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Daily Prelims Test – 21_September 2020

Which of the following industries/sectors are comes under the Foreign direct investment in India?

  1. Petroleum Refining
  2. Core Investment Company
  3. Investment in Chit Funds
  4. Any Gambling or Betting businesses
  5. Food Products Retail Trading

Select the correct options from the given bow codes:

  1. 1,2, 3 and 5only
  2. 1,2 and 5 only
  3. 2,3 and 4 only
  4. 1,4 and 5 only

Answer: (b) 1,2 and 5 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: FDI limit in defence through automatic route raised to 74%

  • The Centre has raised the foreign direct investment (FDI) limit for the defence sector through the automatic route to 74 per cent from 49 per cent. The raised limits are for companies seeking new industrial licenses.
  • Now, FDI is allowed up to 74 per cent through automatic route and beyond 74 per cent through the government route.
  • Licence applications will be considered by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) in consultation with the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of External Affairs.

Routes through which India gets FDI

  • Automatic route: The non-resident or Indian company does not require prior nod of the RBI or government of India for FDI.
  • Govt route: The government’s approval is mandatory. 
  • Sectors which come under up to 100% Automatic Route’ category are
  • Infrastructure Company in the Securities Market: 49%
  • Insurance: up to 49%
  • Medical Devices:up to 100%
  • Pension: 49%
  • Petroleum Refining (By PSUs): 49%
  • Power Exchanges: 49%
  • Sectors which come under the ‘up to 100% Government Route’ category are
  • Banking & Public sector: 20%
  • Broadcasting Content Services: 49%
  • Core Investment Company: 100%
  • Food Products Retail Trading: 100%
  • Mining & Minerals separations of titanium bearing minerals and ores: 100%
  • Multi-Brand Retail Trading: 51%
  • Print Media (publications/ printing of scientific and technical magazines/ specialty journals/ periodicals and facsimile edition of foreign newspapers): 100%
  • Print Media (publishing of newspaper, periodicals and Indian editions of foreign magazines dealing with news & current affairs): 26%
  • Satellite (Establishment and operations): 100%

There are a few industries where FDI is strictly prohibited under any route. These industries are

  • Atomic Energy Generation
  • Any Gambling or Betting businesses
  • Lotteries (online, private, government, etc)
  • Investment in Chit Funds
  • Nidhi Company
  • Agricultural or Plantation Activities (although there are many exceptions like horticulture, fisheries, tea plantations, Pisciculture, animal husbandry, etc)
  • Housing and Real Estate (except townships, commercial projects, etc)
  • Trading in TDR’s
  • Cigars, Cigarettes, or any related tobacco industry. Hence option (b) is correct

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/policy/fdi-limit-in-defence-through-automatic-route-raised-to-74/article32637220.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Komodo dragon

  1. It is the largest living species of lizard and is mostly found in the Indonesian islands
  2. They are listed as a critically endangered by the IUCN

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Komodo dragons could become extinct soon due to climate change

  • The Komodo dragon, the world’s largest lizard, could become extinct in the next few decades due to climate change unless measures are taken to change the status quo
  • The study used models to predict that the dragon could become extinct on three of the five island habitats where it is currently found
  • Climate change was likely to cause a sharp decline in the availability of habitat for Komodo dragons, reducing their populations

About Komodo dragon

  • It is the largest living species of lizardfound in the Indonesian Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It has been claimed that they have a venomous bite
  • Komodo dragons hunt and prey including invertebrates, birds, and mammals.
  • They are listed as vulnerable by the IUCN. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/global-eco-watch-komodo-dragons-could-become-extinct-soon-due-to-climate-change-73460


Consider the following statements regarding the Sandalwood in india

  1. It is distributed all over the country and more than 90% lies in Andhra pradesh and Kerala
  2. It’s IUCN Red List status is vulnerable species

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Sandalwood trees chopped and stolen in Karnataka taluk

  • Thieves chopped off and fled with the wood of a number of sandalwood trees in Aurad taluk of Karnataka’s Bidar district
  • On September 10, smugglers had chopped 150 sandalwood trees belonging to a farmer in a village in Shivamogga district and had fled with the wood.

About Sandalwood

  • It is highly valuable and becoming endangered species. It is distributed all over the country and more than 90% lies in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu covering 8300 sq kms. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Sandalwood plays an important role in the religious life of Indians. The essential oil obtained from this wood has occupied significant place in perfumery industries/market.
  • Santalum album occurs from coastal dry forests up to 700 m elevation. It normally grows in sandy or stony red soils, but a wide range of soil types are inhabited.
  • Santalum album is an evergreen tree. It can grow to a height of 20 m and attain a girth of over 1.5 m.
  • album, commonly known as Indian Sandalwood, is a dry deciduous forest species native to China, India, Indonesia, Australia, and the Philippines.
  • It’s IUCN Red List status is vulnerable species. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/global-eco-watch-komodo-dragons-could-become-extinct-soon-due-to-climate-change-73460


Consider the following statements regarding the Swaraj Portal/App

  1. It is one single interface on which the details will be listed panchayat wise
  2. It will provide records of work from planning to the implementation in every village panchayat under Gram Panchayati Development Plan

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: E-Gram Swaraj Portal

  • With a vision to strengthen digitalization in Panchayats for the purpose of empowering rural India, a unified tool e-Gram SWARAJ portal (https://egramswaraj.gov.in/) has been developed by the Ministry for effective monitoring and evaluation of works taken up in the Gram Panchayats.
  • e-Gram SWARAJ unifies the planning, accounting and monitoring functions of Gram Panchayats. 

What is Gram Swaraj Portal/App?

  • The egramswaraj.gov.in portal is one single interface on which the details will be listed panchayat wise. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The platform will provide records of work from planning to the implementation in every village panchayat under Gram Panchayati Development Plan (GPDP). Hence statement 2 is correct

What is the benefit of Gram Swaraj Portal/App?

  • Monitoring and recording all the work via Gram Swaraj Portal/App will help speed-up the implementation of projects in village areas.
  • As it will contain the details of ongoing development works and the fund allocated for the projects, one can access and know about the groundwork.
  • All the details related to Panchayat Sachiv and Panch can be viewed on Gram Swaraj Portal.
  • The works of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj will be accessible through Gram Swaraj Portal.
  • The Gram Swaraj Portal and application will provide a boost in transparency by decentralized planning of development projects, with progress reports updates and increased accountability.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1656950


Recently, which of the following gas is prohibited in ripening of fruits under the Food Safety and Standards (Prohibition and Restriction on Sales) Regulations, 2011 by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare?

  1. Carbide Gas
  2. Phosphine Gas
  3. Hydrogen Gas
  4. Argon Gas

Answer: (a) Carbide Gas

Explanation:

In NEWS: Use of Chemicals and Pesticides for Ripening of Fruits

  • As per the information provided by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; sub-regulation 2.3.5 of Food Safety and Standards (Prohibition and Restriction on Sales) Regulations, 2011 is related to “Prohibition of use of Calcium Carbide in ripening of fruits”.
  • According to this sub regulation, “No person shall sell or offer or expose for sale or have in his premises for the purpose of sale under any description, fruits which have been artificially ripened by use of acetylene gas, commonly known as carbide gas. Hence option (a) is correct
  • However, ripening of fruits by using ethylene gas at a concentration upto 100 ppm (100µ/L) depending upon the crop, variety and maturity has been permitted. 
  • Ethylene is a safer alternative. It is also produced in the fruits naturally to stimulate their ripening in a natural way. 

What are the Health problems caused by Calcium Carbide?

  • Calcium Carbide is a colourless chemical or greyish white to black in colour. It is cheap and easily available chemical.
  • Acetylene is believed to affect the nervous system by reducing oxygen supply to brain. Calcium carbide, once dissolved in water, produces acetylene which acts as an artificial ripening agent.
  • It breaks down the organic composition of vitamins and other Micronutrients.
  • Industrial-grade calcium carbide usually contains traces of arsenic and Phosphorus.
  • It causes Vomiting, Diarrhoea, Weakness, Burning Sensation in the chest and abdomen, thirst, problem in swallowing, burning of eyes, permanent eye damage, ulcers on the skin, mouth, nose and throat.
  • It damages the mucosal tissuein the stomach and disrupts the intestinal function. If a person is exposed to the chemicals for a long time, they can cause Peptic Ulcers.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1656141


Consider the following statements regarding Emergency Response Support System

  1. It is an initiative of ministry of health and welfare on the recommendations of the Justice Verma Committee.
  2. It is a Pan-India single number (112) based emergency response system for citizens in emergencies.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: SoS Safety App for Women

  • The Government has launched the 112 Emergency Response Support System (ERSS), which provides for a single number (112) based assistance in emergencies to women in distress. ERSS can be accessed through 112 India Mobile App from any smart phone.

About Emergency Response Support System (ERSS):

  • An initiative of Union Ministry of Home Affairs on the recommendations of the Justice Verma Committee. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Emergency Response Support System (ERSS) is one of the key projects under the Nirbhaya funds scheme for ensuring safety of women and children.
  • ERSS is a Pan-India single number (112) based emergency response system for citizens in emergenciesHence statement 2 is correct
  • ERSS is designed to address all emergency signals received from citizens through voice call, SMS, e-mail, panic SOS signal, ERSS web portal etc.
  • Himachal Pradesh is the first state to launch the single emergency number ‘112’ under the ERSS project.

Objectives:

  • Providing a single emergency response number across the country.
  • Providing 24 Hours and 7 Days (24×7) efficient and effective response system.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1656247


Consider the following statements with respect to No-confidence motion

  1. B. Kripalani moved the first-ever no-confidence motion in August 1963 against the Nehru government after the India-China war.
  2. Motion of No-confidence can be moved only in Lok Sabha.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Naidu rejects no-confidence motion against Harivansh

On Sunday, as many as 100 members from 12 opposition parties moved a no-confidence motion against the deputy chairperson soon after the House passed two key bills aimed at ushering in agricultural reforms

About No-confidence motion

  • No-confidence motion can be moved only in Lok Sabha {or state assembly as the case may be}. It is not allowed in Rajya Sabha {or state legislative council}. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is moved against the entire Council of Ministers and not individual ministers or private members.
  • It needs support of at least 50 members when introduced in Lok Sabha.
  • Process of no-confidence motion is mentioned under Rule 198 of the Rules of Procedure and conduct of Lok Sabha. 
  • The motion has to be passed by simple majority. If passed, the Union Council of Ministers has to resign and government at centre falls. There is no impact on health of the government if such motion is not passed.
  • B. Kripalani moved the first-ever no-confidence motion in August 1963 against the Nehru government after the India-China war. Hence statement 1 is correct

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/parliament-monsoon-session-naidu-rejects-no-confidence-motion-against-harivansh/story-cOU9egTnSeaArGXXLGYXmM.html


Which of the following statements is/are correct with respect to Trami Tradition?

  1. It is the Kashmir Valley’s centuries-old culinary tradition.
  2. It is a hindustani music format
  3. It refers to colorful motifs done by hands in Tamil Nadu.
  4. It is a traditional cloth-based scroll painting from Odisha

Answer: (a) It is the Kashmir Valley’s centuries-old culinary tradition.

Explanation:

In NEWS: Pandemic puts on hold age­old Kashmiri tradition

The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic, which is wreaking havoc the world over, has hit the Kashmir Valley’s centuries-old culinary tradition

About Trami Tradition

  • Trami Tradition is the Kashmir Valley’s centuries-old culinary tradition. Hence option (a) is correct
  • It involves eating together from one plate during weddings.
  • In trami four guests join in simultaneously to have their portion of food from around a circular 2X2 feet decorated copper plate.
  • The tradition sees people sitting around and eating from one plate irrespective of their class and caste. It symbolised brotherhood and sharing.
  • But due to COVID-19 the Kashmiris have learnt to adapt to the situation and have replaced the Trami tradition with individual copper utensils in the weddings.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/pandemic-puts-on-hold-kashmiri-wedding-tradition-of-eating-together-from-one-plate/article32655494.ece


Consider the following statements with respect to Financial Intelligence Unit-India

  1. It is the central national agency responsible for receiving, processing, analyzing and disseminating information relating to suspect financial transactions.
  2. It was set up in 2004 under the Ministry of Finance

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Swiss Leaks, Panama Papers, now SARs: bank reports that alert law-enforcement agencies

  • The FinCEN Files refer to a set of over 2,100 “Suspicious Activity Reports” (SARs) (see next question) filed by banks with the United States Department of the Treasury’s Financial Crime Enforcement Network, the agency that serves as the leading global regulator in the battle against money laundering.
  • The Financial Intelligence Unit-India (FIU-IND) performs the same functions as FinCEN in the US

About Financial Intelligence Unit-India

  • In India, Financial Intelligence Unit-India (FIU-IND) performs similar functions as those of the Financial Crime Enforcement Network.
  • FIU-IND is the central national agency responsible for receiving, processing, analyzing and disseminating information relating to suspect financial transactions. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It was set up in 2004 under the Ministry of Finance. The body reports to the Economic Intelligence Council (EIC) headed by the Finance Minister. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is also responsible for coordinating and strengthening efforts of national and international intelligence, investigation and enforcement agencies in pursuing the global efforts against money laundering and financing of terrorism.
  • Collection of Information: Act as the central reception point for receiving Cash Transaction reports (CTRs), Non-Profit Organisation Transaction Report(NTRs), Cross Border Wire Transfer Reports (CBWTRs), Reports on Purchase or Sale of Immovable Property (IPRs) and Suspicious Transaction Reports (STRs) from various reporting entities.
  • Analysis of Information: Analyze received information in order to uncover patterns of transactions suggesting suspicion of money laundering and related crimes.
  • Sharing of Information: Share information with national intelligence/law enforcement agencies, national regulatory authorities and foreign Financial Intelligence Units.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/fincen-files-swiss-leaks-panama-papers-now-sars-bank-reports-that-alert-law-enforcement-agencies-6603949/


Broad-based Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA)’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of negotiations held between India and

  1. European Union
  2. Gulf Cooperation Council
  3. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
  4. Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Answer: (a) European Union

Explanation:

The FTA talks with EU have been deadlocked since 2013 after 16 rounds of negotiations. Last year EU raised its concern over what it called India’s “unilateral termination” of existing Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) with “a significant number of” EU member countries. Hence option (a) is correct