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Daily Prelims Test – 20_January 2021

With reference to ancient Sanskrit texts in India, the ‘Sushruta Samhita’ text belongs to

Mathematics and decimal system

Astronomy

Astrology

Medicine and surgery

Answer: (d) Medicine and surgery

Explanation:

In NEWS: Dr. Harsh Vardhan dedicates the new Burns and Plastic Surgery Block of AIIMS Delhi to Sushruta,“The Father of Plastic Surgery”

  • Burn injury is one of the biggest causes of workforce loss and an issue of concern for a rapidly developing economy like India.
  • India has as many as 70 lakh burn injuries annually with mortality rate as high as 1.4 lakhs per year and an additional 2.4 lakhs patients end up with severe deformities.
  • The new Burns & Plastic Surgery Block has been conceived with the vision of providing state-of-the-art care in the field of burns management and research.
  • About Sushruta
  • Sushruta (c. 7th or 6th century BCE) was a physician in ancient India known today as the “Father of Indian Medicine” and “Father of Plastic Surgery” for inventing and developing surgical procedures.
  • His work on the subject, the Sushruta Samhita is considered the oldest text in the world on plastic surgery and is highly regarded as one of the Great Trilogy of Ayurvedic Medicine. Hence option (d) is correct answer
  • The Sushruta Samhita devotes chapter after chapter to surgical techniques, listing over 300 surgical procedures and 120 surgical instruments in addition to the 1,120 diseases, injuries, conditions, and their treatments
  • The Sushruta Samhita touches upon virtually every aspect of the medical arts but was unknown outside of India until around the 8th century CE when it was translated into Arabic by the Caliph Mansur.
  • The Sushruta’s treatise provides the first written record of a forehead flap rhinoplasty, a technique still used today to reconstruct a nose.

Source:https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1689680#:~:text=Dr.%20Harsh%20Vardhan%2C%20Union%20Minister,Burns%20and%20Plastic%20Surgery%20Block.


Consider the following statements

The 77th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1995 introduced Article 16 (4A) enables the state to make any law regarding reservation in promotion for SCs and STs.

The constitutional bench in Jarnail Singh case 2018 upheld the application of creamy layer principle to members of the Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe communities in promotions.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Supreme Court directive on quota in promotions

  • The Supreme Court asked the Attorney General to compile the various issues being raised by States with regard to the application of a Constitution Bench judgment of 2006 in M. Nagaraj case.
  • The Nagraj judgment upheld the application of creamy layer principle to members of the Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe communities in promotions.
  • The case is based on a plea by the Centre to refer to a seven-judge Bench the question whether creamy layer should apply or not to the Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe community while providing them reservation in government promotions.
  • The Constitution (77th Amendment) Act, 1995 was passed by parliament, inserting Article 16(4A), which enables the state to make any law regarding reservation in promotion for SCs and STs. The amendment introduced the words “with consequential seniority” after “in matters of promotion” in Article 16(4A). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Nagaraj v. Union of India case, 2006:
  • The Constitutional Bench in Nagaraj validated the constitutional amendments made by Parliament. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The court had held that the state is not bound to make reservations for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in promotions in government jobs. But if the government wishes to introduce such quotas, it needs to collect quantifiable data showing the backwardness of these classes.
  • The order said that if reservation is brought in, it must not breach the 50% ceiling or “obliterate” the “creamy layer”.
  • The Nagaraj judgement laid down three controlling conditions that the State must meet prior to granting a SC/ST a reservation in promotion.
  • First, the State must show the backwardness of the class.
  • Second, it must show that the class is inadequately represented in the position/service for which reservations in promotion will be granted.
  • Finally, it must show that the reservations are in the interest of administrative efficiency.

Jarnail Singh & Ors vs. Lacchmi Narain Gupta & Ors case:

  • Various States along with the Centre challenged the Court’s 2006 Nagaraj judgment. The petitioners’ maintained that Nagaraj had made it unjustly difficult to grant reservations in promotion.
  • Firstly, the judgment held that the Supreme Court’s 2006 Nagaraj judgment does not need reconsideration by a 7-judge Bench.
  • It also added that the principle of creamy layer exclusion applies to SC/STs.
  • It rejected the Centre’s argument that Nagaraj misread the creamy layer concept by applying it to SC/ST.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/supreme-court-directive-on-quota-in-promotions/article33603482.ece


India Innovation Index is released by which of the following organization?

National Development Council

National Integration Council

NITI Aayog

Competition Commission of India

Answer: (c) NITI Aayog

Explanation:

In NEWS: NITI Aayog to release 2nd edition of India Innovation Index

  • NITI Aayog will release the second edition of the India Innovation Index. Hence option (c) is correct answer
  • The India Innovation Index-2020 seeks to rank the States and Union Territories based on their relative performance of supporting innovation and to empower them to improve their innovation polices by highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. The ranking methodology is designed in a way that states can draw lessons from the national leaders in innovation.
  • The States and Union Territories have been divided into 17 Major States, 10 North-East and Hill States, and nine City States and Union Territories, for effectively comparing their performance. The States and Union Territories have been ranked on two broad categories: outcome and governance.

It intends to perform the following three functions-

  • Ranking of states and UTs based on their index scores
  • Recognizing opportunities and challenges, and
  • Assisting in tailoring governmental policies to foster innovation

Source: http://newsonair.com/Main-News-Details.aspx?id=408222


Guchhi mushroom is a species of fungus is found in the temperate forests of:

Kashmir

Sikkim

Arunachal Pradesh

Assam

Answer: (a) Kashmir

Explanation:

In NEWS: GI tag sought for India’s costliest mushroom

  • geographical indication (GI) tag has been sought for one of the costliest mushrooms in the world that grows in Jammu and Kashmir’s Doda Locally called Gucchi, or Morel, the mushroom, priced at over ₹20,000 a kg, is a forest produce collected by local farmers and tribals. Hence option (d) is correct answer
  • Each fruit body begins as a tightly compressed, greyish sponge with lighter ridges, and expands to form a large yellowish sponge with large pits and ridges raised on a large white stem.
  • These mushrooms usually grow in clusters on logs of decaying wood, leaves or humus soil.
  • They may or may not grow in the same spot the next season, which only makes the process of collection more tedious.
  • The mushrooms are collected in March after the snow melts.
  • They have medicinal and anti-inflammatory properties.
  • The mushrooms are cherished for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.
  • They are also considered a rich source of protein, carbohydrates and Vitamin B.

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/agri-business/gi-tag-sought-for-indias-costliest-mushroom/article33594977.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding MeerKAT

It is operated by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory

Its capability to detect faint and diffused light makes possible to detect the giant radio galaxies.  

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:

  • Two giant radio galaxies have been discovered with South Africa’s powerful MeerKAT telescope located in the Karoo region, a semi-arid area in the south-west of the country.
  • MeerKAT has allowed new discoveries because it can detect faint, diffused light which previous telescopes were unable to do.
  • MIGHTEE Survey is a project to create deep images of the extragalactic skyto explore the cosmic evolution of galaxies.
  • MIGHTEE surveyinvolves data collected by MeerKAT radio telescope.
  • The discovery of enormous jets and lobesin the MIGHTEE map allowed us to confidently identify the objects as giant radio galaxies.
  • The giant radio galaxies were spotted in new radio maps of the sky created by one of the most advanced surveys of distant galaxies. The team working on it has included astronomers from around the world including South Africa, the United Kingdom, Italy and Australia.
  • Called the International Gigahertz Tiered Extragalactic Exploration (MIGHTEE) survey

About MeerKAT telescope

  • MeerKAT is the world’s biggest radio telescope.
  • It is located in South Africa in the Karoo region.
  • It is operated by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • MeerKAT telescope is incorporated into the Square Kilometre Array, which is an intergovernmental radio telescope project led by Australia and South Africa.
  • Its capability to detect faint and diffused light makes possible to detect the giant radio galaxiesHence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/science-technology/discovery-of-two-new-giant-radio-galaxies-offers-fresh-insights-into-the-universe-75114


Consider the following Statements regarding Radio Galaxy

It is a particular type of active galaxy that emits more light at radio wavelengths than at visible wavelengths.

They are extremely large galaxies with a super massive black hole in their centre that actively accumulates gas and dust from its surroundings.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Discovery of two new giant radio galaxies offers fresh insights into the universe

  • They are about 62 times the size of the Milky Way but are fainter than some others the same size
  • Radio galaxies get their name from the fact that they release huge beams, or ‘jets’, of radio light. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • These happen through the interaction between charged particles and strong magnetic fields related to supermassive black holes at the galaxies’ heartsHence statement 2 is correct
  • These giant galaxies are much bigger than most of the others in the universe and are thought to be quite rare. Although millions of radio galaxies are known to exist, only around 800 giants have been found.
  • They are extremely large galaxies with a supermassive black hole in their centre that actively accumulates gas and dust from its surroundings.
  • The discovery of radio galaxies at extremely large distances is important for our understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies
  • The radio jets of these galaxies can be many times larger than the galaxy itself and can extend vast distances into intergalactic space.
  • Radio galaxies and Quasars (believed to be a radio galaxy viewed down the length of the jet) are some of the brightest objects in the universe.
  • Uses of founding Radio Galaxy: Better understanding of the evolutionary pathways of galaxies, Help to understand how radio galaxies become so huge, Help to determine the impact ofsupermassive black holes on their galaxies. And Help to reveal larger populations of radio galaxies.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/science-technology/discovery-of-two-new-giant-radio-galaxies-offers-fresh-insights-into-the-universe-75114


Consider the following Statements regarding Somnath temple

It is built in the Chaulukya style of temple architecture

It is sited in such a manner that no mass of land can be seen from Somnath seashore till Antarctica.

It was dedicated to Lord Shiva and was plundered by Aurangzeb in 1025 AD

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: c) 1 and 2 only

Explanation

In News: PM elected chairman of Somnath temple trust

  • PRIME MINISTER Narendra Modi was elected new chairman of the Shree Somnath Trust (SST), the religious body which manages and maintains the famous Somnath temple near Veraval in Gujarat

About Somnath temple

  • Maintaining the original site, the present temple is said to have built for the seventh time. The first temple of Somnath is regarded as a structure in Gold, made by Moon God himself. In the 7th century, Somnath Temple was reconstructed by Maitraka kings of Vallabhi in Gujarat. The second structure was destroyed by the Arab governor of Sind by the name of Junayad in 725. Again in 815, the third structure was built by Nagabhata II, who was a Pratihara King. 
  • This structure was erected out of red sandstone. In 1024, the temple was raided by Mahmud Ghazni, who took camel-loads of jewels and valuables from The Paramara King Bhoj of Malwa and the Solanki King Bhima of Gujarat (Anhilwara) took the initiative to rebuild the temple during 1026-1042. For the fifth time, the wooden structure was replaced with a stone structure by Kumarpal. Hence statement 3 is incorrect
  • Consequently, the temple was destroyed in 1297 by the Sutanat of Delhi and once again in 1394. The last attack was made by the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb in 1706. The present temple was built in 1995 by Shree Somnath Trust in the company of the Government of India. Today, Somnath Temple is under the maintenance of Shree Somnath Trust. 
  • The seven-storied structure of Somnath is tall to 155 feet. Constructed in the Chalukya style of architecture, Somnath Temple reflects the expertise of the Sompuras that are master masons of Gujarat. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The temple is sited in such a manner that no mass of land can be seen from Somnath seashore till Antarctica. This information is presented in an inscription, written in Sanskrit, on the Arrow-Pillar of the sea-protection wall at the temple. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The site of Somnath has been a pilgrimage site from ancient times on account of being a triveni Sangam (the confluence of three rivers: Kapila, Hiran and the mythical Sarasvati).
  • It reflects the skill of the Sompura Salats, one of Gujarat’s master masons.

Source: https://www.timesnownews.com/india/article/pm-modi-becomes-president-of-somnath-temple-trust/708843


Ex-Desert Knight 21 exercise is a bilateral air exercise to be held between

1 India and Israel

2.India and UAE

3.India and England

4.India and France

Answer: (d) India and France

Explanation:

In NEWS: Ex-Desert Knight 21: Indian and French Fighter jets roar over the Jodhpur skies

  • The four day drill which starts from Jan 20-24, 2021, will mark an important milestone in the series of engagement between the two forces.
  • Indian Air Force (IAF) and French Air and Space Force is going to conduct a bilateral Air exercise, Ex Desert Knight-21. Hence option (d) is correct

What is the aim of this exercise?

  • Besides providing operational exposure, it will also help in sharing practices towards enhancing combat capability. From both sides, there will be fighter, transport and tanker aircraft.
  • This drill is in addition to the Ex Garuda in which the two Air Forces engage in. And indicates how the two Air Forces are keenly expanding their cooperation by making use of the available opportunities for more interaction.

What is unique about this exercise?

  • For the first time ever the Indian skies will be hosting Rafale aircraft by both sides.
  • And the two Air Forces will be exchanging ideas and best practices for enhancing interoperability and also putting into practice operational experience which they have gained across different terrains.

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/defence/ex-desert-knight-21-indian-and-french-fighter-jets-soar-over-the-jodhpur-skies/2173874/


Consider the following Statements regarding Question Hour

There is no Question Hour on the day the President addresses MPs from both Houses and Finance Minister presents the Budget.

The first hour of every parliamentary sitting is slotted for the Question Hour

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Question Hour, which had been suspended by the government during the monsoon session, will resume when Parliament meets for the budget session from January 29

  • The last two sessions of Parliament were truncated, due to the rising number of COVID cases.
  • The government had claimed that suspension of Question Hour, which gives the Opposition an opportunity to hold the government accountable, was an additional precautionary measures to tackle the COVID pandemic.
  • Question Hour will be allowed during Parliament Session for already fixed time of one hour.

About Question Hour

  • It is during this one hour that Members of Parliament ask questions of ministers and hold them accountable for the functioning of their ministriesHence statement 1 is correct
  • The questions that MPs ask are designed to elicit information and trigger suitable action by ministries.
  • There is no Question Hour on the day the President addresses MPs from both Houses in the Central Hall. The President’s speech takes place at the beginning of a new Lok Sabha and on the first day of a new Parliament year.
  • Question Hour is not scheduled either on the day the Finance Minister presents the Budget.
  • The presiding officers of the two houses are the final authority with respect to the conduct of Question Hour. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The questions are of three kinds, namely, starred, unstarred and short notice.
  • A starred question (distinguished by an asterisk) requires an oral answer and hence supplementary questions can follow.
  • An unstarred question, on the other hand, requires a written answer and hence, supplementary questions cannot follow.
  • A short notice question is one that is asked by giving a notice of less than ten days. It is answered orally.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/question-hour-to-resume-during-budget-session/article33610764.ece


What explains the eastward flow of the equatorial countercurrent ?

The Earth’s rotation on its axis

Convergence of the two equatorial currents

Difference in salinity of water

Occurrence of the belt of calm near the equator

Answer: (d) Occurrence of the belt of calm near the equator

Explanation:

  • The easterly Equatorial Counter-Current between about 40 and 100 N may be explained as follows, The overall effect of the Trade Winds is to drive water towards the west, hut the flow is blocked by the land masses along the western boundaries. As a result, in equatorial regions the sea-surface slopes up towards the west, causing an eastward horizontal pressure gradient force. Because winds are light in the Doldrums, water is able to flow down the horizontal pressure gradient in a current that is contrary (i.e. ‘counter’) to the prevailing wind direction. The zone of calm is the necessary and dominant factor here, though other factors play their role as well.