KingMakers IAS Academy logo

Daily Prelims Test – 18 August

Consider the following statements regarding Project Lion 

  • It is aimed at conservation of India’s Asiatic Lions
  • It will focus on habitat development, engaging technologies in lion management and addressing the issues of disease in lions.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘Project Lion’ for conservation of Asiatic Lion announced, translocation pending

  • The PM on August 15 announced the launch of Project Lion for conservation of the Asiatic Lion, but the Centre is yet to execute a Supreme Court order of 2013 for ensuring translocation of the wild cats from Gujarat to another state to protect them from possible extinction in case of an epidemic.
  • The project is aimed at conservation of India’s Asiatic Lions. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Gujarat’s Gir National Park is the only abode of Asiatic Lion in the world. According to the latest count, the lion population has registered an increase of 25 per cent in the last five years and now stands at 674.
  • Project Lion will entail habitat development, engage modern technologies in lion management and address the issues of disease in lion and its associated species through advanced world class research and veterinary care. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It will also address human-wildlife conflict and will be inclusive involving local communities living in the vicinity of lion landscape
  • The plan for translocation of lions from Gir to Kuno-Palpur Wildlife Sanctuary in Madhya Pradesh dates back to 1993-94.

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/thesundaystandard/2020/aug/16/project-lion-for-conservation-of-asiatic-lion-announced-translocation-pending-2183915.html

Consider the following statements regarding Fit India Youth Club

  • It is a part of the Fit India Movement that aims to harness the power of youth to create mass awareness about the importance of fitness.
  • Under the initiative, volunteers of Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan and other youth organizations will come together to register as Fit India Youth Clubs in every block in the country.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union Minister of Youth and Sports has launched a nation-wide initiative of Fit India Youth Clubs

  • Union Minister of Youth and Sports Kiren Rijiju today launched a nation-wide initiative of Fit India Youth Clubs to promote fitness among every citizen on the occasion of Independence Day.
  • The Fit India Youth Club which is a part of the Fit India Movement envisioned by Prime Minister, endeavours to harness the power of youth to create mass awareness about the importance of fitness. This initiative brings together fitness and voluntarism in a unique way. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Under this initiative, 75 lakh volunteers of Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan and National Service Scheme, along with Scouts and Guides, National Cadet Corps and other youth organizations will come together to register as Fit India Youth Clubs in every block in the country, under the aegis of a district unit. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Each member of the club will motivate people from the community to take up fitness activities of 30 to 60 minutes in his or her daily routine.
  • The Ministry said that one of the first initiatives that will be taken up by the Fit India Youth Clubs is to popularise the Fit India Freedom Run, which began today and will continue till the 2nd October this year. It is a unique concept that allows participants to run at their pace and at their place and plan their own running routes. The run has already gathered momentum across the country.

Source: http://www.newsonair.com/Text-Bulletin-Details.aspx?id=34285

What is the aim of Jaya Jaitely Task Force?

  • It will examine possibility of increasing age of marriage for women from present 18 years to 21 years.
  • It will examine the Operation of the Cash Credit System
  • It will analyze the financial condition of the Regional Rural Banks in India
  • It will be ensuring translocation of the wild cats from Gujarat to another state to protect them from possible extinction in case of an epidemic.

Answer: (a) It will examine possibility of increasing age of marriage for women from present 18 years to 21 years.

Explanation:

In NEWS: The Central government has set up a committee to reconsider the minimum age of marriage for women.

  • On June 2, the Union Ministry for Women and Child Development set up a task force headed Jaya Jaitely.
  • It will examine matters pertaining to age of motherhood, imperatives of lowering Maternal Mortality Ratio and improvement of nutritional levels among women.
  • The task force will examine the correlation of age of marriage and motherhood with health, medical well-being, and nutritional status of the mother and neonate, infant or child, during pregnancy, birth and thereafter.
  • It will look at key parameters like Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR), Total Fertility Rate (TFR), Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) and Child Sex Ratio (CSR).
  • It will examine possibility of increasing age of marriage for women from present 18 years to 21 years. Hence option (a) is correct

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/thesundaystandard/2020/aug/16/sanitary-napkins-minimum-age-of-marriage-for-girls-in-pm-modi-independence-day-speech-2183916.html

Consider the following statements regarding National Cadet Corps (NCC)

  • It is headed by a Director General of three-star military rank, and falls under the purview of Ministry of Home affairs.
  • It has a dual funding model where both the Centre and States or Union Territories provide budgetary support.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Defence minister approves proposal to expand NCC in 173 border, coastal districts

  • Defence Minister Rajnath Singh has approved the proposal to expand the National Cadet Corps (NCC) in 173 border and coastal districts from where one lakh new cadets will be inducted, a third of them will be girls.
  • While the NCC does have units in several borders and coastal districts, officials believe there is a lot of scope for expansion.
  • In the coastal regions, where youth are already familiar with the sea, the training will increase interest in careers in Navy, Coast Guard and also Merchant shipping avenues.

About National Cadet Corps (NCC):

  • National Cadet Corps (NCC) was formed in 1948. It has its roots to British era uniformed youth entities like University Corps or University Officer Training Corps.
  • It enrolls cadets at high school and college level and also awards certificates on completion of various phases.
  • It is headed by a Director General of three-star military rank, and falls under the purview of Ministry of Defence. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is led by serving officers from the Armed forces at various hierarchical positions.
  • The NCC cadets receive basic military training at various levels and also have academic curriculum basics related to Armed forces and their functioning.
  • NCC has a dual funding model where both the Centre and States or Union Territories provide budgetary support. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • NCC cadets have played an important role over the years in relief efforts during various emergency situations.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/education/defence-minister-approves-proposal-to-expand-ncc-in-173-border-coastal-districts/story-2swcIrUkg3VLnfo54UQO6K.html

Consider the following statements regarding RLF-100 or Aviptadil

  • It is a formulation of synthetic human Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP).
  • It is produced by immune cells and nerve endings and acts as a neurotransmitter.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is RLF-100 or Aviptadil, the 1970 drug being explored for Covid-19 treatment

An old drug formulation — RLF-100 — is being probed to treat Covid-19 patients after initial studies have shown that the drug is able to halt SARS-CoV-2 virus replication in lungs.

What does RLF-100 do?

  • RLF-100, also called Aviptadil, is a formulation of synthetic human Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • VIP is released throughout the body, but remains mostly concentrated in lungs.
  • It is produced by immune cells and nerve endings and acts as a neurotransmitter. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It helps improve muscle activity and blood flow in gastrointestinal tract.
  • VIP has anti-inflammatory and anti-cytokine activity properties.
  • It protects alveolar type II cells responsible for oxygen exchange in lungs.
  • Since coronavirus attacks lungs and the alveolar cells, drug may be helpful in preventing SARS-CoV-2 onslaught in alveolar cell and limit damage in lung.
  • RLF-100 is not a new finding. It was discovered in 1970 by Dr Sami Said, a pulmonary medicine specialist.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-rlf-100-or-aviptadil-the-1970-drug-being-explored-for-covid-19-treatment-6555659/

Consider the following statements regarding the Animal Welfare Board of India

  • It is a statutory advisory body established under Section 4 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960
  • It consists of 28 Members and term of office of Members is for a period of 3 years

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Survey state of animals in circuses: HC

The Delhi High Court has asked the Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) to conduct physical survey of all circuses in the country to verify the condition of animals being kept here

About Animal Welfare Board of India

  • The Animal Welfare Board of India is a statutory advisory body on Animal Welfare Laws and promotes animal welfare in the country.
  • Established in 1962 under Section 4 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 (No. 59 of 1960), the Animal Welfare Board of India was started under the stewardship of Late Smt. Rukmini Devi Arundale, well known humanitarian. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • From ensuring that animal welfare laws in the country are diligently followed, to provide grants to Animal Welfare Organizations and advising the Government of India on animal welfare issues, the Board has been the face of the animal welfare movement in the country for the last 50 years.
  • The Board consists of 28 Members. The term of office of Members is for a period of 3 years. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Board was initially within the jurisdiction of the Government of India’s Ministry of Food and Agriculture. In 1990, the subject of Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was transferred to the Ministry of Environment and Forests, where it now resides.
  • It frames a range of rules on how animals ought to be humanely treated everywhere. It has also frequently litigated to have stricter laws to ensure animals were not unduly harassed or tortured.
  • HQ shifted to Ballabhgarh in Faridabad District of Haryana from Chennai, Tamil Nadu

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/survey-state-of-animals-in-circuses-hc/article32370229.ece

Which of the following statements are the criteria to be called a dwarf planet?

A dwarf planet is a celestial body that

  • is in orbit around the Sun
  • has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape
  • has not cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit
  • is not a satellite.

Select the correct options from the given below codes

  • 1,3 and 4 only
  • 2,3 and 4 only
  • 1,2 and 3 only
  • 1,2,3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1,2,3 and 4

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Dwarf planet Ceres is now an ‘ocean world’. What does this mean?

Researchers have shed new light on the dwarf planet Ceres, which lies in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter and is also the largest object in that belt. Ceres now has the status of an “ocean world”, after scientists analysed data collected by NASA’s Dawn spacecraft.

What is a dwarf planet?

  • There are officially five dwarf planets in our Solar System. The most famous is Pluto, downgraded from the status of a planet in 2006. The other four, in order of size, are Eris, Makemake, Haumea and Ceres. The sixth claimant for a dwarf planet is Hygiea, which so far has been taken to be an asteroid.
  • European Space Organisation’s SPHERE instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), astronomers found that Hygiea may possibly be a dwarf planet since it satisfied the four criteria set by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) for a celestial body to be called a dwarf planet.

Four criteria are:

  • that the body orbits around the Sun
  • it is not a moon
  • has not cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit (which means it is not the dominant body in its orbit around the Sun and this is what differentiates a planet from a dwarf planet)
  • has enough mass for its gravity to pull it into a roughly spherical shape. Hence option (d) is correct

Classification as a dwarf planet:

  • The dwarf planet was first spotted by Giuseppe Piazzi in 1801, who assumed that Ceres was the missing planet between Mars and Jupiter.
  • It was classified as a dwarf planet in 2006.

NASA’s Dawn mission

  • Ceres the first dwarf planet to be orbited by a spacecraft.
  • In 2015, NASA’s Dawn reached it to study its surface, composition and history.
  • Dawn was launched in 2007 and visited Vesta and Ceres.
  • In 2015, it went into the orbit around Ceres and the information it collected reinforced the idea that dwarf planets could have hosted oceans over a significant part of their history.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-does-it-mean-for-dwarf-planet-ceres-to-be-an-ocean-world-6558711/#:~:text=Researchers%20have%20shed%20new%20light,collected%20by%20NASA’s%20Dawn%20spacecraft.

Consider the following statements regarding Atal Rankings of Institutions on Innovation Achievements

  • It is an initiative of Ministry of HRD
  • All recognized Higher Educational Institutions of India are eligible to participate in the ARIIA ranking.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: IIT-Madras tops again in Atal ranking ARIIA 2020, check best institutes

  • IIT-Madras has become the top institute again in Atal Rankings of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA) 2020
  • The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT-Madras) has topped the Atal Rankings of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA) 2020 under the ‘best centrally funded institution’ category.
  • Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay and Delhi have secured the second and third spots respectively.
  • For the first time, ARIIA 2020 is having a special prize category for women only higher educational institutions.

About Atal Rankings of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA) 2020:

  • Atal Rankings of Institutions on Innovation Achievements (ARIIA) is an initiative of Ministry of HRD, implemented by AICTE and Ministry’s Innovation Cell. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It ranks higher education institutions and universities in India on indicators related to Innovation, Startup and Entrepreneurship Development amongst students and faculty.
  • ARIIA 2020 will have six Prize categories which includes special category for women only higher educational institutions to encourage women and bringing gender parity in the areas of innovation and entrepreneurship.
  • ARIIA ranking will certainly inspire Indian institutions to reorient their mind-set and build an ecosystem to encourage high quality research, innovation and entrepreneurship.
  • ARIIA focuses on quality and quantity of innovations coming out of the education institutes and measures the real impact created by these innovations nationally and internationally.
  • All recognized Higher Educational Institutions of India are eligible to participate in the ARIIA ranking. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The other five categories are — centrally funded institutions, state-funded universities, state-funded autonomous institutions, private/deemed universities, private institutions.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/education/venkaiah-naidu-to-announce-atal-rankings-ariia-2020-tomorrow-6558760/

Consider the following statements regarding National Institute of Social Defence

  • It is an Autonomous Body and is registered under Societies Act of 1860
  • It is a central advisory body for the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Anti-drugs campaign launch in 272 vulnerable districts on Aug. 15

Union Minister for Social Justice & Empowerment e-inaugurated the new building of National Institute of Social Defence (NISD) Sector-10, Dwarka, New Delhi.

About National Institute of Social Defence (NISD):

  • It was set up originally as Central Bureau of Correctional Services in 1961, under the Union Ministry of Home Affairs. (now Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment). Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Since 1975, the Institute functioned as a subordinate office under the erstwhile Ministry of Welfare.
  • NISD has become an Autonomous Body in 2002 and is registered under Societies Act 1860 with the Government of NCT, Delhi. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The National Institute of Social Defence is the nodal training and research institute in the field of social Defence.
  • NISD is currently focusing on human resource development in the areas of drug abuse prevention, welfare of senior citizens, beggary prevention, transgender and other social Defence issues.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/anti-drugs-campaign-launch-in-272-vulnerable-districts-on-aug-15/article32357099.ece

What was the main reason for the split in the Indian National Congress at Surat in 1907?

  1. Introduction of communalism into Indian politics by Lord Minto
  2. Extremists’ lack of faith in the capacity of the moderates to negotiate with the British Government
  3. Foundation of Muslim League
  4. Aurobindo Ghosh’s inability to the elected as the President of the Indian National Congress

Answer: (b) Extremists’ lack of faith in the capacity of the moderates to negotiate with the British Government

Explanation:

  • In 1907, the extremists wanted either Tilak or Lajpat Rai to be president, so when Rasbehari Ghose was announced as president, the extremist resorted to violence. Hence Surat Split happened. Hence option (b) is correct