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Daily Prelims Test – 20_October 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Affordability of Nutritious Diets in Rural India report

  1. It is released by International Food Policy Research Institute
  2. According to the report, 76% of rural Indians can’t afford a nutritious diet

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: 76% of rural Indians can’t afford a nutritious diet: study

  • Three out of four rural Indians cannot afford a nutritious diet, according to a paper recently published in journal Food Policy. Affordability of Nutritious Diets in Rural India report authored by International Food Policy Research Institute was released recently. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Even if they spent all their income on food, 63.3% of the rural population of more than 52 crore Indians would not be able to afford that nutritious meal.
  • According to the report, 76% of rural Indians can’t afford a nutritious diet. The study uses the latest available food price and wage information (of unskilled workers) from the National Sample Survey’s 2011 dataset. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It considers items such as dairy, fruit and dark green leafy vegetables that are essential as per India’s official dietary guidelines.
  • Study used the latest available food price and wage information from the National Sample Survey’s 2011 dataset.

Suggestions

  • Diversifying agriculture toward nutrient-dense foods. Improving rural incomes, especially women’s incomes, Marketing and promotion strategies for healthy dietary diversification etc.
  • National Institute for Nutrition has laid out dietary guidelines which specify the required intake of food items under the broad categories of cereals, proteins (pulses, meat, fish and eggs), dairy, fruits, vegetables, dark green leafy vegetables and oil and fats.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/76-of-rural-indians-cant-afford-a-nutritious-diet-study/article32881678.ece


Which of the following options are correct related to Benefits of Composting?

  1. Improves Soil Health and Lessens Erosion
  2. Conserves Water
  3. Reduces Personal Food Waste
  4. Reduces Landfill Waste

Select the correct options from the given below codes

  1. 4 only
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 1,2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2,3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1,2,3 and 4

Explanation:

In NEWS: CSIR-CMERI’s Revolutionary Decentralised Waste Management technology

  • Decentralised Waste Management technology developed by CSIR-CMERI can result in drastic reduction of expenditure related to Transportation Logistics and in the Indian Scenario can help reductions in CO2 emissions, by reducing fossil fuel usage.
  • This CSIR-CMERI MSW Technology envisions a Zero-Landfill and a Zero Waste City in addition develop Job-Creation opportunities. This technology will also help create a revived Green Energy reliant India.
  • Besides, they also become the cauldron for emission of Methane Gas, especially during the churning mechanisms deployed during Composting processes. Composting also does not yield impactful economic returns for the entrepreneurs. The mixed nature of wastes in the current scenario can easily lead to infiltration of heavy metals into agricultural produce, through the indiscriminate creation of Composts.

About Composting

  • Composting is a natural biological process, carried out under controlled aerobic conditions (requires oxygen).
  • Composting through various microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) biodegrades organic waste (food waste, manure, leaves, grass trimmings, paper, wood, feathers, crop residue etc.,) into valuable organic fertilizer.

Benefits of Composting

  • Reduces Landfill Waste
  • Creates Nutrient Rich Soil
  • Helps to Reduce Gross Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  • Positively Affects Air Quality
  • Conserves Water
  • Reduces Personal Food Waste
  • Neutralizes Soil. Hence option (d) is correct

Source: http://www.ddinews.gov.in/national/csir-cmeri%E2%80%99s-revolutionary-decentralised-waste-management-technology


Consider the following statements regarding Ghar Tak Fibre Scheme

  1. It aims to connect all 45,945 villages of Jammu and Kashmir with high-speed optical fibre internet by 31st March 2021.
  2. It will be implemented by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘Ghar Tak Fibre’: Slow progress in plan to connect Bihar villages

  • Under the Ghar Tak Fibre scheme, Bihar has to provide at least five fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) connections per village, while there should also be at least one WiFi hotspot per village.
  • The government’s ambitious ‘Ghar Tak Fibre’ scheme — which aims to connect all the villages with high-speed internet — is off to a slow start in poll-bound Bihar, the first state that aims to connect all its 45,945 villages by March 31. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Scheme will be implemented by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Scheme will lead digital services including e-Education, e-Agriculture, Tele-Medicine, Tele-law and other social security schemes in Bihar ensuring easy access to all state natives.
  • It is also likely to boost the local employment generation with the implementation of Bharat Net initiative which will be done by recruiting local workers.
  • There are three main problems. One is that the lossy, old cables that were laid under phase one have to be replaced. So far, that work has been done in about 4,500 gram panchayats connected under phase one. Then the problem of right-of-way in laying cables from panchayats or blocks to individual villages. The third is power equipment failure and its theft

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/business/ghar-tak-fibre-slow-progress-in-plan-to-connect-bihar-villages-6780901/


In which one of the following States Bandhavgarh tiger reserve located?

  1. Madhya Pradesh
  2. Maharashtra
  3. Meghalaya
  4. Kerala

Answer: (a) Madhya Pradesh

Explanation:

In NEWS: Tigress found dead in Bandhavgarh with 1 cub, 3 missing

A 10-year-old tigress and its newly born cub were found dead in the buffer zone of Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve located at Umaria in Madhya Pradesh

About Bandhavgarh tiger reserve

  • Bandhavgarh tiger reserve, part of the Project Tiger network since 1993, is located in the Kaimur hill ranges (eastern extension of Vindhayachal hills) in Madhya Pradesh. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The reserve consists of Bandhavgarh National Park & Panpatha Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • The tiger reserve is located between Sanjay Dubri National Park and Kanha Tiger Reserve in the north eastern side and southern side respectively.
  • The reserve is home to one of the highest densities of the Royal Bengal Tigers in India.The park also has the largest breeding population of leopards.
  • This park has been divided into three major zones named as Tala, Magdi and Bameraout.
  • Charan Ganga River flows through Bhandavgarh Tiger Reserve.
  • Flora: Mixed vegetations ranging from tall grasslands to thick Sal forest.
  • Fauna: Indian tiger, leopard, sloth bear, deer, Nilgai, Chausingha, Chital, Chinkara, Wild Boar and a Fox or Golden Jackal.
  • The name Bandhavgarh has been derived from the ancient Bandhavgarh Fort.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/environment/tigress-found-dead-in-bandhavgarh-with-1-cub-3-missing/story-sRUCambrc5U42BKB1HTGSP.html


Recently, the YS Malik Committee is seen in news, are related to which of the following area?

  1. Highway sector
  2. Agriculture sector
  3. Education sector
  4. Tree transplantation policy

Answer: (a) Highway sector

Explanation:

In NEWS: IAHE council discusses Malik panel recommendations to make the institute world class

  • The general council meeting of the Indian Academy of Highway Engineers (IAHE) discussed the recommendations of the YS Malik Committee to transform IAHE into a world-class institute in the highway sector. Hence option (a) is correct

Recommendations of Y. S. Malik Committee

  • Enhance the scope of IAHE to include three distinct functions i.e. Training, Applied research and development in the Highways and Public Transport sector, and Road Safety & Regulation.
  • Successful completion of mid-career training mandatory for promotion to next higher level.
  • Applied research including field trials to promote use of waste materials, textiles, plastics, new materials and recycling in highway construction.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/education/iahe-council-discusses-malik-panel-recommendations-to-make-the-institute-world-class/story-d8kVzqnFVctYE3DfeksEkM.html


Consider the following statements regarding Asafoetida

  1. It is a herbaceous plant and is a common ingredient in most Indian kitchens
  2. It is endemic to India and Afghanistan

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why scientists are trying to cultivate heeng in the Indian Himalayas

  • Asafoetida, or heeng, is a common ingredient in most Indian kitchens –– so much so that the country imports Rs 600 crore worth of this pungent flavoured herb every year.
  • Now, scientists at CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource, Palampur (IHBT), are on a mission to grow heeng in the Indian Himalayas. The first sapling has been planted in Himachal Pradesh’s Kwaring village in Lahaul valley last week.

What is asafoetida and where is it commonly cultivated?

  • Ferula asafoetida is a herbaceous plant of the umbelliferae family. It is a perennial plant whose oleo gum resin is extracted from its thick roots and rhizome. The plant stores most of its nutrients inside its deep fleshy roots. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Asafoetida is endemic to Iran and Afghanistan, the main global suppliers. It thrives in dry and cold desert conditions. While it is very popular in India, some European countries too use it for its medicinal properties. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • Heeng is not cultivated in India. Government data states that India imports about 1,200 tonnes of raw heeng worth Rs 600 crore from Iran, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
  • Asafoetida best grows in dry and cold conditions.
  • The plant can withstand a maximum temperature between 35 and 40 degree, whereas during winters, it can survive in temperatures up to minus 4 degree. During extreme weather, the plant can get dormant
  • Regions with sandy soil, very little moisture and annual rainfall of not more than 200mm are considered conducive for heeng cultivation in India.
  • Medicinal properties of heeng, including relief for digestive, spasmodic and stomach disorders, asthma and bronchitis.
  • Between 1963 and 1989, India once attempted to procure asafoetida seeds, the ICAR – National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), New Delhi 
  • In 2017, IHBT approached NBPGR with an experimental project idea to cultivate heeng in the Indian Himalayas.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-scientists-are-trying-to-cultivate-heeng-in-the-indian-himalayas-6792923/


Consider the following statements regarding Ayushman Sahakar

  1. It is a unique scheme to assist cooperatives play an important role in creation of healthcare infrastructure in the country.
  2. It is formulated by the National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: NCDC to launch Ayushman Sahakar scheme to fund co-operative healthcare facilities

  • National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) has come up with a scheme, Ayushman Sahakar, to involve co-operatives in creating healthcare infrastructure. Hence statement 1 is correct and Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Ayushman Sahakar Fund is formulated by the National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.
  • Under the scheme, NCDC would extend term loans to prospective cooperatives to the tune of Rs.10,000 Crore in the coming years.
  • NCDC’s scheme will be a step towards strengthening farmers’ welfare activities by the Central Government.
  • The AYUSHMAN SAHAKAR scheme would revolutionize the way healthcare delivery takes place in rural areas.
  • NCDC’s scheme aligns itself with the focus of the National Health Policy, 2017, covering the health systems in all their dimensions.
  • Ayushman Sahakar scheme fund would also assist cooperative hospitals take up medical / Ayush education.

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/ncdc-to-launch-ayushman-sahakar-scheme-to-fund-co-operative-healthcare-facilities/article32886691.ece


Consider the following statements regarding OSIRIS-REx

  1. It is a spacecraft launched by NASA and ISRO
  2. It is a mission launched to study the Bennu asteroid and attempt to return a sample of at least 60 grams to Earth

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: NASA’s touch-and-go mission: US spacecraft Osiris-Rex set to collect samples from asteroid Bennu

  • For almost two years, Osiris-Rex, a small spacecraft has been circling an asteroid more than 100 million miles away. According to scientists, this asteroid, Bennu, is a piece of a larger one that was formed just a few million years after Earth. Scientists believe that it could reveal many secrets of the ancient history of our solar system.
  • The Osiris-Rex mission will attempt to bring back at least 60 grams worth of asteroid. For the touchdown spot, the spacecraft seeks for the relatively flat middle of a tennis court-sized crater named ‘Nightingale’. Boulders as big as buildings appear over the targeted touchdown area.
  • During the touch-and-go journey, the Osiris-Rex spacecraft will operate autonomously. In case the first attempt doesn’t work, the spacecraft can try again as any collected samples won’t reach Earth until 2023.

About OSIRIS-Rex

  • OSIRIS-Rex aims to study asteroid 101955 Bennu, a carbonaceous asteroid and return to Earth a sample for detailed analysis in 2023. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS REx) is a planned NASA asteroid study and sample return mission. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The mission was launched on September 2-16 and reached Bennu in 2018.
  • The mission will help scientists investigate how planets formed and how life began, as well as improve our understanding of asteroids that could impact Earth.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/science/nasa-s-touch-and-go-mission-us-spacecraft-osiris-rex-set-to-collect-samples-from-asteroid-bennu/story-b7G0q2oMZWEhZ3h1SrVeSO.html


Consider the following statements regarding Spaghettification (noodle effect)

  1. It is the stretching out of an object as it comes into contact with an extreme gravitational field
  2. It can occur before or after an object crosses a black hole’s event horizon

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: A black hole’s lunch: Stellar spaghetti

  • The excitement began on September 19, 2019, when the Zwicky Transient Facility, a telescope on Palomar Mountain in California, and other celestial surveillance networks detected a flare in the centre of a galaxy 215 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Eridanus

About Spaghettification

  • Spaghettification (also known as the noodle effect) is the stretching out of an object as it comes into contact with an extreme gravitational field, typically that of a black hole. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Black holes have incredibly powerful tidal forces. The singularities within them contain the most powerful gravitational fields in the known universe. Because of this, objects that venture past their event horizon, or point of no return, cannot escape their pull, whether it be an astronaut, an entire star, or even light itself.
  • Once an object passes over this threshold, the strong tidal forces stretch it out both vertically and horizontally, similar to a spaghetti noodle
  • Spaghettification occurs as a result of the gravitational gradient, a phenomenon where the strength of the gravitational pull on various parts of an object differs depending on the object’s orientation.
  • A human undergoing spaghettification would likely die in less than a second.
  • It can occur before or after an object crosses a black hole’s event horizon, depending on the black hole’s size. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/a-black-hole-s-lunch-stellar-spaghetti-120101800950_1.html


Which of the following are the most likely places to find the musk deer in its natural habitat?

  1. Askot Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. Gangotri National Park
  3. Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary
  4. Manas National Park

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. 1 and 4 only

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

  • Musk deer is a small compact deer belonging to the family Cervidae. A solitary shy animal, the musk deer lives in mountainous regions from Siberia to the Himalayas. Askot Musk Deer Sanctuary is located 54 km from Pithoragarh near the town of Askot in Uttarakhand. As the name suggests, the sanctuary has been set up primarily for the conservation of musk deer and its natural habitat
  • Gangotri National Park is a national park in Uttarkashi District of Uttarakhand in India. Various rare and endangered species like bharal or blue sheep, black bear, brown bear, Himalayan Monal, Himalayan Snowcock, Himalayan Thar, musk deer and Snow leopard are found in the park.
  • The Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary is a part of the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve near Mailani in Uttar Pradesh, India. It covers an area of 227 km2 (88 sq mi) and was founded in 1972. The tiger, chital, hog deer, wild boars, otters, and many more animals find themselves a home here. Manas National Park or Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a national park, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger reserve, an elephant reserve and a biosphere reserve in Assam, India. Located in the Himalayan foothills, it is contiguous with the Royal Manas National Park in Bhutan. Hence option (a) is correct