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Daily Prelims Test – 21_October 2020

.Consider the following statements regarding Bharatmala pariyojana

  1. It is an ambitious road development initiative under the Ministry of RoadTransport and Highways
  2. It has been envisaged as an umbrella program that will subsume unfinished projects of National Highways Development Project

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Gadkari lays foundation stone of first multi-modal logistic park in Assam

  • Gadkari said his Ministry has envisaged developing 35 Multi-modal Logistic Parks (MMLPs) in the country and work on preparing DPR (detailed project report) and feasibility report is underway
  • This multi-modal park will serve as a growth engine for Assam’s economic development. It would provide direct and indirect employment to about 20 lakh people
  • The park is being developed under the ambitious bharatmala pariyojana.
  • The Government of India defines multi modal Logistic Park as a freight handling facility encompassing a minimum area of hundred acres.

About Bharatmala Pariyojana

  • Bharat Mala Project is an ambitious road development initiative under the Ministry of Road Transport and HighwaysHence statement 1 is correct
  • It has been envisaged as an umbrella program that will subsume unfinished projects of National Highways Development Project (NHDP) launched in 1998and also focus on new initiatives like development of roads for better connectivity. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It was approved by the Union Cabinet on October 25, 2017.
  • The project will expand approximately 83,000 km of roads at an investment of Rs 6.9 lakh crore by 2022.
  • It includes economic corridors of around 9,000 km, inter-corridor and feeder roots of around 6,000 km, 5,000 km roads under the National Corridors Efficiency Program, border and international connectivity roads of around 2,000 km, coastal and port connectivity roads of around 2,000 km, expressways of around 800 km and 10,000 km of balance NHDP roads.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/gadkari-lays-foundation-stone-of-first-multi-modal-logistic-park-in-assam-120102000891_1.html


Consider the following statements regarding the report Indian Tourist Statistics

  1. Tamilnadu attracted the highest number of domestic tourists in the country in 2019
  2. According to the report, the top five source countries of tourists were Bangladesh, United States, United Kingdom, Sri Lanka and Canada.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: UP pips Tamil Nadu to become most-preferred state for domestic tourists

  • The Ministry of Tourism recently released the Indian Tourist Statistics
  • The Indian Tourism Statistics (ITS), 2020, has announced that as many as 53.6 crore domestic tourists visited Uttar Pradesh in 2019 which was much higher as compared to 2018 when the state had got the second position after Tamil Nadu. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Uttar Pradesh attracted the highest number of domestic tourists in the country in 2019 with a share of 23.1% travellers visiting the state.
  • Uttar Pradesh also secured the third position in attracting foreign tourists with a record footfall of nearly 47 lakh foreigners visiting last year.
  • The list, however, was topped by Tamil Nadu with nearly 68 lakh foreigners visiting last year. Surprisingly, Goa came last on the list with over 9 lakh foreign tourist visits in 2019.
  • The top five source countries of tourists were Bangladesh, United States, United Kingdom, Sri Lanka and Canada. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The total foreign exchange value due to tourism in 2019 was 29 billion USD.
  • The peak tourism season of India are the first and fourth quarters of a calendar.
  • Gender wise distribution: of the foreign tourists arriving India, 58.6% males and 41.4 percent were females.
  • As per the sources in the tourism department, the inflow of tourists increased in Ayodhya after November when the Supreme Court of India delivered the historic verdict on the Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid dispute. The footfall saw a further upswing after August 5 ‘Bhoomi Pujan’ attended by PM Narendra Modi

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2020/oct/20/up-pips-tamil-nadu-to-become-most-preferred-statefor-domestic-tourists-2212767.html


.Aldabra coral reefs are located in which of the following region?

  1. Indian Ocean
  2. Atlantic Ocean
  3. Pacific Ocean
  4. Sea of Japan

Answer: (a) Indian Ocean

Explanation:

In NEWS: Aldabra’s coral reefs recovered faster from bleaching, finds new research

  • Lagoonal reefs recovered their pre-bleaching coral cover and community composition within only 4 years after bleaching, the study found
  • Climate change is the greatest threat to coral reef ecosystems. Ocean warming and associated coral bleaching are one of the foremost causes of coral loss across the world.
  • Coral reefs in the lagoon of the Seychelles’ Aldabra atoll, however, recovered faster after the 2015-2016 bleaching event due to tolerance to heat stress

About Bleaching

  • Bleaching is a process where corals lose their vivid colour and turn white. This happens when the zooxanthellae algae, which is in a symbiotic relationship with corals and provide them with food, die due to ocean warming and acidification.
  • If bleaching continues for an extended period of time, corals eventually die. Coral bleaching and mortality exacerbated by climate change are one of the biggest threats to oceanic biodiversity.

About Aldabra

  • Aldabra — one of the world’s largest atolls — is a UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) World Heritage Site in Seychelles and located in the Indian Ocean. Hence option (a) is correct
  • It comprises four main islands of coral limestone separated by narrow sea passages and encloses a large shallow lagoon. It is home to a population of endemic giant Aldabra tortoises, which fluctuate to around 100,000 more than the 95,000 population of Seychelles.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/aldabra-s-coral-reefs-recovered-faster-from-bleaching-finds-new-research-73866


Consider the following statements regarding Heavy metals

  1. It refers to naturally occurring elements with high atomic number, high atomic weight and density greater than 5.0 g/cm3.
  2. The Source of heavy metals are mining, milling, plating and surface finishing industries.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Heavy metals emerging as potential threat to public health on urban beaches: Study

  • A study on the health of urbanised tourist beaches along the southeastern coastline of India has revealed that many of these popular beaches are now facing the threat of different types of environmental pollution, of which, heavy metal pollution from both natural and anthropogenic sources is emerging as one of the potential threats.
  • A team of researchers led by the National Center for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR) conducted a study around three popular urban beaches in Tamil Nadu,namely the Marina Beach, Edward Elliott Beach and, Silver Beach.
  • The term ‘heavy metals’ usually refers to naturally occurring elements with a density greater than 5.0 g cm-3. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Toxic heavy metals such as nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) have the potential to cause serious marine ecosystem problems due to their persistent nature in the environment, toxicity and ability to enter the food chain.
  • Source of heavy metals: Mining, milling, plating and surface finishing industries. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • When the heavy metals in water enter aquatic organisms, they are not easily decomposed and not eliminated from the bodies of the aquatic animals. They accumulate in the different organs of the aquatic animals like the liver, spleen, kidney, and viscera, etc.
  • Heavy metal pollution of aquatic environment can be detrimental to human health also as people consuming contaminated seafoods would be suffering from the same ill effects of toxic heavy metals. This can lead to the damage of the multiple organs causing diseases or even death.
  • In the study conducted by the scientists in Tamil Nadu covering three prominent urban beaches, it was found that Ni, Co, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Cd posed a lower ecological risk than Pb (Lead) at all the three locations. Pb was found to be present in the sediments with a moderate level of ecological risk.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/pollution/heavy-metals-emerging-as-potential-threat-to-public-health-on-urban-beaches-study-73863


Consider the following statements regarding Diatoms

  1. They are double-celled algae
  2. They are commonly found in streams, rivers, lakes and seas.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Seven new species of diatoms discovered from Western Ghats

  • SEVEN new species of sub-aerial diatoms, a kind of single celled algae, have been discovered from some areas of Western Ghats by city-based scientists from the Agharkar Research Institute. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Diatoms, which generate nearly 25 per cent of global oxygen, are commonly found in streams, rivers, lakes and seas. In simple terms, every fourth breath that we take is produced by diatoms, which are efficient in the carbon fixation process. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Diatoms have light-absorbing molecules (chlorophylls a and c) that collect energy from the sun and turn it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.
  • Diatoms are algae that live in houses made of glass. They are the only organism on the planet with cell walls composed of transparent, opaline silica.
  • Across the world, there are 200 known species under this genus. Of these, about 20 per cent is endemic to Antarctica.
  • This is the first time in two centuries that a discovery of Luticola peguana, found during the 1800s in Bengal, has been found in the Western Ghats.
  • Diatoms produce long-chain fatty acids. Diatoms are an important source of these energy rich molecules that are food for the entire food web, from zooplankton to aquatic insects to fish to whales.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/seven-new-species-of-diatoms-discovered-from-western-ghats-6809893/


Consider the following statements regarding Stand-off Anti-tank (SANT) Missile

  1. It is a surface-to-surface missile developed by DRDO
  2. It has the capability of lock-on before launch and lock-on after launch.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: SANT missile successfully test-fired: Its Lock-On capabilities explained

  • India has successfully test-fired its Stand-off Anti-tank (SANT) missile off the coast of Odisha. The SANT missile is being developed by the DRDO’s research centre, Imarat, in collaboration with the Indian Air Force.
  • It is an air-to-surface missile developed by DRDO for the Indian Air Force.Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It is, reportedly, an upgrade on India’s Helina missile believed to have a range of 7 to 8km. The new missile is said to have a range of between 15 and 20km and comes equipped with a nose-mounted active radar seeker, enabling the launch platform to be located at a safe distance from the target area.
  • It has both lock-on before launch and lock-on after launch capability. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The missile will be inducted after a series of tests from the actual launch platform on-board light combat helicopters and advanced light helicopters.

DRDO’s Nag range Missiles

  • The DRDO has successfully developed several anti-tank missiles in its ‘Nag’ range. The range of a Nag missile could lie anywhere between 500m and 20km depending on its launch type. These weapons have a top speed of approximately 230 meters per second (828 km/hour).
  • The land version of the DRDO’s Nag missile is the Prospina, meant for infantry, and launched via a tracking and launch carrier called NAMICA (Nag Missile Carrier). The system can be mounted on the light infantry vehicle, BMP-2 capable of carrying up to six missiles. Each NAMICA can deploy four missiles in a single minute.
  • Helina missile
  • It is the helicopter-launched version in the Nag range and has an extended range. Its launch system is fitted on to the HAL’s Rudra helicopter via the Rudrasta twin-launcher system. It can also be mounted on the HAL’s Light Combat helicopters.

Source: https://www.timesnownews.com/india/article/sant-missile-successfully-test-fired-its-lock-on-capabilities-explained/670122


Consider the following statements regarding Safety of Life at Sea

  1. It is an international maritime treaty which sets minimum safety standards in the construction, equipment and operation of merchant ships
  2. The first version of SOLAS Treaty was passed in 1914 in response to the sinking of the RMS Titanic

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Shipping Minister Mansukh Mandaviya launches indigenous software solution for vessel traffic

  • VTS and VTMS is a software which determines vessel positions, position of other traffic or meteorological hazard warnings.
  • Presently, India has approximately 15 VTS systems operational along the Indian Coast and there is no uniformity of VTS software as each system has its own VTS software.
  • VTS and VTMS is a software which determines vessel positions, position of other traffic or meteorological hazard warnings and extensive management of traffic within a port or waterway.
  • VTS contributes to safety of life at sea, safety and efficiency of navigation and protection of the marine environment, adjacent shore areas, work sites and offshore installations from possible adverse effects of maritime traffic.
  • VTMS is mandatory under IMO Convention SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea).
  • The VTMS traffic image is compiled and collected by means of advanced sensors such as radar, direction finding, CCTV and other co-operative systems and services.

About Safety of Life at Sea

  • The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) is an international maritime treaty which sets minimum safety standards in the construction, equipment and operation of merchant ships. The convention requires signatory flag states to ensure that ships flagged by them comply with at least these standards. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The current version of SOLAS is the 1974 version, known as SOLAS 1974, which came into force on 25 May 1980
  • SOLAS 1974 requires flag states to ensure that ships flagged by them comply with the minimum safety standards in the construction, equipment and operation of merchant ships.
  • The first version of SOLAS Treaty was passed in 1914 in response to the sinking of the RMS Titanic, which prescribed numbers of lifeboats and other emergency equipment along with safety procedures, including continuous radio watches. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/business/2020/oct/20/shipping-minister-mansukh-mandaviya-launches-indigenous-software-solution-for-vessel-traffic-2212782.html


Sometimes the term Nazca Lines often seen in news, is located in which of the following country?

  1. Brazil
  2. Argentina
  3. Colombia
  4. Peru

Answer: (d) Peru

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: The giant cat drawing at a UNESCO World Heritage site in Peru

  • Peru’s famous Nazca Lines, a UNESCO World Heritage Site known for its depictions of larger-than-life animals, plants and imaginary beings, grabbed the spotlight on social media recently after the discovery of a hitherto unknown massive carving –– that of a resting cat on the slope of a steep hill. Hence option (d) is correct

What are the Nazca Lines?

  • Nazca Lines are a group of geoglyphs, or large designs made on the ground by creators using elements of the landscape such as stones, gravel, dirt or lumber.
  • They were created between 500 BCE and 500 CE by people making depressions or shallow incisions in the desert floor, removing pebbles and leaving differently coloured dirt exposed.
  • The figures include pelicans (the largest ones sized around 935 feet long), Andean Condors (443 feet), monkeys (360 feet), hummingbirds (165 feet), and spiders (150 feet).
  • There are also geometric shapes, such as triangles, trapezoids and spirals, and some have been associated with astronomical functions.
  • The Lines were first discovered in 1927, and were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1994. The site is around 450 km away from capital Lima southwards along the South Pan-American Highway.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/cat-geoglyph-peru-nazca-lines-6813164/


Consider the following statements regarding Kaleshwaram project

  1. It is the world’s largest multi-stage lift irrigation project.
  2. It is located in Andhra Pradesh

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Environmental clearance to Kaleshwaram given in violation of law: NGT

  • The National Green Tribunal (NGT) on Tuesday held that environmental clearance was granted to the Kaleshwaram lift irrigation project in Telangana “ex post facto” in violation of legal requirement, and formed a committee to assess the extent of damage caused and identify the restoration measures.
  • The green panel directed the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) to constitute a seven-member expert committee and suggest relief and rehabilitation measures to be adopted

About Kaleshwaram lift irrigation project

  • This project is an off-shoot of the original Pranahitha-Chevella Lift Irrigation Scheme taken up by the Congress government in 2007 when Andhra Pradesh was not divided.
  • After the formation of Telangana in 2014, the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) government redesigned the project on the ground that the original plan had too many environmental obstacles and had very low water storage provision. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • Currently the world’s largest multi-stage lift irrigation project, its farthest upstream influence is at the confluence of the Pranhita and Godavari rivers. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • With the help of highly advanced Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) survey and study of flows in Godavari at different locations, the government separated the original project into two projects- Pranahitha project and Kaleshwaram project.
  • The main target of this project is to harness the flood waters of the Godavari River so that Telangana can be made drought-proof.
  • Under this project, water of the Godavari will be tapped by reverse pumping and storage which would raise the water level in the whole state and that will lead to refill thousands of tanks, providing water for industries and supplying drinking water to Hyderabad and Secunderabad by creating a series of storage tanks and a network of pipelines.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/telangana/kaleshwaram-irrigation-project-got-environmental-clearance-ex-post-facto-in-violation-of-law-ngt/article32899527.ece


Which of the following statements correctly explain the impact of Industrial Revolution on India during the first half of the nineteenth century?

  1. Indian handicrafts were ruined.
  2. Machines were introduced in the Indian textile industry in large numbers.
  3. Railway lines were laid in many parts of the country
  4. Heavy duties were imposed on the imports of British manufactures

Answer: (a) Indian handicrafts were ruined.

Explanation:

By the 1850s, reports from most weaving regions of India narrated stories of decline and desolation. Hence option (a) is correct