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Daily Prelims Test – 17_October 2020

Consider the following statements regarding KAPILA Kalam Program

1.Under this campaign, students pursuing education in higher educational institutions will get information about the correct system of application process for patenting their invention

2.It has launched by the Ministry of Education

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union Education Minister launched KAPILA Kalam Program

  • ‘KAPILA’ Kalam Program for Intellectual Property Literacy and Awareness campaign was launched on the 89th birth anniversary of former President and Scientist Late Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam.
  • Union Education Minister Shri Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank virtually launched the ‘KAPILA’ Kalam Program for Intellectual Property Literacy and Awareness campaign on October 15, 2020. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The ‘KAPILA’ Kalam Program helps those students who pursuing education in higher educational institutions will get information about the correct system of the application process for patenting their invention and they will be aware of their rights. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Institution Innovation Council (IIC 2.0) annual report was also presented on the occasion and the launch of IIC 3.0 was announced and its website was also launched.
  • It is also decided that the week of October 15th to 23rd will be celebrated as ‘Intellectual Property Literacy Week’.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1664883#:~:text=Union%20Education%20Minister%20Shri%20Ramesh,Late%20Dr.%20APJ%20Abdul%20Kalam.


Consider the following statements regarding the report titled “The Human Cost of Disasters”

1.It is published by the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction

2.According to this report, China and the India reported the highest number of disaster events followed by USA

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘Climate change to blame for doubling of disasters’

  • The UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) recently published its report titled “The Human Cost of Disasters”. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • 7,348 major disaster events had occurred between 2000 and 2019, claiming 1.23 lives, affecting 4.2 billion people and costing the global economy some $2.97 trillion.
  • Of this, China (577 events) and the US (467 events) reported the highest number of disaster events followed by India (321 events). Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • Climate change is to be blamed for the doubling of natural disasters in the past 20 years says the report.
  • There had also been an increase in geophysical events like earthquakes and tsunamis that are not related to climate but are particularly deadly.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/climate-change-to-blame-for-doubling-of-disasters/article32837772.ece


Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) Working Group is associated with:

1.International Labour Organization

2.Food and Agriculture Organization

3.United Nations Children’s Fund

4.Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

Answer: (d) Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

Explanation:

In NEWS: India designated Vice-Chair of OECD Working Group on GLP

  • India has been designated the Vice-Chair of Good Laboratory Practice, GLP Working Group of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), recognising the contribution of the Indian GLP programme. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Good Laboratory Practice is a quality system, which has been evolved by OECD to ensure that safety data generated on various chemicals like industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic products and medical devices can be relied upon by regulatory authorities.
  • The Principles of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) are a managerial quality control system covering the organisational process and the conditions under which non-clinical health and environmental studies are planned, performed, monitored, recorded, reported and retained (or archived).
  • The OECD Principles of GLP are followed by test facilities carrying out studies to be submitted to receiving authorities for the purposes of assessing the health and environmental safety of chemicals and chemical products.
  • The OECD Principles of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) ensure the generation of high quality and reliable test data related to the safety of industrial chemical substances and preparations.
  • OECD countries have established national GLP Compliance Monitoring Programmes (CMP)with responsibilities for monitoring GLP compliance of test facilities within their territories.

Source: http://newsonair.com/Main-News-Details.aspx?id=402249


Consider the following statements regarding National GLP Compliance Monitoring Authority

1.It was established by the Department of Science & Technology (DST)

2.It is the National body which grants GLP certification to test facilities (TFs) conducting safety studies on new chemicals of various categories

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India designated Vice-Chair of OECD Working Group on GLP

About National GLP Compliance Monitoring Authority (NGCMA)

  • NGCMA is the National body which grants GLP certification to test facilities (TFs) conducting safety studies on new chemicals of various categories in accordance with OECD Principles of GLP and OECD Council norms. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • NGCMA was established by the Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India, with the approval of the Union Cabinet on April 24, 2002. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The first GLP certificate was granted by NGCMA in 2004.
  • The non-hazardous nature of chemicals needs to be established through studies and data, which is examined by the regulators of the concerned countries to certify that the use of these chemicals does not pose any hazards to human health and the environment.
  • GLP-compliance certification is voluntary in nature.
  • Industries/ test facilities/laboratories dealing with above chemicals and looking for approval from regulatory authorities before marketing them, may apply to the NGCMA for obtaining GLP Certification.
  • A GLP Certification is valid for a period of three years.

Source: http://newsonair.com/Main-News-Details.aspx?id=402249


Consider the following statements regarding Global Hunger Index (GHI)

1.It is jointly prepared by the Concern Worldwide and the Welt Hunger Hilfe

2.It is calculated on the basis of undernourishment, child stunting, child wasting, and child mortality.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Global Hunger Index 2020: India ranks 94 out of 107 countries, slight improvement since 2019

  • The Global Hunger Index 2020 report released on Friday has ranked India at 94 among 107 countries. India was ranked 102 out of 117 countries in the Global Hunger Index 2019 that was published jointly by Concern Worldwide and Welthungerhilfe. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The peer-reviewed annual report aims to measure and track hunger at the global, regional and country levels. In its latest report, GHI puts worldwide hunger at a “moderate” level while warning that nearly 690 million people across the world are undernourished.
  • At present, India lags behind Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Indonesia among others on the Global Hunger Index. Only 13 out of 107 countries, including Rwanda, Afghanistan, Liberia, and Chad among others have fared worse than India.
  • The report is based on four GHI indicators namely, undernourishment, child stunting, child wasting, and child mortality. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/global-hunger-index-2020-india-ranks-94-1732452-2020-10-17


Consider the following statements regarding United Nations Relief and Works Agency

1.It is the only UN agency dedicated to helping refugees from a specific region or conflict.

2.It is aims to provide assistance and protection for registered Palestine refugees to help them achieve their full potential in human development.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India provides $1 million for palestinian refugees

  • India has contributed one million dollars to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency(UNRWA) for Palestine Refugees. The contribution which has also been hailed by the UN body is for the Palestinian refugees who have been facing extreme challenges due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • About United Nations Relief and Works Agency
  • The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It supports more than 5 million registered Palestinian refugees, and their patrilineal descendants, who fled or were expelled from their homes during the 1948 Palestine war as well as those who fled or were expelled during and following the 1967 Six Day war.
  • It was created in December 1949.
  • Originally intended to provide jobs on public works projects and direct relief, today UNRWA provides education, health care, and social services to the population it supports.
  • Aid is provided in five areas of operation: Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem.
  • Aid for Palestinian refugees outside these five areas is provided by UNHCR.
  • UNRWA is the only UN agency dedicated to helping refugees from a specific region or conflict and is separate from Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-provides-1-million-for-palestinian-refugees/article32853961.ece


Consider the following statements regarding New Shephard

1.It is a rocket system meant to offer flights to space over 100 km above the Earth and accommodation for payloads.

2.It is built by Amazon founder Jeff Bezos’s space company called Blue Origin.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is New Shephard, the rocket system built by Blue Origin?

  • New Shephard has been named after astronaut Alan Shephard, the first American to go to space, and offers flights to space over 100 km above the Earth and accommodation for payloads. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • In 2018, Blue Origin was one of the ten companies selected by NASA to conduct studies and advance technologies to collect, process and use space-based resources for missions to the Moon and Mars. In 2019, both signed an agreement that gives Blue Origin permission to use NASA’s historic test stand, as a part of a growing number of partnerships between the space agency and the commercial space industry. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The rocket system consists of two parts, the cabin or capsule and the rocket or the booster.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-new-shephard-the-rocket-system-built-by-blue-origin-6725138/


Consider the following statements

1.Trans fats are unsaturated type of fats which have adverse effects on our body.

2.Trans fats are largely produced artificially but a small amount also occurs naturally

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Aim of the govt is to make India Trans Fat free by 2022: Health Minister

  • Health Minister Dr Harsh said that the aim of the government is to make India Trans Fat free by 2022, a year ahead of target set by World Health Organization

About Trans fatty acids

  • Trans fatty acids (TFAs) or Trans fats are unsaturated type of fats which have adverse effects on our body. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • These fats are largely produced artificially but a small amount also occurs naturally. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • TFA containing oils can be preserved longer, they give the food the desired shape and texture.
  • It poses a higher risk of heart disease than saturated fats. While saturated fats raise total cholesterol levels, TFAs not only raise total cholesterol levels but also reduce the good cholesterol (HDL), which helps to protect us against heart disease.
  • Its consumption increases the risk of developing heart disease, stroke, hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders.
  • It is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, infertility, certain types of cancers and can also lead to compromised fetal development causing harm to the yet to be born baby.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=Aim-of-the-govt-is-to-make-India-Trans-Fat-free-by-2022%3a-Health-Minister&id=402363


Consider the following statements regarding Sample Registration System (SRS)

1.It is a demographic survey for providing reliable annual estimates of infant mortality rate, birth rate, death rate and other fertility and mortality indicators at the national and sub-national levels.

2.It is brought by the Office of Registrar General.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained Ideas: Why India must urgently step up efforts to improve its sex ratio

  • The skewed sex ratio could upset the gains from a falling fertility rate, write Rangarajan and Satia.
  • C Rangarajan (former Chairman, Prime Minister’s Economic Advisory Council) and J K Satia (Professor Emeritus, Indian Institute of Public Health) argue that there is an urgent need to reach young people both for reproductive health education and services as well as to cultivate gender equity norms.
  • Fertility has been declining in India for some time now. The Sample Registration System (SRS) Statistical Report (2018) estimated the Total Fertility Rate (TFR), the number of children a mother would have at the current pattern of fertility during her lifetime, as 2.2 in the year 2018.
  • Fertility is likely to continue to decline and it is estimated that replacement TFR of 2.1 would soon be, if not already, reached for India as a whole.
  • Many people believe that the population would stabilise or begin to reduce in a few years once replacement fertility is reached.

About Sample Registration System (SRS)

  • The SRS is a demographic survey for providing reliable annual estimates of infant mortality rate, birth rate, death rate and other fertility and mortality indicators at the national and sub-national levels. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Initiated on a pilot basis by the Registrar General of India in a few states in 1964-65, it became fully operational during 1969-70. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The field investigation consists of a continuous enumeration of births and deaths in selected sample units by resident part-time enumerators, generally Anganwadi workers and teachers; and an independent retrospective survey every six months by SRS supervisors.
  • The data obtained by these two independent functionaries are matched.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-ideas-why-india-must-urgently-step-up-efforts-to-improve-its-sex-ratio-6758099/


With reference to the period of Gupta dynasty in ancient India, the towns Ghantasala, Kadura and Chaul were well known as

1.ports handling foreign trade

2.capitals of powerful kingdoms

3.places of exquisite stone art and architecture

4.important Buddhist pilgrimage centres

Answer: (a) ports handling foreign trade