KingMakers IAS Academy logo

Daily Prelims Test – 20_July 2021

Consider the following statements regarding Copper metal:

It is an excellent conductor of thermal and electrical energy.

It helps to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

It can be recycled completely many times over without any loss in performance.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. a) 1 and 3 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Clean energy: How AI can help spot the copper we need

  • A supply crunch may be on the horizon; artificial intelligence can help discover copper deposits formed along ancient mountain ranges over past 80 million years
  • Climate crisis is worsening, and there is a growing urgency to head towards net-zero emissions. The world is going to need massive quantities of copper — an essential and highly efficient mineral used in renewable energy systems to generate power from solar, hydroelectric, thermal and wind energy.
  • Why is copper needed?
  • Wind and solar energy as well as batteries offer renewable and clean alternatives. But these clean energy technologies need new material demands.
  • Copper is an excellent conductor of thermal and electrical energy; the power systems that utilise this metal generateand transmit energy with high efficiency and with minimum environmental impacts. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Use of copper in energy systems, therefore, helps reduce carbon dioxide emissions. It can also be recycled completely many times over without any loss in performance. Hence statements (2) and (3) are
  • The global need for copper, however, could increase by 350 per cent by 2050
  • What is GPlate technology?
  • Copper deposits are locked up in remote locations, including the volcanic mountain chains such as the Andes and the Rocky Mountains.
  • GPlates software — desktop software that primarily helps understand where copper deposits have formed along the mountain belts — uses machine learning to understand the link between copper deposits and the evolution of the subduction zone.

Sourcehttps://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/science-technology/clean-energy-how-ai-can-help-spot-the-copper-we-need-78019

Consider the following statements regarding Moon Wobble:

It is one of many factors that can either exacerbate rising sea levels or counteract them.

It takes over an 18.6-year period to complete.

The Wobble effect of the Moon is expected to lead to more flooding on Earth.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: How the Moon ‘Wobble’ affects rising tides

  • According to a recent study, the Wobble effect of the Moon is expected to lead to more flooding on Earth in the middle of the next decade. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • The study aimed to untangle all of those variables in an effort to improve predictions about the future of floods.
  • Rising temperatures caused by greenhouse gas emissions are not the only cause of higher flood risks and the interplay of many variables that push and pull at ocean levels is also responsible.
  • The study warned the wobble to heighten high tides in the middle of the 2030s, but it also showed that this prediction does not apply uniformly to every coastline everywhere.
  • Moon Wobble
  • It is a regular oscillation that humans have known about for centuries.
  • It is one of many factors that can either exacerbate rising sea levels or counteract them, alongside other variables like weather and geography. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It was first documented way back in 1728.
  • The wobble takes over an 18.6-year period to complete and continues in a cyclic fashion. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • Effects of wobble:
  • It could cause high tide levels at a beach to oscillate by 1 or 2 inches over the course of its long cycle.
  • In half of this lunar cycle, Earth’s regular daily tides are diminished, with high tides lower than usual and low tides higher than usual.
  • In the cycle’s other half, the situation is reversed, with high tides higher and low tides lower.
  • The moon wobbles impact the gravitational pull of the moon, and therefore, indirectly influences the ebb and flow of tides here on the Earth.
  • The lunar cycle is expected to shift again by mid-2030, and in the coming phase, the tides will amplify once again.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-how-the-moon-wobble-affects-rising-tides-7410814/

Consider the following statements regarding Near-Earth Asteroid Scout:

It is a small spacecraft launched by NASA.

It will provide critical information on the asteroid’s physical properties such as orbit, shape, volume, rotation, the dust and debris field surrounding Near-Earth Asteroid.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What makes NASA’s new spacecraft NEA Scout special?

  • NASA announced that its new spacecraft, named NEA Scout, has completed all required tests and has been safely tucked inside the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket. NEA Scout is one of several payloads that will hitch a ride on Artemis I, which is expected to be launched in November. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • What is NEA Scout?
  • Near-Earth Asteroid Scout, or NEA Scout, is a small spacecraft, about the size of a big shoebox. Its main mission is to fly by and collect data from a near-Earth asteroid.
  • It will also be America’s first interplanetary mission using a special solar sail propulsion.
  • The spacecraft will take about two years to cruise to the asteroid and will be about 93 million miles away from Earth during the asteroid encounter.
  • NEA Scout is equipped with special cameras and can take pictures ranging from 50 cm/pixels to 10 cm/pixels
  • The images gathered by NEA Scout will provide critical information on the asteroid’s physical properties such as orbit, shape, volume, rotation, the dust and debris field surrounding it, plus its surface properties. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • Understanding their properties could help us develop strategies for reducing the potential damage caused in the event of an impact
  • It will use this data to determine what is required to reduce risk, increase effectiveness, and improve the design and operations of robotic and human space exploration

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/what-makes-nasa-new-spacecraft-nea-scout-special-7412425/

Consider the following statements regarding Artemis Program:

The main objective of the programme is to launch a manned mission to the South Pole region of the moon by 2024.

It is predominantly carried out by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What makes NASA’s new spacecraft NEA Scout special?

NEA Scout is one of several payloads that will hitch a ride on Artemis I, which is expected to be launched in November.

About Artemis Programme

  • Artemis Programme is an international human space flight programme funded by the US Government.
  • The main objective of the programme is to launch a manned mission to the south pole region of the moon by 2024. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The programme is predominantly carried out by NASA. The other international partners in the programme are JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), Italian Space Agency, UK Space Agency, UAE space Agency, Brazilian Space Agency, Australian Space Agency, State Space Agency of Ukraine, Canadian Space Agency, and the European Space Agency. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • The programme is to be implemented in three parts. They are as follows:
  • Artemis I: To be launched in 2021 and is an uncrewed flight. It will test the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft.
  • Artemis II: It is the first crewed flight test and is targeted to be launched in 2023.
  • Artemis III: It will land astronauts on the south pole of the moon in 2024.

Sourcehttps://indianexpress.com/article/explained/what-makes-nasa-new-spacecraft-nea-scout-special-7412425/

Consider the following statements regarding Monkey B virus:

It is an alpha herpes virus enzootic in macaques.

The infection can be transmitted via direct contact and exchange of bodily secretions of monkeys.

Currently, there are no vaccines that can protect against B virus infection.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 and 3 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) 1 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is the Monkey B virus that caused the first human death in China?

  • China has reported the first human infection case with Monkey B virus (BV) after a Beijing-based veterinarian was confirmed with the same a month after he dissected two dead monkeys in early March
  • What is the Monkey B virus?
  • The virus, initially isolated in 1932, is an alphaherpesvirus enzootic in macaques of the genus Macaca. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • B virus is the only identified old-world-monkey herpesvirus that displays severe pathogenicity in humans.
  • How is it transmitted?
  • The infection can be transmitted via direct contact and exchange of bodily secretions of monkeys and has a fatality rate of 70 per cent to 80 per centHence statement (2) is correct.
  • The virus may also be found in cells coming from an infected monkey in a lab. B virus can survive for hours on surfaces, particularly when moist.
  • When can a human get infected with B virus?
  • Humans can get infected if they are bitten or scratched by an infected monkey; get an infected monkey’s tissue or fluid on broken skin or in eyes, nose, or mouth
  • Symptoms
  • Symptoms typically start within one month of being exposed to B virus, but could appear in as little as three to seven days
  • The first indications of B virus infection are typically flu-like symptoms such as fever and chills, muscle ache, fatigue and headache, following which an infected person may develop small blisters in the wound or area on the body that came in contact with the monkey.
  • Is there a vaccine against B virus?
  • Currently, there are no vaccines that can protect against B virus infectionHence statement (3) is correct.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-monkey-b-virus-that-caused-first-human-death-in-china-7412280/

Consider the following statements regarding Ganjam Slender Gecko:

This is the newly found Indian lizard species.

It is a tiny gecko species found in Odisha and the only habitat of the species is Jhadeshawar sacred grove.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Odisha’s forest department rolls out conservation plan for new gecko species discovered in Ganjam

  • Odisha’s forest officials have announced measures to preserve the newly discovered tiny gecko species of the genus Hemiphyllodactylus.
  • The species, which grows up to 6 centimetres in length, was first spotted within the premises of a temple at Humma in Ganjam district in 2014.
  • The only habitat of the species is Jhadeshawar sacred grove. Moreover, they are only found in mango trees surrounding the temple. They were never found on concrete walls or below rock boulders, unlike other members of the genus. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • This new species is the 7th Indian species of the genus, the second from the northern Eastern Ghats and 41st globally. It is also the first non-island species of the genus which is distributed in lowland habitats. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • About Geckos:
  • Geckos are reptiles. They are found on all the continents except Antarctica. These colorful lizards have adapted to habitats from rainforests to deserts to cold mountain slopes.
  • Most geckos are nocturnal, which means they are active at night but day geckos are active during the day and nibble on insects, fruits and flower nectar.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/odisha-s-forest-department-rolls-out-conservation-plan-for-new-gecko-species-discovered-in-ganjam-77955

Consider the following statements regarding Kala Vishwas, recently seen in news:

It is a campaign that aims to reach out to traditional folk artists, local artisans coming from rural areas.

It was launched by the Indian Council for Cultural Relations.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Kala Vishwa – a virtual platform for traditional and folk artists launched by ICCR in Mumbai

  • Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) has launched a new campaign called ‘KALA VISHWA’. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Kala Vishwas is a special campaign under the Horizon Series that will be held for a duration of six months to reach out to traditional folk artists, local artistes / artisans and those coming from rural areas and give them an opportunity and a platform to perform under this campaign, especially during the challenging time of COVID-19. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • About ICCR:
  • The Indian Council for Cultural Relations(ICCR) is an autonomous body under the administrative control of the Ministry of External Affairs.
  • It was founded in 1950 by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad who was the first Education Minister of independent India.

Objectives:

  • To actively participate in the formulation and implementation of policies and programmes pertaining to India’s external cultural relations
  • To foster and strengthen cultural relations and mutual understanding between India and other countries
  • To promote cultural exchanges with other countries and people, and to develop relations with nations.

Sourcehttps://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1736589

According to ‘2020 India Lightning Report’, consider the following statements:

It was released by the Indian Meteorological Department.

Tamil Nadu received the most lightning pulses in India.

The highest concentration of lightning was during the months of January, February and March.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 2 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: 22.6% increase in lightning in 2020: India Lightning Report

  • There was a 22.6% increase in lightning in India last year compared to 2019, according to the ‘2020 India Lightning Report’ released by Earth Networks, which operates the largest global hyperlocal weather network. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • Highlights of the report
  • Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal and Karnataka received the most lightning pulses. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • During the year 2020, Maharashtra and Karnataka were among the top 10 States that had the highest lightning pulse counts.
  • More than 39.5 million pulses were detected in India last year by the company’s Total Lightning Network. Out of these, 12,022,402 were dangerous cloud-to-ground strikes.
  • In India, there were 7,447 Dangerous Thunderstorm Alerts issued and most of them were in the state of Tamil Nadu.
  • Odisha which was followed by Chhattisgarh experienced more than 1 million clouds to ground pulses in 2020Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • In the year 2020, India saw the highest concentration of lightning in the months of May, June, and September because of the monsoon season. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.
  • According to the report, the dangers of lightning and severe weather pose a great threat to the population of India.
  • Due to the country’s proximity to the equator and the Indian Ocean, India experiences extreme amounts of moisture and heat which contributes to the sudden and severe thunderstorms throughout the South Asian region.
  • A study conducted by the National Crime Records Bureau states that since the year 2001, every year 2,360 people have died in India due to lightning strikes.
  • Source: TH

Consider the following statements regarding Re-wilding of wild animals.

Rewilding is so far limited to Tigers alone in India.

There are no standard operating guidelines for rewilding animals in India.

Rewilding of wild animals is the process of releasing abandoned or injured wild animals into the wild after a certain time.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 and 3 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 2 only
  4. d) 3 only

Answer: (d) 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: The ‘rewilding’ of wild animals, and the challenges it involves

  • The Periyar Tiger Reserve (PTR) is trying to reintroduce an abandoned nine-month-old cub into the wild, after rearing it in ‘captivity’ for two years. This issue has once again brought the controversial concept of ‘rewilding’ of abandoned or injured animals under the lens.
  • Rewilding is not limited to cats. There have been efforts to reintroduce other endangered species into the wild after rearing them in captivityHence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • Under this, several pairs of endangered gyps species, including the white-backed, the long-billed, and the slender-billed have been successfully introduced into the wild.
  • The Standard Operating Guidelines laid down by the National Tiger Conservation Authority(NTCA) under Section 38(O) of Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 provide three ways to deal with orphaned or abandoned tiger cubs: Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • The first is to make an effort to reunite the abandoned cubs with their mother.
  • Second, if a reunion of the cub with its mother is not possible, then shift the cub to a suitable zoo.
  • Third, reintroduction of the cub into the wild after a certain time when it appears that the cub is capable of surviving in the wild independently. This is what is known as ‘Re-wilding’Hence statement (3) is correct.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-the-re-wilding-of-wild-animals-and-the-challenges-it-involves-7404322/

Among the following Tiger Reserves, which one has the largest area under “Critical Tiger Habitat”?

a) Corbett

b) Ranthambore

c) Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam

d) Sunderbans

Answer: (c) Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam

Explanation:

Critical ‘tiger’ habitats (CTHs), also known as core areas of tiger reserves—are identified under the Wild Life Protection Act (WLPA), 1972 based on scientific evidence that “such areas are required to be kept as inviolate for the purpose of tiger conservation, without affecting the rights of the Scheduled Tribes or such other forest dwellers”. The notification of CTH is done by the state government in consultation with the expert committee constituted for the purpose. Nagarjunsagar -Srisailam Tiger Reserve is the largest tiger reserve in India . The reserve spreads over five districts, Kurnool District, Prakasam District, Guntur District, Nalgonda District and Mahbubnagar district. The total area of the tiger reserve is 3,728 km2 (1,439 sq mi). Hence option (c) is correct.