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Daily Prelims Test – 18_November 2020

Consider the following statements

  • Article 32 allows the people to directly approach the Supreme Court against violation of their fundamental rights and violation for other rights.
  • Article 226 is a fundamental right like Article 32.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: How has the Supreme Court interpreted Article 32 over the years?

  • Supreme Court Bench headed by Chief Justice of India S A Bobde observed that it is “trying to discourage” individuals from filing petitions under Article 32 of the Constitution. The observation came during the hearing of a petition seeking the release of journalist Siddique Kappan, who was arrested with three others while on their way to Hathras, Uttar Pradesh, to report on an alleged gangrape and murder.

What is Article 32 of the Constitution of India?

  • It is one of the fundamental rights listed in the Constitution that each citizen is entitled. Article 32 deals with the ‘Right to Constitutional Remedies’, or affirms the right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred in Part III of the Constitution.
  • It states that the Supreme Court “shall have power to issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by this Part”.
  • The right guaranteed by this Article “shall not be suspended except as otherwise provided for by this Constitution”.
  • The Article is included in Part III of the Constitution with other fundamental rights including to Equality, Freedom of Speech and Expression, Life and Personal Liberty, and Freedom of Religion. Only if any of these fundamental rights is violated can a person can approach the Supreme Court directly under Article 32. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • In civil or criminal matters, the first remedy available to an aggrieved person is that of trial courts, followed by an appeal in the High Court and then the Supreme Court. When it comes to violation of fundamental rights, an individual can approach the High Court under Article 226 or the Supreme Court directly under Article 32. Article 226, however, is not a fundamental right like Article 32. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

And what have been its observations over the years?

  • In a judgment in the  Chandra Kumar vs Union of India and Others case, a bench of seven judges had unequivocally declared that Article 32 was an integral and essential feature of the Constitution and constituted its basic structure.
  • Similarly, in a judgment in the P. Sampath Kumar vs Union of India case, it was observed that the Supreme Court’s powers under Article 32 formed part of the basic structure of the Constitution.
  • During the 1975 Emergency, a five-judge bench of the Supreme Court, in the ADM Jabalpur vs Shivakant Shukla case, had ruled that the right to constitutional remedies under Article 32 would remain suspended during a national emergency. People were unable to seek recourse to enforcement of their fundamental rights.
  • After the Janata Party won the 1977 general elections, it passed the 44th Amendmentto “restore the Constitution to the condition it was in before the Emergency”. 

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/article-32-and-supreme-court-fundamental-rights-7055040/


Consider the following statements regarding Habeas corpus

  • It can be issued against both public authorities as well as private individuals
  • The principle of locus standi is a mandatory in case of an order issuing writ of Habeas corpus

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

  • Chief Justice of India S.A. Bobde has said that the Supreme Court was trying to discourage people from approaching it with petitions filed under Article 32, a redressal mechanism in cases where the fundamental rights of an individual are violated.
  • The top court said this Monday while hearing the habeas corpus plea filed under Article 32 by the Kerala Union of Working Journalists for the release of journalist Siddique Kappan.

About Habeas Corpus

  • It is a Latin term which literally means ‘to have the body of’.
  • It is an order issued by the court to a person who has detained another person, to produce the body of the latter before it.
  • The court then examines the cause and legality of detention. It would set the detained person free, if the detention is found to be illegal. Thus, this writ is a bulwark of individual liberty against arbitrary detention. Principle of locus standi’ – means that the writ can be sought by any interested person and not necessarily by the aggrieved person.
  • In case of Habeas corpus and Quo – Warranto, Locus standi is not necessary; whereas in case of Certiorari , Prohibition, Mandamus – Locus Standi is mandatory The writ of habeas corpus can be issued against both public authorities as well as private individuals. Hence statement 2 is incorrect and Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is not issued where the (a) detention is lawful, (b) the proceeding is for contempt of a legislature or a court, (c) detention is by a competent court, and (d) detention is outside the jurisdiction of the court. Unlike the other four writs, this can be sought by any interested person and not necessarily by the aggrieved person.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/article-32-and-supreme-court-fundamental-rights-7055040/


Consider the following statements regarding mRNA

  • It is a single-stranded RNA (Ribo Nucleic Acid) molecule that is complementary to one of the DNA strands of a gene.
  • It is an RNA version of the gene that leaves the cell nucleus and moves to the cytoplasm where proteins are made.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is mRNA vaccine?

  • The Moderna and Pfizer vaccines use the same technology, based on messenger RNA, or mRNA.
  • Moderna announced results of human trials on the vaccine it has developed with US National Institutes of Health. The trials found the vaccine 5 per cent effective, and the announcement comes days after Pfizer had released trial results showing 90 per cent effectivenessin its own vaccine, developed in collaboration with BioNTech-Fosun Pharma.
  • The Moderna and Pfizer vaccines use the same technology, based on messenger RNA, or mRNA. Such vaccines make use of the messenger RNA molecules that tell the body’s cells what proteins to build.
  • A coronavirus vaccine based on mRNA, once injected into the body, will instruct the body’s cells to create copies of the spike protein. In turn, this is expected to prompt the immune cells to create antibodies to fight it.
  • These antibodies will remain in the blood and fight the real virus if and when it infects the human body.

About mRNA

  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a single-stranded RNA (Ribo Nucleic Acid) molecule that is complementary to one of the DNA strands of a gene. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The mRNA is an RNA version of the gene that leaves the cell nucleus and moves to the cytoplasm where proteins are made. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • During protein synthesis, an organelle called a ribosome moves along the mRNA, reads its base sequence, and uses the genetic code to translate each three-base triplet, or codon, into its corresponding amino acid.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/what-is-mrna-vaccine-7054131/


In which one of the following States is Dibru-Saikhowa national park located?

  • Arunachal Pradesh
  • Manipur
  • Meghalaya
  • Assam

Answer: (d) Assam

Explanation:

In NEWS: No biodiversity study done yet for drilling inside Assam’s Dibru-Saikhowa national park, OIL tells Gauhati HC

  • OIL maintained that existing rules do not require it to conduct public consultations and added that oil and gas exploration and extraction has not started yet
  • No public consultations were held before granting environmental clearance for the proposed drilling operations inside Assam’s Dibru-Saikhowa National Park, Oil India Limited (OIL) said in an affidavit filed in the Gauhati high court

About Dibru-Saikhowa national park

  • DSNP is a national park in Assam located in Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts. Hence option (d) is the correct answer.
  • It was designated a Biosphere Reserve in July 1997 with an area of 765 sq.km.
  • The park is bounded by the Brahmaputra and Lohit Rivers in the north and Dibru river in the south.
  • It mainly consists of moist mixed semi-evergreen forests, moist mixed deciduous forests, canebrakes and grasslands.
  • It is the largest Salix swamp forest in north-eastern India, with a tropical monsoon climate with a hot and wet summer and cool and usually dry winter.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/no-biodiversity-study-done-yet-for-drilling-inside-assam-s-dibru-saikhowa-national-park-oil-tells-gauhati-hc/story-tseXaQc7TNr5D6QgPKIjJJ.html


Recently, Prime Minister unveiled the “statue of peace” in the memory of;

  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
  • Jain Acharya shree vijay vallabh surishwer ji maharaj
  • Mahatma Gandhi
  • None of the above

Answer: b) Jain Acharya shree vijay vallabh surishwer ji maharaj

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM Modi unveils ‘Statue of Peace’ to mark 151st birth anniversary of Jainacharya Vijay Vallabh

  •  The Prime Minister unveiled the ‘Statue of Peace’ to mark the 151st Birth Anniversary celebrations of Jainacharya Shree Vijay Vallabh Surishwer Ji Maharaj. Hence option (b) is the correct answer.
  •  The 151 inch tall statue has been made from Ashtadhatu i.e. 8 metals, with Copper being the major constituent, and is installed at Vijay Vallabh Sadhana Kendra, Jetpura, in Pali, Rajasthan.
  •  Shree Vijay Vallabh Surishwer Ji Maharaj (1870-1954) led an austere life as a Jain Saint working selflessly and dedicatedly to spread the message of Lord Mahavira.
  •  He also worked relentlessly for the welfare of masses, the spread of education, eradication of social evils, wrote inspiring literature (poetry, essays, devotional hymns and Stavans) and gave active support to the freedom movement and the cause of Swadeshi.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/pm-modi-unveils-statue-of-peace-to-mark-151st-birth-anniversary-of-jainacharya-vijay-vallabh/story-dWszKf0CYCpA9iTwJjqKrM.html


Consider the following statements

  •  As per Article 217, every Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the concerned State.
  •  Every Judge of a High Court shall hold office, in the case of an additional or acting Judge, as provided in Article 224, and in any other case, until he attains the age of sixty two years
  •  The office of a Judge shall be vacated by his being appointed by the President to be a Judge of the Supreme Court or by his being transferred by the President to any other High Court within the territory of India.

Which of the statement(s) is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: 28 additional judges of Allahabad High Court made permanent

  •  As per Article 217, every Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the concerned State. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  Every Judge of a High Court shall hold office, in the case of an additional or acting Judge, as provided in Article 224, and in any other case, until he attains the age of sixty two years provided that, hence statement 2 is correct
    •  a Judge may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office;
    •  a Judge may be removed from his office by the President in the manner provided in clause ( 4 ) of Article 124 for the removal of a Judge of the Supreme Court;
    •  The office of a Judge shall be vacated by his being appointed by the President to be a Judge of the Supreme Court or by his being transferred by the President to any other High Court within the territory of India. Hence statement 3 is correct.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/28-additional-judges-of-allahabad-high-court-made-permanent/article33119790.ece


Consider the following statements

  •  Energy Efficiency Service Limited and Department of New and Renewable Energy have signed a MOU to implement India’s first green energy convergence project.
  •  Maharashtra is the first state in India to implement this green energy convergence project.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Goa to get India’s first green energy convergence project

  •  Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), a joint venture of PSUs under the Ministry of Power and Department of New & Renewable Energy (DNRE), Goa, have signed a MOU to implement India’s first Convergence Project in the State. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is incorrect.
  •  Under the MoU, EESL and DNRE will carry-out the feasibility studies and subsequent implementation of decentralized solar energy projects.
  •  EESL shall implement the solar energy projects including
    •  establishment of 100 MW of decentralized ground mounted Solar Power projects on government lands to be used for agricultural pumping,
    •  replacing approximately 6,300 agricultural pumps with BEE star rated energy efficient pumps and
    •  Distribute approximately 16 Lakh LED bulbs for rural domestic households.

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/goa/goa-to-get-indias-first-green-energy-convergence-project/articleshow/79271547.cms


Consider the following statements

  •  Tropical cyclones or hurricanes use warm, moist air as fuel, and therefore form over warm Equatorial water.
  •  Every year, between June and November they hit the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern coast of the United States, sometimes leaving a trail of destruction in their wake.
  •  Each year, tropical storms or hurricanes are named in alphabetical order.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  • 1 and 3 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: How severe is hurricane Iota that made landfall in Central America?

  •  Hurricane Iota made landfall in Nicaragua in Central America on Monday night and has developed into a category five storm.
  •  Tropical cyclones or hurricanes use warm, moist air as fuel, and therefore form over warm Equatorial water. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  Every year, between June and November they hit the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern coast of the United States, sometimes leaving a trail of destruction in their wake. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  Each year, tropical storms are named in alphabetical order. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  •  Low-Pressure Creation: When the warm, moist air rises upward from the surface of the ocean, it creates an area of low air pressure below.
    •  When this happens, the air from the surrounding areas rushes to fill this place, eventually rising when it becomes warm and moist too.
    •  An eye forms in the centre. It is the calmest part of the cyclone. Before the wind reaches the centre it gets warmed up and rises upwards.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-how-severe-is-hurricane-iota-central-america-7054740/


Which of the following countries are bordered with Caspian Sea?

  •  Peru, Ecuador, Chile
  •  Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, China
  •  Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Russia
  •  Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iraq

Answer: (c) Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Russia

Explanation:

In News: India, Kazakhstan reviews entire gamut of bilateral cooperation within framework of their Strategic Partnership

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=India%2c-Kazakhstan-reviews-entire-gamut-of-bilateral-cooperation-within-framework-of-their-Strategic-Partnership&id=404447


In the context of India, which of the following is/are considered to be practice(s) of eco-friendly agriculture?

  • Crop diversification
  • Legume intensification
  • Tensiometer use
  • Vertical farming

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  • 1, 2 and 3 only
  • 3 only
  • 4 only
  • 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1,2,3 and 4

Explanation:

  • Crop diversification refers to the addition of new crops or cropping systems to agricultural production on a particular farm taking into account the different returns from value- added crops with complementary marketing opportunities.
  • Legume Intensification: Legumes fix the atmospheric nitrogen, release in the soil high-quality organic matter and facilitate soil nutrients’ circulation and water retention. Based on these multiple functions, legume crops have high potential for conservation agriculture, being functional either as growing crop or as crop residue
  • Tensiometer Use: A tensiometer in soil science is a measuring instrument used to determine the matric water potential in the vadose zone. When the water pressure in the tensiometer is determined to be in equilibrium with the water pressure in the soil, the tensiometer gauge reading represents the matric potential of the soil. Such tensiometers are used in irrigation scheduling to help farmers and other irrigation managers to determine when to water.
  • Vertical farming is the practice of growing crops in vertically stacked layers. It often incorporates controlled -environment agriculture, which aims to optimize plant growth, and soilless farming techniques such as hydroponics, aquaponics, and aeroponics. In vertical farming, crops are grown indoors, under artificial conditions of light and temperature. Japan has been one of the early pioneers in vertical farming. It holds the largest share in the global vertical farming market.