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Daily Prelims Test – 18_January_2022

1. With respect to mmWave bands, consider the following statements:

1) It is a particular segment of the radio frequency spectrum that ranges between 24 GHz and 100 GHz.

2) It has a shorter wavelength, and is apt to deliver greater speeds and lower latencies.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)  2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: The controversy over inclusion of the mmWave band in 5G auctions

●     Before the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) submits 5G pricing recommendations to the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) in March, the regulator had sought industries’ views on topics related to quantum of spectrum to be auctioned off.

●     It had also asked for views on band plan, block size, and conditions for auction of spectrum in new bands, which includes millimetre (mm) Wave band of 24.25-28.5 GHz.

mmWave bands:

●     Millimetre Wave band or mmWave is a particular segment of radio frequency spectrum that ranges between 24 GHz and 100 GHzHence, statement (1) is correct.

●     This spectrum has a shorter wavelength, and is apt to deliver greater speeds and lower latencies thus making data transfer efficient and seamless. Hence, statement (2) is correct.

●     However, 27.5-31 GHz and 17.7-21.2 GHz bands have been preserved for satellite based broadband services by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/technology/the-controversy-over-inclusion-of-the-mmwave-band-in-5g-auctions/article38271156.ece

2. With respect to Kathak Dance, consider the following statements:

1) It is the traditional dance form of Uttar Pradesh.

2) It is accompanied by dhrupad music.

3) It was influenced by Islamic features.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)  2 and 3 only

c)   1 and 2 only

d)  1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Kathak maestro Pandit Birju Maharaj passes away at 83

●     The country’s second-highest civilian award, Padma Vibhushan, he was born Brij Mohan Nath Mishra on February 4, 1937, in a well-known family of Kathak dancers.

Kathak Dance:

●     Kathak is the traditional dance form of Uttar Pradesh. Hence, statement (1) is correct.

●     Kathak derives its name from the ‘ Kathika’ or storyteller who recites verses from the epics with music and gestures.

●     During the Mughal times, it was influenced by Islamic features, especially in costume and dancing styleHence, statement (3) is correct.

●     Kathak is accompanied by dhrupad music. During the Mughal period, Taranas, Thumris, and Gazals were introduced. Hence, statement (2) is correct.

●     The stories in Kathak’s performance generally tend to be about the Hindu god Krishna (or in some cases Shiva or Devi), and the stories come from sources such as the Bhagavata Purana, or the Indian Epics.

●     In the 20th century Lady Leela Sokhey revived the classical style of Kathak. Lachha Maharaj, Shambu Maharaj and Birju Maharaj etc are the main proponents of Kathak

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/kathak-pandit-birju-maharaj-dies-7726966/

3. Consider the following statements regarding Xenotransplantation:

1)  It involves the transplantation, implantation, or infusion into a human recipient from a nonhuman animal source.

2)  It can be used for organs only.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)  2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: How surgeons gave a pig heart — and hope of life — to a human

●     Recently the doctors in the USA transplanted a genetically altered pig heart into a patient which is referred to as xenotransplantation (from animals to humans).

●     The donor pig underwent 10 genetic modifications, by which the genes responsible for the rapid rejection of foreign organs by the human body were inactivated or knocked out.

●     Four pig genes were removed, and six human genes were added.

●     GalSafe pigs, or pigs that had undergone editing to knock out a gene that codes for Alpha-gal (a sugar molecule) were used. Alpha-gal can elicit a devastating immune response in humans.

●     GalSafe pigs have been well studied, and are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in pharmacology.

Cross-species transplant

●     Xenotransplantation, or transplanting organs across different species, was first tried in humans in the 1980s.

●     The experiment was abandoned after the famous case of the American Baby Fae who was born with a congenital heart defect and received a baboon heart in 1984.

●     Xenotransplantation is any procedure that involves the transplantation of either live cells, tissues, or organs from a nonhuman animal source, or human body fluids, cells, tissues or organs into a human recipient. Hence, statement (1) is correct and statement (2) is incorrect.

●     It also includes any procedure in which human body fluids, cell tissues, or organs have ex vivo contact with live human animal cells, tissues, or organs. More generally, xenotransplantation defines any cross-species transplantation (e.g., mouse to rat, pig to primate, and sheep to human).

●     In biomedical research, a recent approach to xenotransplantation targets pigs as source animals with the goal of transplanting pig solid organs, such as kidneys, hearts, and livers, into humans.

●     Pigs are a promising donor species for xenotransplantation. However, when pig organs are transplanted into primates, hyperacute rejection, acute humoral xenograft rejection, acute cellular xenograft rejection, and chronic xenograft rejection develop.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-how-surgeons-gave-pig-heart-to-human-7723109/

4. Consider the following statements:

1)  Cryptocurrency transactions are taxable under income tax act, 1960.

2)  In India, trading in cryptocurrency may be classified as transfer of a ‘capital asset’.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)  2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Taxing cryptocurrency transactions

●     Notwithstanding the eventual introduction of the Cryptocurrency and Regulation of Official Digital Currency Bill in Parliament, cryptocurrencies continue to proliferate.

●     In fact, a liberal estimate suggests that as many as 10 crore Indians may already have investments exceeding a total of $10 million in them.

●     Transparency in transaction: cloak of invisibility make tax evaders to park their black money abroad and fund criminal activities, terrorism, etc. so, transparency brought visibility of the transaction.

●     Although the Income Tax Act, 1961 (“IT Act”) does not specifically mention cryptocurrencies, it does cast a wide enough net to bring crypto transactions under its ambit.

●     Crypto currency transactions are taxable under income tax act, 1960. Hence, statement (1) is correct.

●     Trading in cryptocurrency may be classified as transfer of a ‘capital asset’, taxable under the head ‘capital gains’. However, if such cryptocurrencies are held as stock-in trade and the taxpayer is trading in them frequently, the same will attract tax under the head ‘business income’. Hence, statement (2) is correct.

●     Even if one argues that crypto transactions do not fall under the above heads, Section 56 of the IT Act shall come into play, making them taxable under the head ‘Other sources of income’.

●     However, this in itself is not sufficient in order to put in place a simple yet effective taxation regime for cryptocurrencies. Since cryptocurrencies are unlike any other asset class, stored and traded virtually, there are varied challenges which need to be addressed in order to streamline the process of taxing crypto transactions.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/taxing-cryptocurrency-transactions/article38279469.ece

5. Consider the following statements regarding Design Linked Incentive (DLI) Scheme:

1)  It aims to create a vibrant ecosystem for Semiconductor Chip Design in the country.

2)  C-DAC will serve as the nodal agency for the implementation of the DLI scheme.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)  2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Applications invited under the Design Linked Incentive (DLI) Scheme from domestic semiconductor chip design firms

●     With an overall vision to create a vibrant ecosystem for Semiconductor Chip Design in the country, the Ministry of Electronics and Information (MeitY) is seeking applications from 100 domestic companies, start-ups and MSMEs under its Design Linked Incentive (DLI) Scheme.

●     The DLI Scheme was announced by the Ministry of Electronics and Information (MeitY) as a part of ₹76,000 crore ($10 billion) package that the government announced in December 2021.

●     Under it, financial incentives and design infrastructure support will be extended to domestic companies, startups and MSMEs across various stages of development and deployment of semiconductor design for Integrated Circuits (ICs), Chipsets, System on Chips (SoCs), Systems & IP Cores and semiconductor linked design for over a period of 5 years.

●     The scheme aims to nurture at least 20 domestic companies involved in semiconductor design and facilitate them to achieve turnover of more than 1500 Crore in the next 5 years. Hence, statement (1) is correct.

●     C-DAC (Centre for Development of Advanced Computing), a scientific society operating under MeitY, will serve as the nodal agency for implementation of the DLI scheme. Hence, statement (2) is correct.

●     The DLI Scheme will also take a graded and pre-emptive approach to Identify the Products of national priorities and implement strategies for their complete or near complete indigenisation & deployment thereby taking steps towards the import substitution & value addition in strategic & societal sectors.

Aims:

●     To create a vibrant ecosystem for Semiconductor Chip Design in the country.

●     To promote the domestic manufacturing of semiconductors and allied devices. 

●     The scheme is expected to provide a globally competitive incentive package to companies in semiconductors and display manufacturing as well as design.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1790346

6. Katrol Hill Fault is associated with which of the following regions in India?

a)   Kachchh region

b)  Chambal region

c)   Siliguri region

d)  None of the above

Answer: (a) Kachchh region

Explanation:

In NEWS: Spectacular landscape changes detected in Gujarat’s Kachchh region due to major earthquakes in recent geological past

●     Major earthquake events in the last 30,000 years resulted in spectacular changes in landscape of the Katrol Hill Fault in the Kachchh region in Gujarat, a study conducted on sediment samples revealed.

●     These surprising geological facts about the seismic history of the fault in the recent geological past necessitate a revised seismic hazard assessment and mitigation strategies in Kachchh Basin, owing to its close proximity to industrial corridors and major settlements, including Bhuj city.

Katrol Hill Fault (KHF):

●     It is situated in the Kachchh region in Gujarat. Hence option (a) is correct.

●     A study of sediment showed that Seismicity in the Kutch region is highly complex as it is characterized by multiple seismic sources in the form of several East-West trending fault lines, which release continuously accumulating tectonic stresses at intervals producing earthquakes. 

●     The study was carried out by field mapping and using sophisticated field instruments like Ground Penetrating Radar and laboratory equipment like Scanning Electron Microscope for analyzing sediment samples.

●     The samples showed features indicative of surface faulting. 

●     The Katrol Hill Fault (KHF) has produced high magnitude seismic events during the past ~30,000 years and is, therefore, a credible seismic source capable of generating surface rupture hazards in the Kachchh Basin.

●     Further, field-based geomorphological studies revealed that the events resulted in spectacular changes in the landscape, as evidenced by the disruption and reorganization of the channel of the Gunawari River in the fault zone. 

●     It is interesting that these events produced surface rupture, whereas the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7) did not rupture the surface. 

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1789681

7. Consider the following statements regarding Commonwealth War Graves Commission:

1)  It is an intergovernmental organisation to maintain the graves of military service members who died in the two World Wars.

2)  Members are Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa and Russia.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)  2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: In Kohima, a cemetery with a tennis court

●     Nagaland’s capital Kohima probably has the only cemetery on earth that sports a tennis court.

●     The United Kingdom-based Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) has listed five sites with unusual features. These sites are associated with World War I and World War II.

●     The Kohima War Cemetery is one of 23,000 World War graves across the continents maintained by the CWGC, an intergovernmental organisation of six member-states who ensure the men and women who died in the wars will never be forgotten.

Commonwealth War Graves Commission:

●        The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) is an intergovernmental organisation of six independent member states whose principal function is to mark, record and maintain the graves and places of commemoration of Commonwealth of Nations military service members who died in the two World Wars. Hence, statement (1) is correct.

●        Members are Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom. Hence, statement (2) is correct.

●        The commission is also responsible for commemorating Commonwealth civilians who died as a result of enemy action during World War II.

●        The commission was founded by Sir Fabian Ware and constituted through Royal Charter in 1917 as the Imperial War Graves Commission. The change to the present name took place in 1960.

●        The commission, as part of its mandate, is responsible for commemorating all Commonwealth war dead individually and equally.

●        To this end, the war dead are commemorated by a name on a headstone, at an identified site of a burial, or on a memorial. War dead are commemorated uniformly and equally, irrespective of military or civil rank, race or creed.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/in-kohima-a-cemetery-with-a-tennis-court/article38277921.ece

8. Consider the following statements regarding Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954:

1)  It is the legislation made to validate and register interreligious and inter-caste marriages in India.

2)  It includes Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Jains, and Buddhists marriages.

3)  It applies only to Indian citizens.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)  2 and 3 only

c)   1 and 2 only

d)  1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Government response awaited on law on inter-faith marriages

●     The law that governs inter-faith marriages in the country, the Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954, is being challenged for endangering the lives of young couples who seek refuge under it.

●     More than a year after a writ petition was moved before the Supreme Court, seeking striking down of several of its provisions, the government is yet to submit its response.

Special Marriage Act (SMA), 1954:

●     It is the legislation made to validate and register interreligious and inter-caste marriages in India. Hence, statement (1) is correct.

●     It allows two individuals to solemnise their marriage through a civil contract.

●     No religious formalities are needed to be carried out under the Act.

●     This Act includes Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Jains, and Buddhists marriages. Hence, statement (2) is correct.

●     This Act applies not only to Indian citizens who belong to different castes and religions but also to Indian nationals who live abroad. Hence, statement (3) is correct.

●     Section 5 of the SMA requires a person marrying under this law to give a notice of intended marriage

●     Section 6(2) says it should be affixed at a conspicuous place at the office of the marriage officer

●     Section 7(1)allows any person to object to the marriage within 30 days of the publication of the notice, failing which a marriage can be solemnised under Section 7(2).

●     The marriage of any two persons may be solemnised under the SMA, subject to the man having completed 21 years of age and the woman 18. 

●     Neither should have a spouse living; both should be capable of giving valid consent, should not suffer from any mental disorder of a kind that renders them unfit for marriage and procreation. 

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/government-response-awaited-on-law-on-inter-faith-marriages/article38278975.ece

9. Consider the following statements regarding Ravidas:

1)  He was a contemporary saint to Saint Kabir.

2)  He was an Indian mystic poet-saint of the Bhakti movement and founder of the Ravidassia religion.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)   1 only

b)  2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d)  Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: The Ravidassias of Punjab

The postponement of the Punjab elections will allow Ravidassias to travel to Varanasi for Guru Ravidas Jayanti.

Ravidas:

●        Ravidas was an Indian mystic poet-saint of the Bhakti movement and founder of the Ravidassia religion during the 15th to 16th century CE. Hence, statement (2) is correct.

●        Kabir was another well-known poet in the bhakti movement who also belonged to the nirgun bhakti tradition. Both Ravidas and Kabir challenged upper caste hegemony. Disciples of Kabir are known as Kabir-panthis. Hence, statement (1) is correct.

●        He was a guru (teacher) in the region of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and mainly Punjab and Haryana. He was a poet-saint, social reformer and spiritual figure.

●        The life details of Ravidas are uncertain and contested. Scholars believe he was born in 1450 CE, in the cobbler caste.

●        Ravidas’s devotional Verses were included in the Sikh scriptures known as Guru Granth Sahib.

●        The Panch Vani text of the Dadupanthi tradition within Hinduism also includes numerous poems of Ravidas.

●        He taught the removal of social divisions of caste and gender and promoted unity in the pursuit of personal spiritual freedoms.

●        He was attracted to a woman while he was dying and wished her to be his mother. Thus, in his next birth he was born the very same woman. He is a 15th century poet.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/punjab-assembly-elections-postponed-ravidassias-community-7728654/

10. With reference to India, Didwana, Kuchaman, Sargol and Khatu are the names of

a)   glaciers

b)  mangrove areas

c)   Ramsar sites

d)  saline lakes

Answer: (d) saline lakes

Explanation:

●     Didwana, Kuchaman, Sargol and Khatu are names of towns with or near saline lakes. Didwana is a town in the Nagaur district of Rajasthan. It also has a famous Didwana salt-water lake of Rajasthan. Kuchaman lake occupies an area of about 8.5 sq. kms in Nagaur District of Rajasthan. Hence option (a) is correct.