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Daily Prelims Test – 17_November 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Pneumonia and Diarrhoea Progress Report

  • It is an annual report which tracks progress towards 10 key indicators with the highest mortality burden of pneumonia and diarrhea in children under 5 age.
  • India has achieved the global target of 90% coverage for three of the five vaccines whose coverage is monitored in the report.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India boosts child vaccinations but lags in access to pneumonia & diarrhoea treatment — report

Pneumonia continues to kill more children under five worldwide than any other single infectious disease while diarrheal diseases which is the second leading infectious cause of death of children under 5, claimed the lives of 437,000 young children.

  • Globally, over 1.23 million children died of pneumonia and diarrhea before reaching their 5th birthday which is equivalent of over 141 child deaths per hour or 3,400 deaths per day.
  • The 2020 PDPR focus countries were India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Dominic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Chad, Indonesia, Angola, Tanzania, Somalia, China, Mali, Bangladesh, Niger and Cote de Ivoire.
  • The overall world’s health systems are falling short of ensuring that children have access to prevention and treatment services.

India’s performance in Pneumonia and Diarrhoea Progress Report 2020

  • India has achieved the global target of 90% coverage for three of the five vaccines whose coverage is monitored in the report. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The vaccines are Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus (DPT) vaccine, Measles-containing-vaccine first dose, Haemophilus influenza type B, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), and rotavirus vaccine.
  • India’s coverage of rotavirus vaccine increased by 18 percentage points (53% in 2019) and the coverage against pneumococcal pneumonia increased by 9 percentage points (15% in 2019).
  • In 2019, India completed the “100-day agenda” which was an unprecedented national scale-up of rotavirus vaccine.
  • The report stated that the vaccine expansion will help protect 26 million children born each year against life-threatening cases of rotavirus diarrhoea.
  • India is one of just four countries, out of the 15 focus countries, that exceeded targets for exclusive breastfeeding.
  • India failed to reach all four targets for treatment, adding that the treatment for diarrhoea had the lowest coverage, with only 51% of children receiving ORS and 20% getting zinc.

Pneumonia and Diarrhoea Progress Report

  • It is an annual report which tracks progress towards 10 key indicators in the 15 countries with the highest mortality burden of pneumonia and diarrhea in children under 5. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It has been released by the International Vaccine Access Centre (IVAC).

Source: https://theprint.in/health/india-boosts-child-vaccinations-but-lags-in-access-to-pneumonia-diarrhoea-treatment-report/542305/


Consider the following statements regardingInternational Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

  • It is an initiative of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and United Nations Development Programme
  • It is located in Hyderabad, Telangana

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: International Crops Research Institute permitted to use drones

  • Civil Aviation Ministry and Directorate General of Civil Aviation have granted conditional permission to the International Crops Research Institute for the deployment of drones for agricultural research activities.
  • Drones are poised to play a big role in the agriculture sector in India especially in areas like precision agriculture, locust control and improvement in crop yield. He said, the government is encouraging young entrepreneurs and researchers to look at low-cost drone solutions for more than 6.6 lakh villages in the country

About International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

  • The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is a non-profit, non-political organization that conducts agricultural research for development in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Covering 6.5 million square kilometers of land in 55 countries, the semi-arid or dryland tropics has over 2 billion people, and 644 million of these are the poorest of the poor.
  • It was founded in 1972 by a consortium of organizations convened by the Ford and the Rockefeller Foundations. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  •  HQ : Hyderabad, Telangana. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Its charter was signed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
  • It has several regional centres around globe- Niamey (Nigeria), Nairobi (Kenya) and research stations Bamako (Mali), Bulawayo (Zimbabwe).
  • Since its inception, India has granted special status to ICRISAT as a UN Organization operating in the Indian Territory making it eligible for special immunities and tax privileges.

Source: http://www.newsonair.com/News?title=International-Crops-Research-Institute-permitted-to-use-drones&id=404351


Recently, DIPAM signs pact with which of the following international organization for advising on Central Public Sector Enterprises asset monetization?

  • Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
  • World Trade Organization
  • United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
  • World Bank

Answer: (d) World Bank

Explanation:

In NEWS: World Bank to advise DIPAM on CPSE asset monetisation

  • The Department of Investment and Public Asset Management (DIPAM) Monday signed an agreement with World Bank for providing advisory services to the department for asset monetisation. Hence option (d) is correct
  • In another development, the Finance Ministry invited bids from actuarial firms for arriving at the embedded value of Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) ahead of its IPO.
  • The government has tasked DIPAM to facilitate monetisation of non-core assets of central public sector enterprises, or CPSEs, under strategic disinvestment of value of Rs 100 crore and above.
  • The World Bank advisory project is aimed at analysing public asset monetisation in India and benchmarking its institutional and business models against international best practices as well as supporting development of operational guidelines
  • The central government also plans to sell minority stake in LIC, the country’s largest insurer, and list it on bourses.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/business/world-bank-to-advise-dipam-on-cpse-asset-monetisation-7053953/


Consider the following statements regardingMission Covid Suraksha.

  • It is an initiative of Department of Biotechnology
  • Under this mission, the fund would only cater to R&D activity and would not cover the cost of vaccine or logistics required for its development.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: FM Nirmala Sitharman announces Rs 900 crore grant for COVID-19 vaccine research

  • The Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced Mission COVID Suraksha. Under the mission, the Government of India has allocated Rs 900 crores to the research and development of COVID-19 vaccines in India. The funds allocated do not cover the cost and distribution of the vaccines. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The mission is a part of the stimulus package launched on November 12, 2020, that is of worth Rs 2.65 lakh crores.
  • Currently, there are three coronavirus vaccine candidates that are in different stages of human clinical trials in India. The human clinical trials two vaccines developed indigenously, one by Bharat Biotech and the other by Zydus Cadila Ltd, are going on.
  • 900 crore provided for COVID Suraksha Mission for research and development of the Indian COVID vaccine to the Department of Biotechnology. Hence statement 1 is correct

Source: https://www.livemint.com/news/india/atmanirbhar-bharat-fm-grants-rs-900-cr-for-covid-19-vaccine-research-11605172686255.html


Puerto Rico, officially the commonwealth of Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory of:

  • United States of America
  • Russia
  • Japan
  • China

Answer: a) United States of America

Explanation:

In NEWS: Why Americans disagree over granting statehood to Puerto Rico and Washington, D.C.

  •  Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory of the United States. Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
  •  It is located in the northeast Caribbean Sea, approximately 1,000 miles (1,600 km) southeast of Miami, Florida.
  •  It is an archipelago among the Greater Antilles located between the Dominican Republic and the U.S. Virgin Islands; it includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona, Culebra, and Vieques.
  •  For the third time in ten years, the United States territory of Puerto Rico has voted in favour of statehood, and thus be treated at par with the current 50 states of the country.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-americans-disagree-over-granting-statehood-to-puerto-rico-and-washington-dc-7051976/


Consider the following statements regarding Central Information Commission (CIC)

  •  CIC shall consist of Chief Information Commissioner and such members of other information commissioners.
  •  The Jurisdiction of the Commission extends over all central public authorities.
  •  The CIC or an IC may be removed from office only by order of the President on the ground of proved misbehavior or incapacity after the Supreme Court, on a reference made to it by the President

Which of the statement(s) is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: d)1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Newly appointed CIC, Shri Y.K. Sinha calls on Union Minister Dr. Jitendra Singh

  •  CIC shall consist of Chief Information Commissioner and such members of other information commissioners not exceeding ten members, as may be deemed necessary. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  The Jurisdiction of the Commission extends over all central public authorities. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  The CIC or an IC may be removed from office only by order of the President on the ground of proved misbehavior or incapacity after the Supreme Court, on a reference made to it by the President. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  •  The members of the commission are appointed by a committee consisting of the PM (as Chair), Leader of Opposition (LoP) in Lok Sabha and a Union Cabinet Minister appointed by the PM.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1673045


With reference to Leonid meteor showers, consider the following statements

  •  It emerges from the comet Tempel-Tuttle, which requires 33 years to revolve once around the Sun.
  •  These meteors are bright and among the fastest moving travelling at speeds of 71 km per second.
  •  It includes fireballs, bright and large meteors than can last longer than average meteors, and “earth gazers” meteors which appear close to the horizon with colorful and long tails.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: What is the Leonid meteor shower, when can Indians best watch it?

  •  The Leonids emerge from the comet Tempel-Tuttle, which requires 33 years to revolve once around the Sun. hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  These meteors are bright and among the fastest moving– travelling at speeds of 71 km per second. During this year’s showers, peaks of around 10 to 15 meteors are expected to be seen every hour. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  •  The Leonid showers include fireballs– bright and large meteors than can last longer than average meteors, and “earthgazers”– meteors which appear close to the horizon with colourful and long tails. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  •  Meteor showers are named after the constellation they appear to be coming from. The Leonids originate from the constellation Leo the Lion– the groups of stars which form a lion’s mane.
  •  On its journey around the Sun, the Earth passes through large swathes of cosmic debris.
  •  The debris is essentially the remnants of comets — great frigid chunks of matter that leave behind dirty trails of rocks and ice that linger long after the comets themselves have passed.
  •  As the Earth wades through this cloud of comet waste, the bits of debris create what appears from the ground to be a fireworks display in the sky — known as a meteor shower.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/what-is-the-leonid-meteor-shower-when-can-indians-best-watch-it-7052602/


Consider the following statements

  •  The Ramsar Convention signed on 2nd February, 1971, is one of the oldest inter-governmental accord signed by member countries to preserve the ecological character of their wetlands of international importance.
  •  The aim of the Ramsar list is to develop and maintain an international network of wetlands which are important for the conservation of global biological diversity
  •  Recently, Lonar lake in Maharashtra has added in the list of Ramsar sites

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  • 1 and 3 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Lonar lake in Maharashtra and keetham lake in UP added to the Ramsar sites

  •  India has added two more Ramsar sites. They are Lonar lake in Maharashtra which is the only crater lake of the country while the other is Sur Sarovar, also known as Keetham lake in Agra of Uttar Pradesh. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  •  The Ramsar Convention signed on 2nd February, 1971, is one of the oldest inter-governmental accord signed by member countries to preserve the ecological character of their wetlands of international importance. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  •  It is named after Ramsar, the Iranian city where the treaty was signed in 1971, and places chosen for conservation under it are given the tag ‘Ramsar site’.
  •  The aim of the Ramsar list is to develop and maintain an international network of wetlands which are important for the conservation of global biological diversity and for sustaining human life through the maintenance of their ecosystem components, processes and benefits. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • Recently, Kabartal in Bihar’s Begusarai district was recognised as a wetland of international importance, the first such wetland in the state, under the Ramsar Convention, according to the Union Environment Ministry.
  • The Asan Conservation Reserve in Dehradun, the first wetland from Uttarakhand to be recognised by Ramsar convention, was added to the list in October this year.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=Lonar-lake-in-Maharashtra-and-Keetham-lake-in-UP-added-to-Ramsar-sites&id=404299


It is the country lies wholly in the Southern Hemisphere, It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the south and west by the Pacific Ocean. It is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the peaks of the Andes Mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon River. The above mentioned country is:

  •  Peru
  •  Colombia
  •  Ecuador
  •  Chile

Answer: (a) Peru

Explanation:

In News: After 5 Presidents in 5 years, Peru without a leader: what led to this crisis?

  •  Peru is the country lies wholly in the Southern Hemisphere, It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the south and west by the Pacific Ocean.
  •  It is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the peaks of the Andes Mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon Hence option (a) is the correct answer.
  •  Peru’s fifth president in five years, Manuel Merino, was forced out of power, just five days after taking office, as massive protests swept the South American country.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-perus-new-president-has-been-forced-out-7053728/


Which one of the following categories of Fundamental Rights incorporate protection against untouchability as a form of discrimination?

  • Right against Exploitation
  • Right to Freedom
  • Right to Constitutional Remedies
  • Right to Equality

Answer: (d) Right to Equality

Explanation:

  • Right to Equality (Article 14 -18) protects the citizens against any discrimination by the State on the basis of religion, caste, race, sex, or place of birth. Article 14 says that all citizens enjoy equal privileges and opportunities. Article 15 provides that the State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. Article 16 says that no citizen can be discriminated against or be ineligible for any employment or office under the State on grounds of only religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth or residence. Article 17 abolishes ‘untouchability’ and forbids its practise in any form. Article 18 abolish all titles national or foreign which create artificial distinctions in social status amongst the people. Hence option (d) is correct