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Daily Prelims Test – 18_September 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Chlorophyll-A

  1. It is a dominant pigment found in phytoplankton cell and present in a few areas of the ocean.
  2. It is present only in green algae and in the plants.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: New study helps monitor trends in phytoplankton biomass in Bay of Bengal

  • Researchers have discovered way to measure the quantity of chlorophyll-a in the Bay of Bengal — a dominant pigment found in phytoplankton cell and present in a few areas of the ocean — in real-timeHence statement 1 is correct
  • The research was carried out by a team of scientists from the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS).

About Chlorophyll a

  • Chlorophyll a is the primary photosynthetic pigment
  • It is present in all plants, algae, bacteria, cyanobacteria and phototrophs. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

About Phytoplanktons

  • Phytoplanktons are tiny microscopic plants found in the ocean. They are important ecological indicators that regulate life in ocean. They have chlorophyll to capture sunlight, and use photosynthesis to turn it into chemical energy. They consume carbon dioxide and release oxygen.
  • All phytoplankton photosynthesise, but some get additional energy by consuming other organisms.
  • Phytoplanktons contribute to more than half of the oxygen that we breathe. That apart, they influence our climate by absorbing human-induced carbon dioxide, a heat-trapping greenhouse gas. They also serve as the foundation of the aquatic food web.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/new-study-helps-monitor-trends-in-phytoplankton-biomass-in-bay-of-bengal-73377


Consider the following statements regarding Djibouti Code of Conduct/Jeddah Amendment (DCOC/JA)

  1. It is aimed at repression of piracy and armed robbery against ships in the Western Indian Ocean Region, the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea.
  2. India is a founding member of this DCOC/JA.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India joins Djibouti Code of Conduct: Enhances Indian Ocean outreach

  • India has joined the Djibouti Code of Conduct/ Jeddah Amendment, as Observer, following the high level meeting of the Djibouti Code of Conduct/ Jeddah Amendment (DCOC/JA) held virtually on August 26 boosting its Indian Ocean Region outreach.

About Djibouti Code of Conduct/Jeddah Amendment

  • It is a grouping on maritime matters comprising 18 member states adjoining the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, the East Coast of Africa and Island countries in the Indian Ocean Region.
  • The DCOC/JA Member Nations include Ethiopia, Eritrea, Egypt, Jordan, Comoros, Djibouti, Kenya, Maldives, Madagascar, Mozambique, Mauritius, Oman, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Somalia, Seychelles, United Arab Emirates, United Republic of Tanzania and Yemen.
  • It is a regional maritime security cooperation agreement established by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) in 2008. 
  • It is aimed at repression of piracy and armed robbery against ships in the Western Indian Ocean Region, the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Jeddah Amendment recognizes the important role of the “blue economy” including shipping, seafaring, fisheries and tourism in supporting sustainable economic growth, food security, employment, prosperity and stability.
  • India has joined Japan, Norway, the UK and the US as Observers to the DCOC/JAHence statement 2 is incorrect

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/india-joins-djibouti-code-of-conduct-enhances-indian-ocean-outreach/articleshow/78153310.cms


Solar Dynamics Observatory is an initiative of which of the following space agency?

  1. Both NASA and Space X
  2. Both ESA and Roscosmos
  3. Only ESA
  4. Only NASA

Answer: (d) Only NASA

Explanation:

In NEWS: How Scientists Around the World Track the Solar Cycle

  • Images from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory show the Sun near solar minimum in October 2019 and the last solar maximum in April 2014.

About The SDO Mission

  • The Solar Dynamics Observatory is the first mission to be launched for NASA’s Living With a Star (LWS) Program, a program designed to understand the causes of solar variability and its impacts on EarthHence option (d) is correct
  • SDO is designed to help us understand the Sun’s influence on Earth and Near-Earth space by studying the solar atmosphere on small scales of space and time and in many wavelengths simultaneously.
  • SDO’s goal is to understand, driving towards a predictive capability, the solar variations that influence life on Earth and humanity’s technological systems by determining :
  • how the Sun’s magnetic field is generated and structured
  • how this stored magnetic energy is converted and released into the heliosphere and geospace in the form of solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in the solar irradiance.

Source: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2020/how-scientists-around-world-track-solar-cycle-sunspots-sun


Consider the following statements regarding Banking Regulation (Amendment) Bill, 2020

  1. It proposes amendments to the Banking Regulation Act, 1949.
  2. It aims to bring cooperative banks under the supervision of the Reserve Bank of India including Primary agricultural credit societies

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Banking Regulation Amendment Bill, 2020 passed. What it means for banks, customers

In the wake of deteriorating condition of cooperative banks in the country, the central government amended the Banking Regulation Act, 1949.

About Banking Regulation (Amendment) Bill, 2020

  • The Bill proposes amendments to the Banking Regulation Act, 1949. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Bill allows the central bank to initiate a scheme for reconstruction or amalgamation of a bank without placing it under moratorium.
  • It aims to bring cooperative banks under the supervision of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
  • The co-operative banks will be allowed to issue equity, preference, or special shares on face value or at a premium to its members, or to any other person residing within their area of operations. The banks may also issue unsecured debentures or bonds or similar securities with maturity of ten or more years to such persons
  • No person will be entitled to demand payment towards surrender of shares issued to him by a co-operative bank, the Bill states.
  • The Bill mentions that RBI may exempt a cooperative bank or a class of cooperative banks from certain provisions of the Act through notification.
  • The Bill discards the provision of Banking Regulation Act, 1949 that cooperative banks cannot open a new place of business or change the location of the banks outside of the village, town, or city in which it is currently located without permission from RBI.
  • Exclusion: The Banking Regulation Amendment Bill, 2020 will not be applicable to a) Primary agricultural credit societies, b) Cooperative societies whose principal business is long term financing for agricultural development. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Source: https://www.livemint.com/industry/banking/banking-regulation-amendment-bill-2020-passed-what-it-means-for-banks-customers-11600337144895.html


Consider the following statements regarding Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda Bill, 2020

  1. It seeks to merge three Ayurveda institutes into one institution by the name of Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda
  2. The Bill provides that the Institute will consist of 15 members.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWSParliament passes Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda Bill 2020

  • The Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda (ITRA) is sought to be established by conglomerating the presently existing Ayurveda institutes at Gujarat Ayurved University campus in Jamnagar.
  • The existing institutes which will be merged into the Institute are: (i) the Institute of Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar, (ii) Shree Gulabkunverba Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Jamnagar, and, (iii) the Indian Institute of Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jamnagar.

About Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda Bill, 2020

  • The Bill seeks to merge three Ayurveda institutes into one institution by the name of Institute of Teaching and Research in Ayurveda. The Bill declares the Institute to be an institution of National Importance. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Bill states that the object of the Institute will be to: (i) develop patterns of teaching in medical education in Ayurveda and pharmacy, (ii) bring together educational facilities for training of personnel in all branches of Ayurveda, (iii) attain self-sufficiency in postgraduate education to meet the need for specialists and medical teachers in Ayurveda, and (iv) make an in-depth study and research in the field of Ayurveda. 
  • The Bill provides that the Institute will consist of 15 membersHence statement 2 is correct
  • The functions of the Institute will include: (i) provide for undergraduate and postgraduate teaching in Ayurveda (including pharmacy), (ii) prescribe courses and curricula for both undergraduate and postgraduate studies in Ayurveda
  • The Bill requires the Institute to maintain a fund for meeting its expenses. It will be credited with funds received from the central government

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/education/parliament-passes-institute-of-teaching-and-research-in-ayurveda-bill-2020/story-C2W8kKmGtavlMJKjgJLwZI.html


Consider the following statements regarding Adjournment motion

  1. It is introduced both in the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
  2. It needs the support of 50 members to be admitted.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Gaurav Gogoi gives adjournment motion notice in Lok Sabha over frequent blasts and casualties at Baghjan oil field, Assam

About Adjournment motion

  • It is introduced in the Parliament to draw attention of the House to a definite matter of urgent public importance and needs the support of 50 members to be admitted. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • As it interrupts the normal business of the House, it is regarded as an extraordinary device. It involves an element of censure against the government and hence Rajya Sabha is not permitted to make use of this device. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The discussion on an adjournment motion should last for not less than two hours and thirty minutes.
  • The right to move a motion for an adjournment of the business of the House is subject to the following restrictions:
  • It should raise a matter which is definite, factual, urgent and of public importance.
  • It should not cover more than one matter.
  • It should be restricted to a specific matter of recent occurrence and should not be framed in general terms.
  • It should not raise a question of privilege.
  • It should not revive discussion on a matter that has been discussed in the same session.
  • It should not deal with any matter that is under adjudication by court.
  • It should not raise any question that can be raised on a distinct motion.

Source: https://energy.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/oil-and-gas/gaurav-gogoi-gives-adjournment-motion-notice-in-lok-sabha-over-frequent-blasts-and-casualties-at-baghjan-oil-field-assam/78163185


Survey of India is the National Survey and Mapping Organization of the country under the:

  1. Department of Earth Sciences
  2. Department of Science & Technology
  3. Department of Border Management
  4. Department of Defence

Answer: (a) Department of Earth Sciences

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why Nepal and China are measuring the height of Mt Everest again

  • Almost a year after China and Nepal together decided to re-measure the elevation of the world’s highest mountain, the two countries are soon expected to announce its latest official height
  • Everest’s current official height– 8,848m– has been widely accepted since 1956, when the figure was measured by the Survey of India. The height of the summit, however, is known to change because of tectonic activity, such as the 2015 Nepal earthquake.
  • A team from Nepal completed its task last year, and China carried out its expedition in May 2020, amid the coronaviruspandemic. Both teams are using different points of reference for sea level – China using the Yellow sea and Nepal using a point close to the Bay of Bengal coast.

About Survey of India

  • Survey of India, The National Survey and Mapping Organization of the country under the Department of Science & Technology, is the OLDEST SCIENTIFIC DEPARTMENT OF THE GOVT. OF INDIA. Hence option (a) is correct
  • It was set up in 1767 and has evolved rich traditions over the years.
  • In its assigned role as the nation’s Principal Mapping Agency, Survey of India bears a special responsibility to ensure that the country’s domain is explored and mapped suitably, provide base maps for expeditious and integrated development and ensure that all resources contribute with their full measure to the progress, prosperity and security of our country now and for generations to come.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-china-and-nepal-are-measuring-mt-everests-height-again-6597257/


Consider the following statements regarding World Trade Organization

  1. It is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations.
  2. It is located in Geneva, Switzerland.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: US violated international trade rules with tariffs on China, says WTO

  • The World Trade Organization undercut the main justification for US President Donald Trump’s trade war against China, saying that American tariffs on Chinese goods violate international 
  • A panel of three WTO trade experts said the US broke internationalrules when it imposed tariffs on Chinese goods in 2018. 

About World Trade Organization

  • The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is a forum for governments to negotiate trade agreements and a place to settle trade disputes.
  • Its main function is to ensure that trade flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible.
  • Currently, WTO has 164 members.
  • The WTO officially commenced in 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement, signed by 124 nations, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which commenced in 1948.
  • The WTO Secretariat is located in Geneva, Switzerland. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • India has been a WTO member since 1995 and was also a member of GATT since 1948.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/international/us-violated-international-trade-rules-with-tariffs-on-china-says-wto-120091600114_1.html


Which of the following statements is/are correct about Leptarma Biju?

  1. It is the state animal of Odisha
  2. It is a volcanic archipelago
  3. It is a new species of tree-spider crab
  4. It refers to a floral embroidery from Tamil Nadu

Answer: (c) It is a new species of tree-spider crab

Explanation:

In NEWS: A crustacean makes a belated appearance

  • The squarish external body cover (carapace) of the crabis light yellow with dark purplish patches, the ambulatory legs are light violet with reticulate patches, while the dactylus is light yellow. Another notable feature of the crab is its eye extending distinctly beyond the tip of the external orbital tooth.
  • The researchers from the National University of Singapore and the Department of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, University of Kerala, have reported a new species called Leptarma Biju.

About Leptarma Biju

  • It is a new species of tree-spider crab from a mangrove forest in Kasaragod, Kerala. Hence option (c) is correct
  • The new species is named Leptarma Biju after A. Biju Kumar who is the head of Department of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, University of Kerala.
  • It the first report of the genus Leptarma from India.
  • Its characteristic features are its long ambulatory legs and short and hook-like dactylus that have adapted the crustacean for tree-climbing.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/a-crustacean-makes-a-belated-appearance/article32632693.ece#:~:text=The%20new%20species%20is%20named,crabs%20in%20Kerala%20to%2023.


In India, it is legally mandatory for which of the following to report on cyber security incidents?

  1. Service providers
  2. Data centres
  3. Body corporate

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

  • The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team shall serve as the national agency for performing the following functions in the area of cyber security,– (a) collection, analysis and dissemination of information on cyber incidents; (b) forecast and alerts of cyber security incidents; (c) emergency measures for handling cyber security incidents; (d) coordination of cyber incidents response activities.
  • Any service provider, intermediaries, data centres, body corporate or person who fails to provide the information called for or comply with the above section shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees or with both. Hence option (d) is correct