1. With respect to Ex Cambrian Patrol, consider the following statements:

1) It is organized by the US Army.

2) It is considered the ultimate test of human endurance, team spirit and is sometimes referred to as the Olympics of Military Patrolling.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only


In NEWS: Indian Army team wins gold medal in Cambrian Patrol Exercise in UK

●    The Indian Army, represented by 4/5 Gorkha Rifles (Frontier Force), bagged the coveted Gold medal at exercises in the UKHence statement (1) is correct .

●    The Indian Army team was lauded on its navigation skills, delivery of patrol orders and overall endurance for completing the patrol

●    The event is considered the ultimate test of human endurance and team spirit and is considered the “Olympics of military patrolling”.   Hence statement (2) is correct .

●    The Indian Army team performed well in harsh terrain and inclement weather. These conditions added to the challenges of simulated situations to assess the reaction of the teams in a combat setting.

●    The event has evolved into a cost-effective, ready-made exercise that Commanding Officers can use to test the basic training standards of their soldiers, in preparation for future operations.

●    It is mission-focused and scenario-based with role players used to enhance the training benefit.

●    The team captain stated that his team adhered to the basics that the Indian Army follows in its battle drills and procedures

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/indian-army-team-wins-gold-at-military-patrol-exercise-in-uk/articleshow/87140502.cms

2. GIS Energy Map has been launched by which of the following organizations in India?

a)  NITI Aayog

b) Indian Bureau of Mines

c)  Geological Survey of India

d) Oil and Natural Gas Corporation

Answer: (a) NITI Aayog


In NEWS: NITI Aayog launches Geospatial Energy Map of India

●    NITI Aayog in collaboration with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has developed a comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) Energy Map of India. Hence option (a) is correct

●    It provides a holistic picture of all energy resources such as conventional power plants, oil and gas wells, petroleum refineries, coal fields and coal blocks. It also provides district-wise data on renewable energy power plants and renewable energy resource potential, etc through 27 thematic layers.

●    GIS mapping of energy assets will be useful for ensuring real-time and integrated planning of the energy sector of India, given its large geographical distribution and interdependence.

●    The map attempts to identify and locate all primary and secondary sources of energy and their transportation/transmission networks.

●    It is a unique effort aimed at integrating energy data scattered across multiple organizations and presenting it in a consolidated, visually appealing graphical manner.

●    It leverages the latest advancements in web-GIS technology and open-source software to make it interactive and user-friendly.

●    The Geospatial Energy Map of India will be useful in planning and making investment decisions. It will also aid in disaster management using available energy assets.

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/energy/power/niti-aayog-launches-geospatial-energy-map-of-india/articleshow/87126167.cms

3. It is a bustard species native to the Indian subcontinent, Cambodia, and Vietnam. It acts as flagship species for riverine grasslands in North and Northeast India. It is an iconic, critically endangered species of topmost conservation priority, exhibits transboundary movements, and its migration exposes it to threats. Inclusion of the species in Appendix I of CMS will aid in transboundary conservation efforts facilitated by International conservation bodies and existing international laws and agreements.

Which of the following bird species is being described in the above passage?

a)  Great Indian bustard

b) Bengal florican

c)  Jerdon’s courser

d) Red-headed vultures.

Answer: (b) Bengal florican


In NEWS: Development projects threaten Bengal florican habitat in Assam

●    The Bustard Specialist Group (BSG) of the International Union for Conservation of Nature wrote to the Assam government recently on the urgent need to prevent land-use changes at Kokilabari Seed Farm in the state to protect Bengal floricans and other species.

●    The species is found in very small numbers only in India and Cambodia. About a hundred of them are present in Nepal and the species is extinct in Bangladesh.

Bengal florican:

●    The Bengal Florican or Bengal Bustard, found in the Manas National park, Assam and Cambodia is also critically endangeredHence option (b) is correct.

●    The adult birds are around 22 inches tall and 27 inches in length.

●    The males have a black head, neck and body with white wings while the females, which are larger in size, are dull brown with a mottled back.

●    The former occurs from Uttar Pradesh (India) through the Terai of Nepal to Assam (where it is called ulu mora) and Arunachal Pradesh in India, and historically to Bangladesh.

●    It has a very small, rapidly declining population largely as a result of the widespread loss of its grassland habitat.

●    IUCN Red List Status: Critically Endangered

●    CITES: Appendix I

●    Wildlife Protection Act of India, 1972: Schedule I

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/development-projects-threaten-bengal-florican-habitat-in-assam-79726

4. Consider the following

Maritime spaces under the sovereignty and authority (exercising power) of a coastal State:

1) Internal waters

2) Territorial sea

3) Contiguous zone

4) High seas

Select the correct answer using the code the given below:

a)  3 and 4 only

b) 1 and 2 only

c)  1, 3 and 4 only

d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (b) 1 and 2 only


In NEWS: TN police warn of possible attack on fishermen crossing IMBL

●    The Tamil Nadu police have issued an alert on the possibility of an attack on fishermen crossing the International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL) for fishing in Sri Lankan waters.

●    Law-enforcing agencies along the coastal districts have been advised to sensitise the fishing community to the risks, in the backdrop of simmering differences between the fishermen of India and Sri Lanka over catching fish in the Katchatheevu area.

International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL):

●    A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth’s water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria.

●    Although in some countries the term maritime boundary represents borders of a maritime nation that are recognized by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

●    The terminology does not encompass lake or river boundaries, which are considered within the context of land boundaries.

Maritime spaces can be divided into the following groups based on their legal status:

●        Maritime spaces under the sovereignty and authority (exercising power) of a coastal State: internal waters, territorial sea, and archipelagic watersHence option (b) is correct.

●        Maritime spaces with mixed legal regime, which fall under both the jurisdiction of the coastal State and under the international law: contiguous zone, the continental shelf and the exclusive economic zone, and

●        Maritime spaces that can be used by all States (including land-locked ones) on an equal basis: high seas. 

While many maritime spaces can be classified as belonging to the same group, this does not imply that they all have the same legal regime. International straits and canals have their own legal status as well.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/tn-police-warn-of-possible-attack-on-fishermen-crossing-imbl/article37037587.ece

5. Which of the following statements is correct about the Abraham accord?

a)  They were signed between the Government of Syria and Palestine.

b) They were signed between the Government of Israel and Palestine.

c)  They were signed between the Government of Taiwan and China

d) They were signed between the Government of UAE and the Israel

Answer: (d) They were signed between the Government of UAE and the Israel


In NEWS: India and the Shifting Regional Landscape in West Asia

●    External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar’s visit to Israel signifies the burgeoning Indo-Israeli relations.

●    India is ready to be incorporated into the Abraham Accords framework which is significant for India’s engagement with the Middle East. A number of analysts and scholars have, since the announcement of the Abraham Accords by the Trump administration in August 2020, underlined the opportunities it offers for India, both in terms of improving its multilateral engagement with Israel and the UAE, both important regional partners for India.

●    The idea of an accord between India, the UAE and Israel was first suggested by Mohammed Soliman, an Egyptian scholar based in Washington.

●    Adding “Indo” to the Abrahamic Accords — from think tank level to the policy domain underlines the extraordinary churn in the geopolitics of the Middle East.

●    It also points to new openings for India in the region and ever-widening possibilities for Delhi’s strategic cooperation with Washington.

Abraham Accord:

●    The Abraham accord refers to the establishment of full diplomatic ties between UAE and Bahrain with Israel under a deal brokered by the United States. Hence option (d) is correct.

●    UAE and Israel have agreed to establish full diplomatic ties as part of a deal to halt the annexation of occupied land sought by the Palestinians for their future state.

●    It makes UAE the first Gulf Arab state to do so and the third Arab nation after Egypt and Jordan to have active diplomatic ties to Israel.

●    UAE was followed by Bahrain to become the second Gulf Arab state and fourth Arab nation to normalise ties with Israel.

●    The term “Abraham Accord ” is used to refer collectively to agreements between Israel and the United Arab Emirates (Israel–United Arab Emirates normalization agreement) and Israel and Bahrain, respectively (Bahrain–Israel normalization agreement).

●    The accords are named after the patriarch Abraham, regarded as a prophet by both the religions of Judaism and Islam, and traditionally considered a shared patriarch of the Jewish ; and Arab peoples.

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/defence/india-and-the-shifting-regional-landscape-in-west-asia/2352587/

6. Consider the following statements:

1) Conventional LED materials can emit white light.

2) White LEDs can potentially be used in liquid crystal display backlights, display mobile lighting and medical and communication equipment.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only


In NEWS: IIT-Madras researchers design white light emitters for LED applications

●        Conventional LED materials cannot emit white light and specialised techniques such as coating blue LED with yellow phosphor and combining blue, green and red LEDs, have been used to produce white light. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.

●        There has been a worldwide search for materials that can directly emit white light rather than through these indirect techniques that can cause loss of efficiency.

●        Researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras have successfully developed a white light emitter for use in LEDs. The development of energy-efficient Light Emitting Diodes or LEDs replaced the energy-inefficient incandescent lamps in lighting and display applications.

●        While LEDs have been available in almost all colours, white LEDs are a more recent development.

●        The innovation has been patented by the researchers and was recently granted the Government of India’s ‘SERB-Technology Translation Award.’

●        The Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) provides financial assistance to researchers, academic institutions, research and development laboratories, industrial concerns, and other agencies.

●        The team proposes to use the grant money of Rs 30 lakh to produce LEDs using their distorted perovskite materials.

●        The strategic introduction of distortion in halide perovskite generated intense light covering the complete visible spectrum. These materials show at least eight times intense white light emission compared to the conventional Ce:YAG emitters.

●        This distorted perovskite can be used independently as a white light emitter or as a phosphor in combination with blue LEDs to produce white light.

●        Unlike other recently developed white LED materials, this distorted perovskite showed phenomenal stability under ambient conditions.

●        The emission of intense light and stability make them useful in long-lasting, energy-saving lighting applications.

●        Apart from general lighting, white LEDs can potentially be used in liquid crystal display backlights, display mobile lighting and medical and communication equipmentHence statement (2) is correct.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/science-technology/iit-madras-researchers-design-white-light-emitters-for-led-applications-79742

7. Allium negianum was recently seen in news is a

a)  Black rice variety of Manipur

b) Seas weed variety of Gulf of Mannar

c)  Newly found spider species

d) Onion species of Uttarakhand Himalaya

Answer: (d) Onion species of Uttarakhand Himalaya


In NEWS: Explained: What is Allium negianum?

●        A plant discovered in Uttarakhand in 2019 has been newly confirmed as a new species of Allium — the genus that includes many staple foods such as onion and garlic, among 1,100 species worldwide.

●        An onion species from the Uttarakhand Himalayas, known to locals but newly described in scienceHence option (d) is correct.

●        It grows at 3,000 to 4,800 m above sea level and can be found along open grassy meadows, sandy soils along rivers, and streams forming in snow pasture lands along alpine meadows, where the melting snow helps carry its seeds to more favourable areas.

●        With a narrow distribution, this newly described species is restricted to the region of western Himalayas and hasn’t yet been reported from anywhere else in the world.

●        Although new to science, this species has long been known under domestic cultivation to local communities. It said that according to locals, the onion from Niti valley was particularly good, even deemed the best on the market.

●        So far only known from the western Himalaya region, Allium negianum might be under pressure from people looking to taste it. The researchers fear that indiscriminate harvest of its leaves and bulbs for seasoning may pose a threat to its wild populations.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/what-is-allium-negianum-an-onion-species-from-the-uttarakhand-himalayas-7578891/

8. Consider the following statements regarding La Nina:

1) It is marked by warmer-than-average sea surface temperatures across the central and eastern Pacific Ocean near the equator.

2) It usually causes wetter conditions and also leads to formation of low-pressure areas in India.

3) It usually brings in colder than normal winters in India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)  1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only


In NEWS: ‘Double-dip’: La Nina has formed for second year in a row, says NOAA  

●        A La Nina system has formed for the second year in a row, according to the Climate Prediction Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)

●        The La Nina will influence our upcoming temperature and precipitation outlooks

●        Two La Ninas happening one after the other (with a transition through ENSO neutral conditions in between) is not uncommon. It is usually referred to as a ‘double-dip’. In 2020, La Nina developed during the month of August and then dissipated in April 2021 as ENSO-neutral conditions returned

La Nina system:

●        La Nina is a natural ocean-atmospheric phenomenon.

●        It is marked by cooler-than-average sea surface temperatures across the central and eastern Pacific Ocean near the equatorHence statement (1) is incorrect.

●        It means ‘little girl’ in Spanish.

●        A La Nina usually causes wetter conditions and also leads to formation of low-pressure areas in India. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        Both La Nina and El Nino are part of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. ENSO is characterised by opposing warm and cool phases of oceanic and atmospheric conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

●        La Nina events are also associated with rainier-than-normal conditions over southeastern Africa and northern Brazil. However, strong La Nina events are associated with catastrophic floods in northern Australia.

●        La Nina is also characterized by higher-than-normal pressure over the central and eastern Pacific. This results in decreased cloud production and rainfall in that region.

La Nina and India

●        In the ‘La Nina year’, rainfall associated with the summer monsoon in Southeast Asia tends to be greater than normal, especially in northwest India and Bangladesh. This generally benefits the Indian economy, which depends on the monsoon for agriculture and industry.

●        It usually brings in colder than normal winters in India. Hence statement (3) is correct.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/-double-dip-la-nina-has-formed-for-second-year-in-a-row-says-noaa-79758

9. Consider the following statements:

1) Genetic modification involves the mutation, insertion and deletion of genes.

2) India is yet to approve commercial cultivation of a genetically modified food crop.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2


In NEWS: GMO rice from India withdrawn in EU: Indian coalition asks for action

●        The discovery of 500 tonnes of genetically modified (GM) rice in a consignment that India exported to the European Union countries in June 2021 has led to the loss of reputation of India and its agricultural market Coalition for GM Free India

●        The 500 tonnes of broken Indian white rice imported into Europe was transformed into rice flour, resold and put on the market in many European countries as an ingredient in chocolate sweets from the Mars Inc company (M&M’s Crispy) and baked goods.

●        GM crops are those that have been modified genetically to enhance their nutrition quotient. But in India, several civil society groups have raised health- and environment-related concerns.

●        India is yet to approve commercial cultivation of a genetically modified food crop. It has, however, cultivated multiple GM rice varieties at various stages of confined field trials. Hence statement (2) is correct.


●        In GMO, genetic material (DNA) is altered or artificially introduced using genetic engineering techniques.

●        Genetic modification involves the mutation, insertion, or deletion of genes. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        Bt toxins are insecticidal to the larvae of moths, bollworms, etc. but are harmless to other forms of life. In 2002, a joint venture between Monsanto and Mahyco introduced Bt cotton to India.

●        BT cotton is the only genetically modified (GM) crop that has been approved for commercial cultivation in 2002 by the Government of India

●        The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) cleared Bt brinjal for commercialization in 2009.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/agriculture/gmo-rice-from-india-withdrawn-in-eu-indian-coalition-asks-for-action-79751

10. Consider the following statements:

Other things remaining unchanged, market demand for a good might increase if

1) Price of its substitute increases

2) Price of its complement increases

3) The good is an inferior good and income of the consumers increases

4) Its price falls

Which of the above statements are correct?

a)  1 and 4 only

b) 2, 3 and 4

c)  1, 3 and 4

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 4 only


●        Law of Demand- Law of Demand states that other things being equal, there is a negative relation between demand for a commodity and its price. In other words, when price of the commodity increases, demand for it falls and when price of the commodity decreases, demand for it rises, other factors remaining the same. Hence, statement (4) is correct.

●        The quantity of a good that the consumer demands can increase or decrease with the rise in income depending on the nature of the good. For most goods, the quantity that a consumer chooses, increases as the consumer’s income increases and decreases as the consumer’s income decreases. Such goods are called Normal Goods. Thus, a consumer’s demand for a normal good moves in the same direction as the income of the consumer.

●        However, there are some goods the demands for which move in the opposite direction of the income of the consumer. Such goods are called Inferior Goods. As the income of the consumer increases, the demand for an inferior good falls, and as the income decreases, the demand for an inferior good rises. Examples of inferior goods include low quality food items like coarse cereals. Hence statement (3) is incorrect. The quantity of a good that the consumer chooses can increase or decrease with the rise in the price of a related good depending on whether the two goods are substitutes or complementary to each other. Goods which are consumed together are called complementary goods. Examples of goods which complement each other include tea and sugar, shoes and socks, pen and ink, etc.

●        Since tea and sugar are used together, an increase in the price of sugar is likely to decrease the demand for tea and a decrease in the price of sugar is likely to increase the demand for tea. Similar is the case with other complements. With the increase in price of complement, demand reduces. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.

●        If the price of coffee decreases, the consumption of tea is likely to go down. The demand for a good usually moves in the direction of the price of its substitutes. Hence statement (1) is correct.