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Daily Prelims Test – 21_December 2020

Sentinelese’ is a tribal group from which of the following states/union territories?

  • Andaman & Nicobar Islands
  • Chhattisgarh
  • Lakshadweep
  • Nagaland

Answer: (a) Andaman & Nicobar Islands

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘Any exploitation of Sentinel Island will wipe out tribals’

  • The Anthropological Survey of India (AnSI) has released a policy document for the Sentinelese island.
  • The policy document was prepared at the behest of the Andaman and Nicobar administration.
  • The North Sentinel Island of the Andamans consists of one of the most secluded tribal population in the name of Sentinelese.
  • The policy document released by the Anthropological Survey of India talks about the need to protect the rights of the Sentinelese.
  • The policy document highlights the need to develop a repository of the Sentinelese tribe, which could help in understanding the tribe better.

About Sentinelese

  • The Sentinelese, a negrito tribe who live on the North Sentinel Island of the Andamans, have not faced incursions and remain hostile to outsidersHence Option (a) is correct
  • The inhabitants are connected to the Jarawa on the basis of physical, as well as linguistic similarities.
  • Based on carbon dating of kitchen middens by the Anthropological Survey of India, Sentinelese presence was confirmed in the islands to 2,000 years ago.
  • Genome studies indicate that the Andaman tribes could have been on the islands even 30,000 years ago.
  • The Govt. of India issued the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Protection of Aboriginal Tribes) Regulation, 1956 to declare the traditional areas occupied by the tribes as reserves.
  • It prohibited entry of all persons except those with authorization.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/any-exploitation-of-sentinel-island-will-wipe-out-tribals/article33374892.ece


Which of the following options are the criteria for identifiaction of PVTGs?

  • Pre-agricultural level of technology
  • Low level of literacy
  • Economic backwardness
  • A declining or stagnant population.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1,2 and 3 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2,3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘Any exploitation of Sentinel Island will wipe out tribals’

  • PVTGs are more vulnerable among the tribal groups. Due to this factor, more developed and assertive tribal groups take a major chunk of the tribal development funds, because of which PVTGs need more funds directed for their development.
  • In 1973, the Dhebar Commission created Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) as a separate category, who are less developed among the tribal groups.
  • In 2006, the Government of India renamed the PTGs as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).
  • PVTGs have some basic characteristics -they are mostly homogenous, with a small population, relatively physically isolated, social institutes cast in a simple mould, absence of written language, relatively simple technology and a slower rate of change etc.
  • Accordingly 75 PTVGs have been identified in the country. 

Government of India follows the following criteria for identifiaction of PVTGs. Hence Option (d) is correct

  • Pre-agricultural level of technology
  • Low level of literacy
  • Economic backwardness
  • A declining or stagnant population.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/any-exploitation-of-sentinel-island-will-wipe-out-tribals/article33374892.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Himalayan trillium

  • It is a common herb of the Himalayas was declared ‘Critically endangered’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
  • It is found only in the Himalayan states of India.
  • They are often called as Nagchatri

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Overexploitation, long life cycle have endangered a common Himalayan herb

  • The Himalayan trillium (Trillium govanianum), a common herb of the Himalayas was declared ‘endangered’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) last week. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • In recent years, the plant has become one of the most traded commercial plants of the Himalayan region, due to its high medicinal quality.
  • It has been used in traditional medicine to cure diseases like dysentery, wounds, skin boils, inflammation, sepsis, as well as menstrual and sexual disorders.
  • Recent experiments have shown that the rhizome of the herb is a source of steroidal saponins and can be used as an anti-cancer and anti-aging agent. This increased its market value and has now become an easy target for poachers.
  • Found in temperate and sub-alpine zones of the Himalayas, at an altitude from 2,400-4,000 metres above sea level, the existence of the plant has been traced across India, Bhutan, Nepal, China, Afghanistan and Pakistan. In India, it is found in four states only- Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, and Uttarakhand. Often called Nagchatri, in local areas this herb grows to a height of 15-20 cm. Hence statements 2 and 3 are correct.

Factors that have threatened the survival

  • Over-exploitation
  • Long life cycle, implying slow to reach reproductive maturity.
  • Poor seed dispersal capacity.
  • High trade value.
  • Specific habitat requirement.
  • Increase in market demand.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/overexploitation-long-life-cycle-have-endangered-a-common-himalayan-herb/article33373173.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Yangtze giant softshell

  • It is listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List
  • It may be the largest living freshwater turtle in the world.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Hope floats for Yangtze giant softshell, world’s rarest turtle

  • The results of a genetic test carried out by the Hanoi Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, in collaboration with the Asian Turtle Program of Indo-Myanmar Conservation and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) have shown that a female turtle caught October 22, 2020, in Vietnam’s Dong Mo lake was a female Yangtze giant softshell turtle.
  • In April last year, Down To Earth (DTE) had reported that hopes for the revival of the species, the world’s rarest turtle, had been extinguished after the last remaining surviving female of the species died in eastern China’s Jiangsu province. Now though, the species might have an opportunity to survive.
  • Authorities believe there is at least one more of these turtles in Dong Mo lake and another in nearby Xuan Khanh Lake. Conservationists hope to capture and determine the sex of the other turtles in both Dong Mo and Xuan Khanh this coming spring
  • Ultimately, conservationists aim to ensure at least one male and female are given a chance to breed to ensure this species can return from the brink of extinction

About Yangtze giant softshell

  • It is also known as the Red River giant softshell turtle, Shanghai softshell turtle, and Swinhoe’s soft-shell turtle or speckled soft-shell turtle.
  • It is listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List. It may be the largest living freshwater turtle in the world. Hence statements 1 and 2 are correct.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/global-eco-watch-reliance-plans-largest-zoo-in-jamnagar-74709


Consider the following statements regarding Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant (FFEP)

  •  It is an Iranian underground uranium enrichment facility located 20 miles northeast of the Iranian city of Qom.
  •  It is the second Iranian uranium enrichment facility, the other one being that of Natanz.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In News: Iran builds at underground nuclear facility amid US tensions

  •  Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant (FFEP) is an Iranian underground uranium enrichment facility located 20 miles northeast of the Iranian city of Qom, near Fordow village. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  It is the second Iranian uranium enrichment facility, the other one being that of Natanz. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  Iran has not publicly acknowledged any new construction at Fordow, whose discovery by the West in 2009 came in an earlier round of brinkmanship before world powers struck the 2015 nuclear deal with Tehran.
  •  While the purpose of the building remains unclear, any work at Fordow will likely trigger new concern in the waning days of the Trump administration before the inauguration of U.S. President-elect Joe Biden.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/iran-builds-at-underground-nuclear-facility-amid-us-tensions/article33364878.ece


Recently, Gastrodia Agnicellus seen in the news, which is

  • Biodiesel
  • Ugliest orchid in the world
  • Anti malarial drug
  • None of the above

Answer: b) Ugliest orchid in the world

Explanation:

In NEWS: World’s ugliest orchid discovered in the forests of Madagascar

  •  Gastrodia agnicellus, a newly discovered orchid has been named “the ugliest orchid in the world.” Hence option (b) is the correct answer.
  •  Found in a forest in Madagascar, it feeds on fungi and has no leaves.
  •  Although assessed as a threatened species, the plants have some protection because they are located in a national park.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/it-s-viral/world-s-ugliest-orchid-discovered-in-the-forests-of-madagascar/story-VPBE6v0ZpCipRo2tItTOcI.html


Consider the following statements regarding Matru Sahyogini Samiti

  •  It will comprise 10 mothers at each anganwadi representing the concerns of different sets of beneficiaries under the Integrated Child Development Services.
  •  It will include mothers of beneficiary children as well as be represented by pregnant women and lactating mothers who are enrolled under the scheme.
  •  It will also include a woman panch, women active in the community and eager to volunteer their support to the scheme, teachers from the local school, and women heads of self-help groups

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Mothers in MP will turn warriors against malnutrition

  •  Matru Sahyogini Samiti’ or Mothers’ Cooperation Committees, these will comprise 10 mothers at each anganwadi representing the concerns of different sets of beneficiaries under the Integrated Child Development Services, or National Nutrition Mission. Hence statement 1 is correct.
    •  children between six months to three years,
    •  children between three years and six years,
    •  adolescent girls and pregnant women and lactating mothers.
  •  The committees will include mothers of beneficiary children as well as be represented by pregnant women and lactating mothers who are enrolled under the scheme. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  The Committees will also include a woman panch, women active in the community and eager to volunteer their support to the scheme, teachers from the local school, and women heads of self-help groups (SHG). hence statement 3 is correct.
  •  These mothers will keep a watch on weekly ration distribution to beneficiaries as well as suggest nutritious and tasteful recipes for meals served to children at the centres.
  •  The move is being taken as per the mandate of the National Food Security Act, 2013 (NFSA).
  •  The Madhya Pradesh government has issued an order for the appointment of committees led by mothers to ensure better monitoring of services delivered at anganwadi or day care centres across the State.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/mothers-in-mp-will-turn-warriors-against-malnutrition/article33288766.ece


He was one of the most important leaders of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, the forerunner of the present day Bharatiya Janata Party. He qualified the civil services examination, is best remembered for his principle of “integral humanism” which is defined as “a classless, casteless and conflict-free social order”.He spoke against caste polarisation and identity-based voting. Who is he?

  • Jaya Prakash Narayanan
  • Atal Bihari Vajapayee
  • Shyam prakash Mukarjee
  • Deen Dayal Upadhyay

Answer: d) Deen Dayal Upadhyay

Explanation:

In NEWS: Communications Minister Shri Ravi Shankar Prasad and MOS for Communications Shri Sanjay Dhotre presents Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Telecom Skill Excellence Awards

  •  Deen dayal Upadhyay: He was one of the most important leaders of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, the forerunner of the present day Bharatiya Janata Party. He qualified the civil services examination, is best remembered for his principle of “integral humanism” which is defined as “a classless, casteless and conflict-free social order”.He spoke against caste polarisation and identity-based voting. Hence option (d) is the correct answer.

Source https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1681947


Consider the following statements regarding current position of voting overseas voters in in Indian elections

  •  Vote via postal ballots is given to service voters for casting votes in the election.
  •  Under Representation of the People (Amendment) Act, 2010, an Indian citizen who is an eligible voter and was residing abroad for more than six months would not have been able to vote in elections.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  •  1 only
  •  2 only
  •  Both 1 and 2
  •  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: a) 1 only

Explanation:

In News: Are NRIs likely to get postal voting rights soon?

  •  Prior to 2010, an Indian citizen who is an eligible voter and was residing abroad for more than six months owing to employment, education or otherwise, would not have been able to vote in elections.
  •  After the passing of the Representation of the People (Amendment) Act, 2010, eligible NRIs who had stayed abroad beyond six months have been enabled to vote, but only in person at the polling station where they have been enrolled as an overseas elector. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
  •  Now the ECI has approached the government to permit NRIs to vote via postal ballots similar to a system that is already used by service voters (the Electronically Transmitted Postal Ballot System, or ETPBS). Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/wont-step-back-from-s-400-deal-with-russia-says-turkey/article33358145.ece

If another global financial crisis happens in the near future, which of the following action/policies are most likely to give some immunity to India?

  • Not depending on short – term foreign borrowings
  • Opening up to more foreign banks
  • Maintaining full capital account convertibility

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

  • If a global financial crisis happens in the future, lesser exposure to the foreign financial markets is likely to give some immunity to India.
  • Option 1 is correct: Short -term borrowings would lead to the burden of paying back the debt, and could result in stressful conditions for the borrowing economy/ India.
  • Option 2 is not correct: Opening up to more foreign banks would lead to an enhanced exposure to the global economy, and hence an increased risk.
  • Option 3 is not correct: Currency convertibility refers to a situation in which a currency can be converted into a foreign currency, and vice -versa at the prevailing exchange rate without any government intervention. In India, we cannot completely convert rupees to dollars – There are restrictions to the same.

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