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Daily Prelims Test – 21_June

1.Consider the following statements regarding Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and financing of terrorism

  • Currently, it is an associate member of the Financial Action Task Force
  • India is a founding member of this group

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: FATF: Indian officials attend virtual EAG plenary meet

  • Indian officials, including representatives from enforcement agencies, attended the virtual 32nd special Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism (EAG) plenary meeting, under the aegis of the Financial Action Task Force.
  • Pakistan, which continues to remain on the “grey list” of FATF, had earlier been given the deadline till the June plenary to ensure compliance with the 27-point action plan against terror funding networks and money laundering syndicates, or face “black listing”.
  • The FATF also decided “on a general pause in the review process for the list of high-risk jurisdictions subject to a call for action and jurisdictions subject to increased monitoring, by granting jurisdictions an additional four months for deadlines”

About EAG

  • The Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and financing of terrorism is an FATF-style regional body. The EAG was established in 2004 and is currently an associate member of the FATF. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The founding conference was held in Moscow on October 6, 2004 and was attended by six founding countries: Belarus, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan.In 2005 and 2010 the group was expanded to include Uzbekistan (2005), Turkmenistan (2010) and India (2010) which previously had observer status. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The Agreement on the Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism was signed in Moscow in June 2011, granting the EAG the status of a regional intergovernmental organization.
  • Today the EAG brings together nine countries in the region (Belarus, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Observer status has been granted to 15 countries and 23 international organizations.
  • The primary goal of the EAG is to ensure effective interaction and cooperation at the regional level and integration of EAG member-states into the international system of anti-money laundering and combating financing of terrorism in accordance with the Recommendations of the FATF and the anti-money laundering and combating financing of terrorism standards of other international organizations, to which EAG member-states are party.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/fatf-indian-officials-attend-virtual-eag-plenary-meet/article31871464.ece

2.Consider the following statements regardingFinancial Action Task Force (FATF)

  • It is an inter-governmental body established for combating money laundering and terrorist financing
  • It is located at the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) headquarters in Paris

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: FATF: Indian officials attend virtual EAG plenary meet

  • The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is the global money laundering and terrorist financing watchdog. The inter-governmental body sets internationalstandards that aim to prevent these illegal activities and the harm they cause to society. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • As a policy-making body, the FATF works to generate the necessary political will to bring about national legislative and regulatory reforms in these areas.
  • The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) was established in July 1989 by a Group of Seven (G-7) Summit in Paris, initially to examine and develop measures to combat money laundering.
  • It is located at the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) headquarters in Paris. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The objectives of the FATF are to set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system.
  • The FATF currently comprises 37 member jurisdictions and 2 regional organisations, representing most major financial centres in all parts of the globe.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/fatf-indian-officials-attend-virtual-eag-plenary-meet/article31871464.ece

3.Consider the following statements regarding SATYABHAMA Portal

  • It has been designed, developed and will be implemented by the National Informatics Centre
  • It aims to promote research and development in the mining and minerals sector

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Shri Pralhad Joshi launches R&D Portal for AatmaNirbhar Bharat in Mining Advancement

  • The mines ministry on Friday announced the launch of a portal “SATYABHAMA” with an aim to promote research and development in the mining and minerals sector.
  • The minister appealed to the scientists and researchers in the mining and mineral sector to undertake qualitative and innovative research and development work for ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • This portal will allow online submission of project proposals along with monitoring of the same and utilisation of funds.
  • The portal has been designed, developed and implemented by National Informatics Centre (NIC). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The portal is integrated with NGO Darpan Portal of NITI Aayog.
  • The portal will increase efficiency and effectiveness in the implementation of the scheme.
  • The major institutes where research projects have been funded include Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru and Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1632668

4.Consider the following statements regardingGlobal Status Report on Preventing Violence Against Children 2020

  • It is published by the World Health Organization, UNICEF and UNESCO
  • It is a first of its kind report charting progress in 155 countries against the “INSPIRE” framework

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: One billion children experience violence every year as countries fail to protect them: UN report

  • Half of the world’s children — one billion every year — are affected by physical, sexual or psychological violence, suffering injuries and death because countries have failed to follow established strategies to protect them, the first report of its kind from the UN has said
  • This COVID-19 lockdowns have made the situation worsen which have left far too many youngsters stuck with their abusers.
  • The report has been launched by the World Health Organisation (WHO), the UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the UN Special Representativeof the Secretary-General on Violence against Children and the End Violence Against Children. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It charted progress in 155 countries against the “INSPIRE” framework, a set of seven strategies for preventing and responding to violence against Hence statement 2 is correct

Global status:

  • It is estimated that one out of two children aged 2–17 years suffer some form of violence each year.
  • Close to 300 million children aged 2–4 years regularly experience violent discipline by their caregivers.
  • A third of students aged 11–15 years worldwide have been bullied by their peers in the past month, and 120 million girls are estimated to have suffered some form of forced sexual contact before the age of 20 years.
  • Emotional violence affects one in three children.
  • Estimated 40,150 children worldwide were victims of homicide in the year 2017.  The global homicide rate for 0–17 year olds was 1.7 per 100 000 population, and the rate for boys of 2.4 per 100 000 was over twice that in girls (1.1 per 100 000 population)

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/one-billion-children-experience-violence-every-year-as-countries-fail-to-protect-them-un-report/article31867637.ece

5.What is the aim of INSPIRE Framework?

  • It aims to connect national academic and R&D institutions with a supercomputing grid of over 70 high-performance computing facilities
  • It is a set of seven strategies for preventing and responding to violence against children.
  • It is an initiative to prevent exploitation and to protect Indian traditional knowledge from wrongful patents mainly at International Patent Offices
  • It aims to focus on skilling women engineering graduates in the niche field of Cyber Security.

Answer: (b) It is a set of seven strategies for preventing and responding to violence against children.

Explanation:

In NEWS: One billion children experience violence every year as countries fail to protect them: UN report

  • INSPIRE is an evidence-based resource for anyone committed to preventing and responding to violence against children and adolescents. The document presents seven strategies to help countries and communities intensify their focus on prevention programs and services with the greatest potential to reduce violence against children.
  • It is a set of seven strategies for preventing and responding to violence against children. Hence option (b) is correct
  • The seven strategies are: implementation and enforcement of laws; norms and values; safe environments; parent and caregiver support; income and economic strengthening; response and support services; and education and life skills.
  • INSPIRE is a collaboration between organizations initiated by the World Health Organisation. The collaborating organizations are: the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), End Violence Against Children: The Global Partnership, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the President’s Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), Together for Girls, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the World Bank.

Source :  https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/one-billion-children-experience-violence-every-year-as-countries-fail-to-protect-them-un-report/article31867637.ece

6.Recently, the term TRAPPIST-1 is sometime seen in news,  is related to

  • It is an icy rock which orbits in the dark and frigid Kuiper Belt about a billion miles beyond Pluto
  • It is the largest airborne observatory in the world.
  • It is a telescope specially designed to detect X-ray emission
  • It is a system of seven Earth-size planets orbiting an ultra-cool dwarf star about 40 light-years away.

Answer: (d) It is a system of seven Earth-size planets orbiting an ultra-cool dwarf star about 40 light-years away.

Explanation:

In NEWS: Water worlds

Saturn’s moon Enceladus and Jupiter’s moon Europa are still interesting as candidates that may support life, because scientists have spotted water plumes bursting from their icy shells. A mathematical calculation by NASA scientists guesses that more than a quarter of the several dozen exoplanets they have analysed could be ‘water worlds’. This includes some members of the Trappist-1 system which is about forty light years away.

About Trappist-1 system

  • The seven Earth-sized planets (named TRAPPIST-1b, c, d, e, f, g and h) orbiting ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 were discovered by astronomers in February 2017. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The TRAPPIST-1 planetary system is 40 light-years away from Earth.
  • Its dwarf star Trappist-1 is at least 500 million years old and is marginally larger than Jupiter.
  • It has temperature of 2550K and shines with a feeble light about 2,000 times fainter than Earth’s sun.
  • All the planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system transit their star, meaning that they pass in front of it. The planets were discovered from the regular and repeated shadows that are cast during transit.

Source: TH

7.Consider the following statements regarding Convalescent plasma therapy

  • It aims at using antibodies from the blood of a recovered Covid-19 patient to treat those critically affected by the virus
  • It was first used during the 1918 Spanish Influenza outbreak.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Antibodies from convalescent plasma protect against COVID­19

  • Scripps Research Institute has discovered that neutralizing antibodies present in the blood of COVID­19 infected who have recovered off ers powerful protection against novel coronavirus in animals.
  • The researchers found that passive transfer of neutralising antibodies into Syrian hamsters protects them against the disease when exposed to the virus.

About Convalescent plasma therapy

  • The convalescent plasma therapy aims at using antibodies from the blood of a recovered Covid-19 patient to treat those critically affected by the virus. The therapy can also be used to immunise those at a high risk of contracting the virus — such as health workers, families of patients and other high-risk contacts. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The method ‘Convalescent Serum Therapy’ dates to 1918; when it was used during the outbreakof the Spanish Flu. After which it has been used in 2005 during the SARS epidemic. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The blood is taken from the recovered patient and the plasma is separated. It is then tested for the antibodies and then administered to Covis-19 patients who is critically ill.
  • The Convalescent plasma therapy was first used during the 1918 Spanish Influenza outbreak

Source: TH

8.Consider the following statements regarding Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

  • It is a non-profit body that administers domain names and Internet protocol addresses
  • It is headquartered in Los Angeles, California, United States

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Google Chrome in spying spot

  • A few days ago, Reuters reported a “newly discovered spyware effort” targetting users of Google’s browser Chrome.
  • They can take “screenshots, read the clipboard, harvest credential tokens stored in cookies or parameters, grab user keystrokes (like passwords)
  • A signifcant part of what we do on the computer these days is via the browser. Also, the research report points out that it has been a challenge for security solutions to spot malicious activity that is happening within the browser.
  • The Awake Security report ends with a question mark on the conduct and practices of a small Israel­based domain registrar called Galcomm, formally known as CommuniGal Communication Ltd according to Reuters. Its report says 60% of its domains are high risk for organisations.

About Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)

  • ICANN is private (non-government) non-profit corporation with responsibility of supervising domain names on internet. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It plays major monopolistic role in IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root server system management functions.
  • It was founded in 1998 and is headquartered in Los Angeles, California, United States. Hence statement 2 is correct

ICANN is responsible for

  • Coordination of global Internet’s systems of unique identifiers.
  • Ensuring stable and secure operation of internet.
  • Coordination of the Internet Protocol address spaces.
  • Assignment of address blocks to regional Internet registries, for maintaining registries of Internet protocol identifiers, and for management of top-level domain name space (DNS root zone), which includes operation of root name servers.
  • DNS policy development for internationalization of the DNS system.
  • Introduction of new generic top-level domains (TLDs).

Source: TH

9.Consider the following statements regarding

  • It is a UN Refugee Agency and a global organization dedicated to saving lives, protecting the rights and building a better future for refugees
  • It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Nearly 80 mln displaced globally by 2019-end, half of them children: UNHCR

  • Nearly 80 million people were displaced by the end of 2019 — that’s nearly 1 per cent of the global population. Half of those displaced were children, according to the the latest report by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
  • Of the 79.5 million, 26 million were cross-border refugees, 45.7 million were internally displaced people, 4.2 million were asylum seekers and 3.6 million were Venezuelans displaced abroad.
  • Persecution, conflict, violence, human rights violations or events seriously disturbing public order were the main reasons behind the forced displacements, according to the report
  • The number of refugees doubled from about 10 million in 2010 to 20.4 million at the end of 2019. Close to 53 per cent were newly displaced.
  • An estimated one per cent of humanity — 1 in every 97 people  — were affected by forced displacement in 2019, compared to 1 in every 159 people in 2010 and 1 in every 174 in 2005.

About United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR):

  • It is a UN Refugee Agency and a global organization dedicated to saving lives, protecting the rights and building a better future for refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It was created in 1950 to help millions of Europeans who had fled or lost their homes.
  • It is headquartered at Geneva, Switzerland.  Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/governance/nearly-80-mln-displaced-globally-by-2019-end-half-of-them-children-unhcr-71844

10.Consider the following statements:

  • Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) is the first regulatory body set up by the Government of India.
  • One of the tasks of PNGRB is to ensure competitive markets for gas.
  • Appeals against the decisions of PNGRB go before the Appellate Tribunals for Electricity.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is not correct: ThePetroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) was constituted under The Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006.
  • Statement 2 is correct: The Actprovide for the establishment of Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board to protect the interests of consumers and entities engaged in specified activities relating to petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas and to promote competitive markets and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • Statement 3 is correct: The Appellate Tribunal established under section 110 of the Electricity Act, 2003 (36 of 2003) is the Appellate Tribunal for the purposes of Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006.