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Daily Prelims Test – 19_December_2021

1. Consider the following statements regarding Fuel Cells:

1) Unlike electric vehicles, they do not store energy.

2) The internal combustion engine of a fuel cell relies on supply of petrol or diesel.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: NTPC awards India’s first Green Hydrogen Microgrid Projects in Andhra

●    Green Energy enhanced use can help India meet its clean energy goals. This is the ‘Fuel of the Future’ and experts of the field are optimistic that it can form the core of clean energy in India.

●    India will soon have the world’s largest Green Hydrogen Microgrid project. The project will be set up at Simhadri, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.

●    This would also be India’s first Green Hydrogen-based Energy Storage Project and has been awarded to State-owned National Thermal Power Corporation Limited

●    Under this project, hydrogen would be produced using the advanced 240 kW Solid Oxide Electrolyser by taking input power from the nearby Floating Solar project. 

●    The hydrogen produced during sunshine hours would be stored at high pressure and would be electrified using a 50 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell.

Fuel Cells:

●    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy in fuels into electrical energy directly, promising power generation with high efficiency and low environmental impact.

●    A fuel cell produces electricity, water, and heat using fuel and oxygen in the air.

●    Water is the only emission when hydrogen is the fuel. As hydrogen flows into the fuel cell on the anode side, a platinum catalyst facilitates the separation of the hydrogen gas into electrons and protons (hydrogen ions).

●    The hydrogen ions pass through the membrane (the center of the fuel cell) and, again with the help of a platinum catalyst, combine with oxygen and electrons on the cathode side, producing water.

●    When the cells are stacked in series, the operating voltage increases to 0.7 volts, multiplied by the number of cells stacked.

●    Fuel cells provide a much longer operating life than a battery, and since fuel cells have a higher energy density, they are lighter than an equivalent battery system.

●    Fuel cells do not require recharging; as long as fuel is present, the system will continuously generate electricity.

Difference between Fuel Cells and Electric Vehicles:

●    Fuel cells generate electricity through an electrochemical process unlike electric vehicles, it does not store energy and instead relies on a constant supply of fuel and oxygen. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●    The internal combustion engine of the fuel cell relies on a constant supply of petrol or diesel, and oxygen. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●    Hence, it may be seen as being similar to a conventional internal combustion engine than electric vehicles.

Source: NEWS on AIR

2. Consider the following statements regarding Excavation at Eran:

1) It is situated on the left bank of the Bina River.

2) This excavation at the site revealed the remains of Chalcolithic culture.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: The Chalcolithic cultures of Central India are adequately investigated and studied

●    The Chalcolithic cultures of Central India are adequately investigated and studied. Much of their aspects are sufficiently researched and analyzed.

●    During the last field season 2020-21, Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) carried out excavations at two prominent sites of Chalcolithic affiliations in Central India in the state of Madhya Pradesh.

Excavation at Eran during 2020-21:

●    Eran (ancient Airikina) is situated on the left bank of the Bina (ancient Venva) river and surrounded by it on three sides. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●    Eran is located 75 km north-west from Sagar district headquarter.

●    The recent excavation at this site, during 2020-21, has unearthed a variety of antiquities including a copper coin, an iron arrowhead, terracotta bead, stone beads along with a copper coins, stone celt, beads of steatite and jasper, glass, carnelian, terracotta wheel, animal figurines, miniature pots, iron objects, stone querns, pestles and a red slipped terracotta with inscription in Devnagari.

●    The occurrence of few specimens of plain, thin grey ware is noteworthy. The use of iron was evidenced by few metallic objects at the site.

●    This excavation at the site also revealed the remains of Chalcolithic culture with four major periods i.e. Period I: Chalcolithic (18th -7th BCE), Period II: Early historic (7th – 2nd century BCE), Period II B: 2nd century BCE – 1st century CE, Period III: 1st – 6th century CE and Period IV: late medieval (16th – 18th century CE). Hence statement (2) is correct.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1782315

3. Consider the following statements regarding Excavation at Tewar:

1) In ancient times, it was known as Tripuri.

2) It revealed cultural sequences of Kushanas, Shungas, Satavahanas, and Kalachuris.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: The Chalcolithic cultures of Central India are adequately investigated and studied

●    The Chalcolithic cultures of Central India are adequately investigated and studied. Much of their aspects are sufficiently researched and analyzed.

●    During the last field season 2020-21, Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) carried out excavations at two prominent sites of Chalcolithic affiliations in Central India in the state of Madhya Pradesh.

●    During field season 2021-22, ASI has received proposals for excavations at the sites of Chalcolithic affiliations at Eran, district Sagar and at Tewar, district Jabalpur of Madhya Pradesh.

Excavation at Tewar during 2020-21:

●    Tewar (Tripuri) village is located 12 km west of Jabalpur district on Jabalpur – Bhopal highway. The ancient site of Tripuri is situated nearly 2 km southwest from Tewar village. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●    During 2020-21 ASI conducted excavation of Tewar at two locations, TWR 1 and TWR 2.

●    This excavation did not reach the natural soil and revealed four folds of cultural sequences i.e. Kushana, Shunga, Satavahana, and KalachuriHence statement (2) is correct.

●    Antiquarian remains in this excavation include viz remains of sculptures, hopscotch, terracotta balls, Iron nails, copper coins, terracotta beads, implements of Iron and terracotta figurine, in ceramics red ware, black ware, red slipped ware with shapes of handi, bowl, spouted pot, small pot, big jar, etc., structural remains consist of brick wall and structure of sandstone columns.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1782315

4. Jaya Jaitly committee is related to which of the following?

a)  Raise the legal age of marriage

b) Impose of Extending Lockdown

c)  Encroachment of water bodies

d) Economics of renewable energy sources

Answer: (a) Raise the legal age of marriage

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why raise legal age of marriage for women, or why not

●    The Cabinet’s decision to raise the legal age of marriage for women is based on the recommendation of a panel led by Jaya JaitlyHence option (a) is correct.

●    The task force was set up by the WCD Ministry to re-examine age of marriage and its correlation to health and social indices such as infant mortality, maternal mortality, and nutrition levels among mothers and children.

●    Jaitly has said the recommendation is not based on the rationale of population control (India’s total fertility rate is already declining) but more with women’s empowerment and gender parity.

●    The committee has said access to education and livelihood must be enhanced simultaneously for the law to be effective.

●    The marriage age at 18 was set in 1978, but child marriage started to decline only in the 1990s, when the government stressed primary education of the girl child and took measures to reduce poverty.

●    The experts said girls being taken out of school to be married off is a reasoning blown out of proportion; often the girl child drops out after primary school simply because she has no access to higher education, and is then married off.

Who will be affected?

●    Experts noted that 70% of early marriages take place in deprived communities such as SCs and STs, and said the law will simply push these marriages underground instead of preventing them. According to NFHS 4 (2015-16), the median age at first marriage for women aged 25-49 is higher among the social categories of Others (19.5 years), OBC (18.5), ST (18.4) and SC (18.1).

●    The experts said rural women will be affected more than urban women. According to NFHS 4, the median age at first marriage (age 25-49) for urban women (19.8) is 1.7 years more than that for rural women (18.1).

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-raise-legal-age-of-marriage-for-women-or-why-not-7676737/

5. Consider the following statements regarding Parvovirus:

1) It is a highly contagious viral disease that can also be life-threatening in puppies and dogs.

2) It affects the intestinal tract of canines.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is Parvovirus that has affected over 2,000 dogs in Maharashtra’s Amaravati city?

While there is no official data available on the number of deaths, as per the animal rescue organisation’s data, 17 stray dogs died during treatment last month.

What is Parvovirus?

●    It is a highly contagious viral disease that can also be life-threatening in puppies and dogs. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●    Parvovirus affects the intestinal tract of canines with puppies being more susceptible. Bloody diarrhoea, vomiting, drastic weight loss, dehydration and lethargy are some of the symptoms. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●    The virus has reported a 90 per cent mortality rate.

●    Nearly 2,000 pet and stray dogs in Amravati city (50 per cent of the city’s dog population) were affected by the virus

●    Amravati-based WASA Conservation organisation, which is also a rescue centre for stray dogs, said the government-run clinic is getting reports of at least 20 dogs affected by the virus daily

●    Parvovirus in pets is due to the Covid-19 pandemic that compelled many pet owners to avoid timely vaccination of their dogs.

How does the virus spread in dogs?

●    The highly contagious virus spreads through direct contact with an infected dog or by indirect contact with a contaminated object, including the hands and clothing of people who handle infected dogs.

●    The dogs can get exposed to the parvovirus every time it sniffs, licks, or consume infected faeces. 

●    Parvovirus has no cure and inoculating a puppy or a dog gives them a fighting chance against the infection.

●    The first dose is given at 45 days old and the second 21 days after the first dose.

●    Parvovirus can be transmitted through the touch and clothing of people who have touched infected dogs.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-parvovirus-that-has-affected-over-2000-dogs-in-maharashtras-amaravati-city-767876/

6. Consider the following statements regarding Salar Masud:

1) He was the nephew of Mahmud of Ghazni.

2) His tomb is at Bahraich in Uttar Pradesh.

3) The most comprehensive source of information about him is found in Mirat-e-Masaud.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)  1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Salar Masud-Raja Suhaldev battle and other historical episodes that PM Modi spoke about in Kashi

Recently, the Indian Prime Minister, while inaugurating Kashi Vishwanath Dham Corridor in Varanasi,  referred to several historical episodes including the battle between Salar Masud and Raja Suhaldev.

About Salar Masud-

▪          He was known as Ghazi Mian and believed to have acquired popularity as a warrior in the 12th century. 

●    He was the nephew of the 11th century Turkik invader, Mahmud of Ghazni, whose invasion of India is known as the moment when Islam entered large parts of the subcontinent.  Hence statement (1) is correct.

●    His tomb at Bahraich in Uttar Pradesh stands as a place of pilgrimage (mainly during the Urs festival ) for a large number of Muslims as well as Hindus.  Hence statement (2) is correct.

●    The most comprehensive source of information about Ghazi Mian is the Mirat-e-Masaud (Mirror of Masaud), a 17th century Persian hagiography written by Abdur Rahman Chisti, a Sufi saint of the Chisti order. Hence statement (3) is correct.

▪          It was at Bahraich, where in the course of a battle in 1034 CE between Masud and a local king by the name Suheldev that the former was wounded by an arrow and succumbed.

▪          The 13th century Sufi poet and scholar Amir Khusrao is known to have mentioned him in his writings.

▪          The 14th century Moroccan traveller Ibn Batuta had supposedly visited his shrine at Bahraich along with Sultan Mohammad Bin Tughlaq. 

▪          Mughal emperor Akbar is known to have made a land grant in 1571 CE for the sake of maintaining Ghazi Miyan’s shrine. 

About Raja Suhaldev-

▪          He was the king of Shravasti during the 11th century.

▪          According to Mirat-e-Masudi, Suhaldev belonged to the “Bhar Tharu” community.

▪          He is believed to have been the eldest son of the king of the Bhar community, from which emerged the Pasi community, a Dalit caste group of the region. 

▪          Popular history of the region identifies him by several names including Suhaldev, Sakardev, Sahardev, and Suhildev. 

▪          In 2016 Amit Shah hailed Suheldev as a national hero and unveiled his statue at Bahraich. 

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/salar-masud-raja-suhaldev-battle-historical-episodes-pm-modi-kashi-7674668/

7. Consider the following statements regarding VIHANGAM:

1) It is an Internet-based system integrated with a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System.

2) It enables real-time transmission of aerial video of mining activities from mines to internet platforms.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)  Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘VIHANGAM’-   Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) at Mahanadi Coalfields Limited

●    An internet-based platform called ‘VIHANGAM’ integrated with a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) at Mahanadi Coalfields Limited (MCL) was inaugurated on 1st September 2021Hence statement (1) is correct.

The salient features of the said system are as under-

●    The system consists of a Ground Control Station (GCS), an RPAS, internet lease line of 40 Mbps and VIHANGAM portal. It has been deployed at two opencast mines of MCL namely Bhubaneswari and Lingaraj initially on trial basis.

●    The system enables real-time transmission of aerial video of mining activities from mines to internet platforms which can be accessed through VIHANGAM portal by authorized personnel only having ID and password. Hence statement (2) is correct.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1781712

8. Consider the following statements regarding adjournment motion:

1) It is introduced only in the Lok Sabha.

2) It needs the support of 50 members to be admitted.

3) It involves an element of censure against the government.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)  1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Lakhimpur Kheri violence | Post-SIT report, Opposition seeks Ajay Mishra’s ouster

●    Lok Sabha witnessed multiple disruptions following the Congress-led Opposition’s demand of sacking Minister of State (MoS) for Home Affairs Ajay Mishra ‘Teni’ in connection with the Lakhimpur Kheri violence that claimed the lives of eight people, including four farmers.

●    He submitted an adjournment motion notice seeking the dismissal of Mr. Mishra

●    SIT told a court that charges against all the 13 accused, including the MoS’s son, Ashish Mishra, should be modified as the violence was part of a planned conspiracy.

Adjournment motion:

●    It is introduced in the Lok Sabha to draw the attention of the House to a definite matter of urgent public importance.

●    It involves an element of censure against the government. Hence statement (3) is correct.

●    It can be moved only in Lok SabhaHence statement (1) is correct.

●    It involves an element of censure against the government, therefore Rajya Sabha is not permitted to make use of this device.

●    It is regarded as an extraordinary device as it interrupts the normal business of the House. It needs the support of 50 members to be admitted. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●    The discussion on this motion should last for not less than two hours and thirty minutes.

●    However, the right to move a motion for an adjournment of the business of the House is subject to the following restrictions

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/lakhimpur-kheri-violence-rahul-gandhi-gives-adjournment-notice-in-lok-sabha-for-discussing-sit-report/article37958996.ece

9. Consider the following statements regarding Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora:

1) India is a signatory to CITES.

2) It is administered by UNEP and is located in Geneva, Switzerland.

3) Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)  1 and 2 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Govt brings Bill to amend wildlife law

The amendments propose to streamline wildlife management and monitoring by setting up Standing Committees of State Boards of Wildlife.

Forests Minister Bhupender Yadav introduced in Lok Sabha the Wildlife Protection (Amendment) Bill to ensure that the original 1972 Act complies with the requirements of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

About CITES

●        CITES is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered species.

●        One of its main aims is to regulate the international trade of animals and plants so that it does not threaten their survivalHence statement (3) is correct.

●        India is a signatory to CITES. Hence statement (1) is correct.

●        CITES entered into force in July 1975. Currently there are 183 Parties (including countries or regional economic integration organizations).

●        Aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.

●        The CITES Secretariat is administered by UNEP (The United Nations Environment Programme) and is located at Geneva, Switzerland. Hence statement (2) is correct.

●        The Conference of the Parties to CITES, is the supreme decision-making body of the Convention and comprises all its Parties.

●        Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties, it does not take the place of national laws.Rather, it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level.

●        Appendices I, II and III to the Convention are lists of species afforded different levels or types of protection from over-exploitation.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/govt-brings-bill-to-amend-wildlife-law-7678575/

10. When reference to carbon nanotubes, consider the following statements:

1) They can be used as carriers of drugs and antigens in the human body.

2) They can be made into artificial blood capillaries for an injured part of the human body.

3) They can be used in biochemical sensors.

4) Carbon nanotubes are biodegradable.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

a)  1 and 2 only

b) 2, 3 and 4 only

c)  1, 3 and 4 only

d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Explanation:

●        Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylindrical large molecules consisting of a hexagonal arrangement of hybridized carbon atoms, which may be formed by rolling up a single sheet of graphene (single-walled carbon nanotubes, SWCNTs) or by rolling up multiple sheets of graphene (multiwalled carbon nanotubes, MWCNTs). Hence structurally, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be viewed as wrapped from graphene sheets. Hence statements (1) and (2) are correct.

●        Enzymes like peroxidase were found to play an important role in the process of biodegradation of carbon nanotubes. Hence statement (4) is correct.