a small village in Midnapore district. One of the youngest leaders of the Independence movement, Bose is highly regarded in Bengal for his fearless spirit.
  •  In 1905, when Bengal was partitioned, he actively participated in protests against the British. At the age of 15, Bose joined the Anushilan Samiti, an early 20th century organisation that propounded revolutionary activities in Bengal.
  •  He is most remembered for his attempt to assassinate the British judge, Magistrate Douglas Kingsford, which ultimately led him to be sentenced to death at the young age of 18.
  •  Union Home Minister Amit Shah on Saturday visited the native village of Bengali revolutionary Khudiram Bose in Midnapore, West Bengal.
  •  Lal Bhahdur shashtri is not a member of Anushilan Samiti. Hence statement 4 is incorrect.

Source https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-who-was-khudiram-bose-7111682/


Consider the following statements

  •  The winter solstice is the day with the shortest period of daylight and longest night of the year, when the Sun is at its lowest daily maximum elevation in the sky.
  •  December 21 was the Winter Solstice, the shortest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere.
  •  It happens twice yearly, once in each hemisphere

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  •  1 and 2 only
  •  2 and 3 only
  •  1 and 3 only
  •  1, 2 and 3

Answer: d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In News: What is Winter Solstice, which made December 21 the shortest day of the year?

  • The Earth’s axis of rotation is tilted at an angle of 23.5 degrees away from the perpendicular. This tilt — combined with factors such as Earth’s spin and orbit — leads to variations in the duration of Sunlight that any location on the planet receives on different days of the year.
  • The winter solstice, hiemal solstice or hibernal solstice occurs when one of the Earth’s poles has its maximum tilt away from the Sun.
  • It happens twice yearly, once in each hemisphere (Northern and Southern). Hence statement 3 is correct.
  • For that hemisphere, the winter solstice is the day with the shortest period of daylight and longest night of the year, when the Sun is at its lowest daily maximum elevation in the sky. Its opposite is the summer solstice. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The winter solstice occurs during the hemisphere’s winter.
  • In the Northern Hemisphere, this is the December solstice (usually December 21 or 22) and in the Southern Hemisphere, this is the June solstice (usually June 20 or 21).
  • December 21 was Winter Solstice, the shortest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, conversely, December 21 was Summer Solstice, the year’s longest day. Hence statement 2 is correct.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-the-winter-solstice-which-made-dec-21-the-shortest-day-of-the-year-7113787/


Consider the following statements regarding ‘Status of Leopard in India 2018’ report

  • The population of leopard in India has increased by 60 per cent over the previous estimate which was conducted in 2014
  • The highest concentration of the leopard in India is estimated to be in North eastern India.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India’s leopard population increases by 60%, reaches 12,852: Govt report

  • The ‘Status of Leopard in India 2018’ report was released by Union environment minister Prakash Javadekar.
  • The population of leopard in India has increased by 60 per cent, according to a report. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • There are 12,852 leopards in India as of 2018 as compared to the previous estimate of 7910 conducted 2014, an increase of 60% in 4 years.
  • The highest concentration of the leopard in India is estimated to be in Madhya Pradesh (3,421) followed by Karnataka (1,783) and Maharashtra (1,690). Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
  • Recent meta-analyses of leopard status and distribution suggest 48–67% range loss for the species in Africa and 83–87% in Asia.
  • In India, leopards have experienced a possibly human-induced 75-90% population decline in the last ~120-200 years.
  • In Indian subcontinent poaching, habitat loss, depletion of natural prey and conflict are major threats to leopard populations. All these have resulted in changing the species status from ‘Near Threatened’ to ‘Vulnerable’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
  • As for region-wise distribution, the highest number of 8,071 leopards were found in central India and eastern ghats. In the northeast hills, there are just 141 leopards.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/india-s-leopard-population-increases-by-60-reaches-12-852-govt-report/story-Fl305wpjJ71nk9Cuer3duL.html


With reference to the food chains in ecosystems, which of the following kinds of organism is/are known as decomposer organism/organisms?

  • Virus
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

Most viruses need a living host organism-they are more like a parasite. Viruses reproduce by sticking their DNA into living cells and their DNA “takes over” the living cell and uses the living cells’ tools to replicate the virus’ DNA and make more viruses. Bacteria that are used in decomposition need the dead animals’ flesh for food. Hence Option (b) is correct


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