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Daily Prelims Test – 18_July 2021

Mangerbani Cave Paintings belong to which one of the following states?

a) Haryana

b) Maharashtra

c) Odisha

d) Andhra Pradesh

Answer: (a) Haryana

Explanation:

In NEWS: Discovered in Faridabad: Prehistoric cave paintings that could be almost 1 lakh years old

  • The cave paintings first came to light in May this year when an environmental activist, Sunil Harsana, spotted them in Mangarbani hill forest in the Faridabad district of Haryana.
  • Mangerbani Cave Paintings:
  • It was discovered at the prehistoric site of Mangerbani hill forest, Faridabad (Haryana). Hence option (a) is correct.
  • It may be one of the biggest Palaeolithic sites in the Indian sub-continent, where Stone Age tools were recovered from open-air sites as well as from rock shelters.
  • It prompted the Haryana Archeology department to conduct exploration in Shilakhari, Mangar, Kot, and Dhauj of Faridabad district and Roj ka Gujjar and Damdama of Gurgaon district.
  • It is for the first time that a prehistoric site, along with cave paintings and rock art of a large magnitude, has been found in Haryana.
  • The caves are nestled amid a maze of quartzite rocks in the Aravalli mountain ranges.
  • The paintings are yet to be dated but at least some of them belong to the Upper Palaeolithic period in all likelihood. The Upper Paleolithic Age began around 40,000 years ago and lasted till around 10,000 years ago.
  • What are Prehistoric Paintings?
  • The earliest examples of visual art in the form of paintings or carvings on rocks could be seen at the protected heritage sites in the country, in the form of rock shelter drawings and cave paintings or hand prints.
  • These are believed to be dated earlier than 5500 BC.
  • The Bhimbetka Cave Paintings in MP and Ketavaram rock paintings in Andhra Pradesh are made by prehistoric human beings from the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/chandigarh/mangerbani-cave-paintings-1-lakh-years-old-archaeologists-7407264/

PRASHAD Scheme is launched by which one of the following ministries?

a) Ministry of Tourism

b) Ministry of Textiles

c) Ministry of corporate affairs

d) Ministry of Home affairs

Answer: (d) Ministry of Tourism

Explanation:

In NEWS: Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi inaugurates and dedicates PRASHAD projects in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

  • Shri Narendra Modi inaugurated various development projects in Varanasi which includesTourist Facilitation Centre under the Project “Development of Varanasi Under PRASHAD Scheme – Phase II” and operation of Cruise Boat from Assi Ghat to RajGhat under the Project “Development of River Cruise in Varanasi under PRASHAD Scheme”.
  • PRASHAD Scheme:
  • The ‘National Mission on Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive’ (PRASHAD) is a Central Sector Scheme fully financed by the Government of India launched by the Ministry of Tourism in the year 2014-15 with the objective of integrated development of identified pilgrimage and heritage destinations. Hence option (d) is correct.
  • The scheme aimed at infrastructure development such as entry points (Road, Rail and Water Transport), last mile connectivity, basic tourism facilities like Information/ Interpretation Centers, ATM/ Money exchange, eco-friendly modes of transport, area Lighting and illumination with renewable sources of energy, parking, drinking water, toilets, cloak room, waiting rooms, first aid centers, craft bazaars /haats/ souvenir shops/ cafeteria, rain shelters, Telecom facilities, internet connectivity etc.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1735970

Consider the following statements regarding Draft Drone Rules, 2021:

No pilot licence will be required for micro drones used for non-commercial use and all nano drones.

There will be no restriction on drone operations by foreign-owned companies registered in India.

The number of forms to be filled to seek authorization before operating a drone has been reduced.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. a) 1 and 3 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Centre proposes simpler drone rules

 Simplified drone rules, which abolish the need for a large number of approvals, are in the offing in the country.

 Some key provisions of the Draft Drone rules, 2021

  • Reduction in number of forms: The number of forms to be filled to seek authorisation before operating a drone has been reduced from 25 to 6. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • Approvals abolished: many important approval requirements have been abolished, like Unique prototype identification number, certificate of maintenance, Import clearance, etc.
  • Relaxation for R&D entities: Further, no such approvals will be required for drones used for R&D by entities and educational institutions recognized by the Central government, State governments, or Union Territory Administrations.
  • Manufacturers may generate their drone’s unique identification number on the digital sky platformthrough the self-certification route. Digital sky platform is an initiative by the Minister of Civil Aviation (MoCA) to provide a secure and scalable platform that supports drone technology frameworks, such as NPNT (no permission, no take-off). The platform will be under India’s aviation regulator, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA).
  • Under draft drone rules, Digital Sky platformwill also be developed as a business-friendly single-window online system with minimal human interference and most permissions will be self-generated. It will also serve as a unified platform for users to obtain the mandatory registration number and remote pilot license. However, people will need to check the service to determine if any restrictions are in place before they fly a drone at a location.
  • Safety features: The draft Drone Rules 2021 also have safety features such real-time tracking beacon, and geo-fencing, which are expected to be notified in future, and a six-month lead time will be provided for compliance.
  • Air-space map: An interactive airspace map with green, yellow, and red zones will be displayed on the digital sky platform. The zones pertain to what is known as geofencing, which prohibit or limit the use of drones at some places, like close to an airport or over-sensitive military and VIP locations.
  • Green zonerefers to the airspace from the ground up to a vertical distance of 400 feet (120 m) above ground level (AGL) that has not been designated as a red zone or yellow zone in the airspace map for drone operations. No flight permission is required up to 400 feet in green zones and up to 200 feet in the area between 8 and 12 km from the airport perimeter.
  • Yellow zone: To fly in the yellow zone, a drone pilot will require permission from the air traffic control authority.The yellow zone has been reduced from 45 km to 12 km from the nearby airport perimeter.
  • Red zone: In red zones, drone operations shall be permitted only under exceptional circumstancesby the central government.
  • No pilot licence will be requiredfor micro drones used for non-commercial use, nano drones. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • There will be no restriction on drone operations by foreign-owned companies registeredin India. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • Drone corridors: MoCA will facilitate the development of drone corridors for cargo deliveries, and a drone promotion council will be set up to facilitate a business-friendly regulatory regime.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/centre-proposes-simpler-drone-rules/article35338670.ece

Consider the following statements regarding Vikas Engine:

It is a family of liquid fuelled rocket engines conceptualized and designed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre.

It can be used only in the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle(PSLV).

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Third Successful Vikas Engine Long Duration Hot Test for Gaganyaan Program

  • ISRO has successfully conducted the third long duration hot test of the liquid propellant Vikas Engine for the core L110 liquid stage of the human rated GSLV MkIII vehicle, as part of the engine qualification requirements for the Gaganyaan Programme.
  • The engine was fired for a duration of 240 seconds at the engine test facility of ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC), Mahendragiri in Tamil Nadu. The performance of the engine met the test objectives and the engine parameters were closely matching with the predictions during the entire duration of the test.
  • About Vikas Engine
  • Vikas Engine is a liquid fuelled rocket engine indigenously developed by ISRO,
  • Vikas belongs to a family of liquid fuelled rocket engines conceptualized and designed by ISRO’s Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre in the 1970s. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The design was based on a licensed version of Viking engine with chemical pressurisation system.
  • It is used in the PSLV and GSLV vehicles for space launching satellites Vikas engines are employed in the second stage of India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) as well as the second and the four strap-on stages of the Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • The engine uses UH25 (a mixture of unsymmetrical di-methyl hydrazine and hydrazine hydrate) as fuel and nitrogen tetroxide as oxidiser with maximum thrust of about 725 kN.
  • About Gaganyaan Mission:
  • Gaganyaan is India’s first Human Space Flight Programme to be launched by the ISRO.
  • The mission aims to demonstrate ISRO’s capability to send humans to low-earth orbit onboard an Indian launch vehicle and bring them back to Earth.
  • The first unmanned flight is likely to be launched in 2021 and the second demonstration launch could happen in 2022-23 before ISRO finally launches a full-scale manned mission.

Sourcehttps://www.isro.gov.in/update/14-jul-2021/third-successful-vikas-engine-long-duration-hot-test-gaganyaan-program

Consider the following statements regarding Cytomegalovirus (CMV):

It is a common herpes virus that often causes natural infections in childhood.

It is not a contagious disease.

There is no specific cure for CMV.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. a) 1 and 3 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Covid-19: Here’s everything you need to know about ‘cytomegalovirus’

  • Among the many threats associated with the infection, it has now been learnt that cytomegalovirus (CMV) is steadily on the rise.
  • In fact, some hospitals are already believed to have reported cases of rectal bleeding and abdominal pain in patients around 20-30 days after detection of Covid-19.
  • The reason is the suppression of immunity due to the Covid infection, and excessive use of steroids that gives CMV a chance to attack patients.
  • About Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  • Cytomegalovirus(CMV) is also known as Human Herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). It is a common herpes virus that often causes natural infections in childhood and remains asymptomatic in patients with normal immunity. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Once infected, the virus is retained in the body for life. Most people don’t realise that they have been infected by CMV because it rarely causes problems in healthy people.
  • The symptoms usually surface only when carriers become immuno-compromised, such as those suffering from cancer, AIDS, or those who have recently had transplants.
  • The symptoms of CMV range from fever and fatigue to severe symptoms involving the eyes, brain or other internal organs.
  • These symptoms include gastrointestinal bleeding (blood in stools), diarrhea, swollen glands, mouth ulcers, inflamed liver, and inflammation of the brain (encephalitis).
  • CMV spreads between humans via contact with someone who has the disease. Transmission happens through sexual contact and bodily fluids such as urine, blood, saliva, tears, and feces. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • Expecting mothers who develop an active CMV infection during pregnancy can pass on the virus to their babies, which is known as congenital CMV. Children born with it may or may not show symptoms.
  • There is no specific cure for CMV, but there are medicines that can help treat the symptoms. However, medication can suppress the virus, it cannot remove it completely from the body as it stays lifelong in your system. Hence statement (3) is correct.

Sourcehttps://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/health/covid-19-cytomegalovirus-symptoms-causes-7402637/

Consider the following statements regarding School Innovation Ambassador Training Program:

It is a training program for School Teachers.

It will be launched by the Union Education Minister and Tribal Affairs Minister.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Education Minister &Tribal Affairs Minister to launch School Innovation Ambassador Training Program

  • Union Education Minister Dharmendra Pradhan will jointly launch the School Innovation Ambassador Training Program. Tribal Affairs Minister Arjun Munda will be there with him, launching this program. It will be launched to cater to about 50,000 school teachers. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • About School Innovation Ambassador Training Program:
  • The School Innovation Ambassador Training Program is a one of its kind training program for School Teachers. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It aims at training 50,000 school teachers. The training areas will include Innovation, Entrepreneurship, IPR, Design Thinking, Product Development, Idea Generation, and many more.
  • This program has been designed by the Innovation Cell of the Ministry of Education in collaboration with the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE).
  • Significance of the Program:
  • Firstly, the program will help in the skill development of the teachers, which will in turn help in providing a better and innovative education sector in the country.
  • Secondly, the program will equip teachers with new developments in the education sector and make them technically equipped as well.

Sourcehttps://www.timesnownews.com/education/article/education-minister-tribal-affairs-minister-to-launch-school-innovation-ambassador-training-program-today/785713

Consider the following statements regarding Kisan Sarathi:

It was launched by the Union minister of Education.

It is a digital platform to facilitate farmers to get ‘right information at right time’ in their desired language.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: 93rd Foundation day of Indian Council of Agriculture Research celebrated virtually

  • A digital platform with the name Kisan Sarathi has been launched on the occasion of 93rd Foundation Day of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).
  • About Kisan Sarathi
  • It has been jointly launched by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare and Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • It aims to facilitate farmers to get the right information at the right time in their desired language. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It will empower farmers with the technological interventions to reach farmers in remote areas.
  • With the digital platform, the farmers can interact and avail personalised advisories on agriculture and allied areas directly from the respective scientists of Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVKs).
  • The initiative will be highly valuable not only in addressing the location specific information needs of the farmers but also in Agricultural Extension, Education and Research activities of ICAR.
  • Krishi Vigyan Kendra:
  • It is an agricultural extension center in India. Usually associated with a local agricultural university, these centers serve as the ultimate link between the ICAR and farmers, and aim to apply agricultural research in a practical, localized setting.
  • It is an integral part of the National Agricultural Research System (NARS). The first KVK was established in 1974 at Puducherry.
  • The mandate of KVK is technology assessment and demonstration for its application and capacity development.
  • KVKs also produce quality technological products (seed, planting material, bio-agents, livestock) and make it available to farmers.
  • The KVK scheme is 100% financed by the Government of India and the KVKs are sanctioned to Agricultural Universities, ICAR institutes, related Government Departments and Non Government Organizations (NGOs) working in Agriculture.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1736215

Consider the following statements regarding Build Back Better World (B3W) initiative:

It aims to address the infrastructure investment deficit in developing and lower income countries.

It is a proposal made by the G20 countries.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: G-7’s counter to China’s Belt and Road Initiative is welcome, but needs more coherence

  • The G7 (Group of Seven) Countries proposed a ‘Build Back Better World (B3W) initiative’ at the recent 47th G7 summit to counter China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).
  • G-7 leaders finally came around with the proposed Build Back Better World (B3W) to counter China’s rising influence across 100-plus countries through Belt Road Initiative (BRI) projects. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It aims to address the infrastructure investment deficit in developing and lower income countries — the space which has been increasingly captured by China through 2,600 BRI projects with trillions of dollars of investment. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • BRI projects are perceived as corrosive tactics or debt traps laid by China for its strategic dominance in trade, foreign policy and geopolitics in the world.
  • This infrastructure plan is being led by the United States. B3W initiative will provide a transparent infrastructure partnership to help narrow about $40 trillion needed by developing nations by 2035.
  • It calls for spending hundreds of billions of dollars in collaboration with the private sector while adhering to climate standards and labour practices.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/chinas-influence-g-7-leaders-belt-road-initiative-7408524/

Consider the following statements regarding National Commission for Women:

It is a non-constitutional non-statutory body set up in 1992.

It enjoys all the powers of a civil court.

It recommends remedial legislative measures, facilitates redressal of grievances and advises the government on all policy matters affecting women.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 and 3 only
  2. b) 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b) 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: NCW signs MoU with BPR&D for Nation-Wide

  • The National Commission for Women (NCW) has signed an MoU with Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D) for gender sensitization of police personnel across the country. 
  • The objective of the programme is to ensure gender sensitization of police personnel with respect to legislation and policies concerning women and bringing attitudinal and behavioural changes in police officers while dealing with crimes against women.
  • The Commission has been regularly organising gender sensitization programs for police officers to achieve the objective of building trust of women complainants in police.
  • About National Commission for Women
  • The National Commission for Women was set up in 1992 under the National Commission for Women Act, 1990. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • This body was established to review the constitutional and legal safeguards for women.
  • It recommends remedial legislative measures, facilitates redressal of grievances and advises the government on all policy matters affecting women. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • It enjoys all the powers of a civil court. Hence statement (2) is incorrect
  • The first commission was constituted on 31st January 1992 with Jayanti Patnaik as the chairperson.
  • The Commission must consist of a minimum number of members which includes a chairperson, a member secretary, and the other five members.
  • Chairperson:The central government should nominate the chairperson.
  • Five members:The five members are also to be nominated by the central government from amongst the person of ability, integrity, and standing.
  • Member Secretary:The Central Government also nominated member secretary. He/ she should be either an expert in the field of management, an organization, or an officer who is a member.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.aspx?PRID=1736188

In the context of which one of the following are the terms pyrolysis and plasma gasification mentioned?

  1. a) Extraction of earth element
  2. b) Natural gas extractions technologies
  3. c) Hydrogen fuel based automobiles
  4. d) Waste to energy technologies

Answer: (d) Waste to energy technologies

Explanation:

  • Pyrolysis and Plasma gasification are associated with waste to energy technologies.
  • Pyrolysis is the heating of an organic material, such as biomass, in the absence of oxygen. Because no oxygen is present the material does not combust but the chemical compounds (i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) that make up that material thermally decompose into combustible gases and charcoal.
  • Plasma gasification is an extreme thermal process using plasma which converts organic matter into a syngas which is primarily made up of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A plasma torch powered by an electric arc is used to ionize gas and catalyze organic matter into syngas, with slag remaining as a byproduct. Plasma gasification is an emerging technology which can process landfill waste to extract commodity recyclables and convert carbon-based materials into fuels. Hence option (d) is correct.