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Daily Prelims Test – 18_July

1. In which of the following states, Melghat Tiger Reserve is located?

Maharashtra

West Bengal

Assam

Uttarakhand

Answer: (a) Maharashtra

Explanation:

In NEWS: Aaditya urges Gadkari to save a 400-year-old peepal tree from axe

  • State Environment Minister Aaditya Thackeray has written to Nitin Gadkari, Union Minister of Road Transport and Highways, requesting him to save a 400-year-old peepal tree from being reduce within the development of a nationwide freeway.
  • This comes days after the State authorities wrote to the Centre to safeguard a sanctuary in Vidarbha from being a part of a coal area and defend the core space of Melghat tiger reserve from the altering gauge of railway monitor.

About Melghat Tiger Reserve

  • This was the first Tiger Reserve to be declared in the State of Maharashtra, which
  • subsequently get expanded to 2029.04 Sq. KmHence option (a) is correct
  • Location: Situated in the Satpura hill ranges of Central India, Melghat Tiger Reserve lies in Melghat Forests of Amravati district in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra bordering Madhya Pradesh in the North and East
  • River: The Tapti River and the Gawilgarh ridge of the Satpura Range form the boundaries of the reserve.
  • It consists of Gugamal National Park, Wan, Ambawarba and Narnala sanctuaries.
  • The forests are of deciduous nature and have been classified as‘dry deciduous forests’.
  • The Korku tribe adds to the cultural diversity of the Reserve.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/states/aaditya-urges-gadkari-to-save-a-400-year-old-peepal-tree-from-axe/article32119369.ece

2. Consider the following statements regarding National Biopharma Mission

It is an industry-academia collaborative mission for accelerating biopharmaceutical development in the country.

It is being implemented by the Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Human trials of Covid-19 vaccine a milestone for Atmanirbhar Bharat: DBT

Zydus Cadila  said it has initiated Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials of its Covid-19 vaccine candidate. ZyCoV-D, the plasmid DNA vaccine designed and developed by Zydus, has been partially funded by the Department of Biotechnology under the National Biopharma Mission.

About National Biopharma Mission.

  • It is the Industry-Academia Collaborative Mission of Department of Biotechnology (DBT) for accelerating discovery research to early development for Biopharmaceuticals approved by the Cabinet for a total cost US$ 250 million and 50% co-funded by the World Bank is being implemented at Biotechnology Research Assistance Council (BIRAC). Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is correct
  • This program is dedicated to deliver affordable products to the nation with an aim to improve the health standards of India’s population.
  • Vaccines, medical devices and diagnostics and biotherapeutics are few of its most important domains, besides, strengthening the clinical trial capacity and building technology transfer capabilities in the country.
  • The Technical Advisory Group (TAG) chaired by an eminent scientist provides scientific leadership to the mission drawing upon global expertise.
  • Under this Mission, the Government has launched Innovate in India (i3) programme to create an enabling ecosystem to promote entrepreneurship and indigenous manufacturing in the biopharma sector.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/human-trials-of-covid-19-vaccine-a-milestone-for-atmanirbhar-bharat-dbt-120071601015_1.html

3. Consider the following statements regarding Global Carbon Project

It is a Global Research Project of Future Earth and a research partner of the World Climate Research Programme.

It aims to help the international science community to establish a common, mutually agreed knowledge base that supports policy debate and action to slow the rate of increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Methane emissions rose 576 mln tonnes every year between 2008 and 2017: Studies

  • The amount of methane in the Earth’s atmosphere has continued to rise, with 576 million tonnes of the gas added every year between 2008 and 2017, showed two recent studies from the Global Carbon Project.
  • Emissions increased nine per cent compared to the last decade, according to the studies. The atmospheric concentration of the gas occurred for more than a century, the studies pointed out.
  • While methane emissionsbriefly stabilised between 2000 and 2006, concentrations of the gas in the atmosphere now exceed 1,875 parts per billion or about 2.5 times that from the 1850s.
  • Methaneis responsible for a quarter of global warming that occurred since the 1850s, according to climate scientists.

About Global Carbon Project 

  • The Global Carbon Project is a Global Research Project of Future Earth and a research partner of the World Climate Research ProgrammeHence statement 1 is correct
  • It was formed to work with the international science community to establish a common and mutually agreed knowledge base to support policy debate and action to slow down and ultimately stop the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Global Carbon Project was established in 2001 by a shared partnership between the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and Diversitas.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/pollution/methane-emissions-rose-576-mln-tonnes-every-year-between-2008-and-2017-studies-72330

4. World Intellectual Property Indicators Report is an annual report published by the 

World Bank

World Tourism Organization

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

World Intellectual Property Organization 

Answer: (d) World Intellectual Property Organization 

Explanation:

In NEWS: India among top ten nations in intellectual property filings

  • The global growth in IP filings was driven by China which accounted for over 50% of IP filings including patents, trademarks and design.
  • The US was ranked second as it witnessed a 1.6% fall in patent filings, which is the first decline for the country in the previous decade.
  • India was among the top ten countries of the total (resident and abroad) Intellectual Property(IP) filing activity by origin.
  • India saw over 20% growth in trademark filing whereas, in respect of industrial design filing activity, it witnessed a 13.6% rise.
  • India’s IP Filing and grant activity are likely to increase with a government push to schemes like ‘Make in India’, ‘Skill India’ and ‘Atma-nirbhar Bharat’.

About World Intellectual Property Indicators Report:

  • It is an annual report published by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), which provides a wide range of indicators covering the areas of intellectual property. Hence option (d) is correct
  • It draws on data from national and regional IP offices, the WIPO, the World Bank, and UNESCO.
  • The WIPO has been publishing the reports annually since 2009.

Source: http://www.ddinews.gov.in/business/india-among-top-ten-nations-intellectual-property-filings

5. Consider the following statements regarding Delimitation Commission

It is appointed by the President of India

This commission are always headed by the Chief Election Commissioner of India.

Its orders can be questioned in a court of law.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1 only

Answer: (d) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why have questions been raised about the move for delimitation in the Northeast?

  • Delimitation is the act of redrawing boundaries of Lok Sabha and Assembly seats to represent changes in population. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, and Nagaland were left out of the delimitation exercise of 2002-08.
  • But a former EC legal expert has said the setting up of a Delimitation Commission for these states is unconstitutional and illegal.
  • The Election Commission’s (EC) former legal eagle, SK Mendiratta, has red-flagged the Union government’s order setting up a Delimitation Commission for Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Assam and Nagaland, calling it “unconstitutional” and “illegal”

About Delimitation Commission

  • Delimitation is the act of redrawing boundaries of Lok Sabha and Assembly seats to represent changes in population.
  • The Delimitation Commission is appointed by the President of India and works in collaboration with the Election Commission of India. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Delimitation Commission Members: A retired judge of the Supreme Court, The Chief Election Commissioner and State Election Commissioners (of the respective states). Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The Delimitation Commission is a high power body whose orders have the force of law. Its orders cannot be questioned in a court of lawHence statement 3 is incorrect
  • The Delimitation Commission has to determine the number and boundaries of constituencies in such a manner that the population of all seats is the same, as far as possible practically.
  • The Commission also identifies the seats to be reserved for the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes communities, in areas where their population is significant.
  • Delimitation is done on the basis of the preceding Census. The first such exercise in 1950-51 was carried out by the President, with the help of the Election Commission. Following the Delimitation Commission Act in 1952, all such exercises have been conducted by Delimitation Commissions — set up in 1952, 1963, 1973 and 2002.
  • There was no delimitation after the 1981 and 1991 Censuses.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/delimitation-commission-northeast-india-election-commission-6510333/

6. Consider the following statements regarding e-Portal ASPIRE

It is launched by the International Centre for Automotive Technology

It is claimed to be facilitating the Indian automotive industry to become self-reliant by assisting in innovation and adoption of global technological advancements

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: ICAT launches automotive technology e-portal ASPIRE

  • International Centre of Automotive Technology (ICAT) has announced the launch of the automotive technology e-portal ASPIRE, which stands for Automotive Solutions Portal for Industry, Research and Education. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • ICAT said that Department of Heavy Industry (DHI), Govt of India, under the leadership of Secretary, Heavy Industries, has decided to promote innovation, R&D and product development in India for various sectors. The new automotive technology e-portal is claimed to be a part of that strategy.
  • The e-portal is claimed to be facilitating the Indian automotive industry to become self-reliant by assisting in innovation and adoption of global technological advancements by bringing together the stakeholders from various associated avenues. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The key objective of this initiative is “To enhance the technological capability of Indian automotive sector through exchange of knowledge & expertise, in order to make them self reliant and to facilitate the growth of automobile sector and overall socio-economic progress of the country”.
  • This technology platform will facilitate the Indian auto industry (including OEMs, Tier 1 Tier 2 & Tier 3 companies), R&D institutions and academia (colleges & universities) to come together for R&D, technology development, shop floor/ quality/ warranty issue’s resolution, expert opinions etc. on issues involving technology advancements. The e-portal will act as one stop solution.

Source: https://auto.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/industry/icat-launches-automotive-technology-e-portal-aspire/77030152

7. Consider the following statements regarding Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

It identifies multiple deprivations at the household and individual level in health, education and standard of living.

It is launched by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI)

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: 270 million Indians lifted out of poverty by UPA: Chidambaram

  • The senior Congress chief was reacting to a report on poverty information launched by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and OPHI that identified that 65 out of 75 international locations studied considerably lowered their multidimensional poverty ranges between 2000 and 2019. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • About 273 million Indians moved out of multi-dimensional poverty between 2005-6 and 2015-16, the report claimed.

About Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

  • The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) identifies multiple deprivations at the household and individual level in health, education and standard of livingHence statement 1 is correct
  • It uses micro data from household surveys, and—unlike the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index—all the indicators needed to construct the measure must come from the same survey.
  • MPI is based on the idea that poverty is not unidimensional (not just depends on income and one individual may lack several basic needs like education, health etc.), rather it is multidimensional.
  • The global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) is an international measure of acute multidimensional poverty covering over 100 developing countries

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/9-successive-quarters-of-economic-decline-and-an-impending-recession-chidambaram-attacks-govt/article32113891.ece

8. Consider the following statements regarding Canine distemper (Hardpad Disease)

It is a bacteria disease that affects a wide variety of animal families.

There is no cure for this disease

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: 1,000 doses of vaccine imported, says official; ‘Lions that died early this year had canine distemper virus too’

The confirmation comes after the detection of babesiosis among lions in parts of Gir forest and establishes that the combination of the viral and protozoal infections observed in 2018 has occurred again and claimed around 32 big cats.

About Canine Distemper Virus (CDV):

  • Canine distemper (Hardpad Disease) is a viral disease that affects a wide variety of animal families. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It includes domestic and wild species of dogs, coyotes, foxes, pandas, wolves, ferrets, skunks, raccoons, and large cats, as well as pinnipeds, some primates, and a variety of other species.
  • In canines, distemper affects several body systems, including the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and the spinal cord and brain.
  • The disease is highly contagious via inhalation.
  • This virus has caused the death of several Lions in the Gir National Park.
  • No cure is available against the Disease and, it may be prevented by immunization. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/1000-doses-of-vaccine-imported-says-official-lions-that-died-early-this-year-had-canine-distemper-virus-too-6509702/

9. Consider the following statements regarding Mid-Day Meal Scheme

It is covered by the National Food Security Act, 2013

It aims to provide cooked mid-day meal with 450 calories and 12 g of protein to every child at primary level and 700 calories and 20 g of protein at upper primary level.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Punjab govt. stopped mid-day meal, alleges Cong. MP Bajwa

  • Congress Rajya Sabha MP Partap Singh Bajwa on Thursday, in a letter to Punjab Chief Minister Amarinder Singh, alleged that despite the Supreme Court directive urging States to continue with the mid-day meal scheme during the COVID-19 lockdown, State schools have not provided ration to 13 lakh students since April 15, 2020.

About Mid-Day Meal Scheme

  • It was started in 1995 as National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education.
  • The Midday Meal Scheme is covered by the National Food Security Act, 2013. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Mid-Day Meal Scheme (MDMS), is a Centrally-Sponsored Scheme which covers all school children studying in Classes I-VIII of Government, Government-Aided Schools, Special Training Centres (STCs) and Madrasas & Maktabs supported under Samagra Shiksha.
  • The scheme covers more than 12 crore children studying in 11.4 lakh schools across the country.
  • One of the objectives of the Mid-Day Meal Scheme (MDMS) is to improve the nutritional status of children studying in elementary classes in schools covered under the Scheme, by providing hot cooked meal.
  • The scheme guidelines envisage to provide cooked mid-day meal with 450 calories and 12 g of protein to every child at primary level and 700 calories and 20 g of protein at upper primary level. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/punjab-govt-stopped-mid-day-meal-alleges-cong-mp-bajwa/article32107502.ece

10. In the Indian context, what is the implication of ratifying the ‘Additional Protocol’ with the ‘International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)’?

The civilian nuclear reactors come under IAEA safeguards.

The military nuclear installations come under the inspection of IAEA.

The country will have the privilege to buy uranium from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG).

The country automatically becomes a member of the NSG.

Answer: (a) The civilian nuclear reactors come under IAEA safeguards.

Explanation:

  • India has ratified the Additional Protocol, a commitment given under India-U.S. nuclear deal by the previous dispensation to grant greater ease to International Atomic Energy Agency to monitor India’s civilian atomic programmeHence option (a) is correct
  • The IAEA had in March 2009 approved an additional protocol to India’s safeguards agreement consequent to a pact reached with the agency the previous year to place its civilian nuclear facilities under IAEA safeguards.
  • That agreement had paved the way for the 45-member Nuclear Suppliers Group to grant India specific waiver for it to have commercial relations with other countries in the civilian atomic field.