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Daily Prelims Test – 17_July

1.Consider the following statements regarding Pneumonia

  • It is a highly contagious lung infection characterised by inflammation of air sacs in one or both the lungs.
  • It can be caused by viruses and bacteria only.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: First indigenous vaccine for infant pneumonia approved

The Drug Controller General of India V.G. Somani has approved Serum Institute of India Pvt Ltd’s indigenous pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine, making it the first indigenously devloped vaccine against pneumonia

About Pneumonia

  • Pneumoniais a highly contagious lung infection characterised by inflammation of air sacs in one or both the lungs. The air sacs get filled with fluid or pus resulting in fever, chills, cough and breathing difficulty. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children worldwide.
  • Pneumonia kills an estimated 1.4 million children under the age of five years every year – more than AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined.
  • Pneumonia can be caused by viruses, bacteria or fungi. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • Pneumonia can be prevented by immunization, adequate nutrition and by addressing environmental factors.
  • Pneumonia can be treated with antibiotics, but around 30% of children with pneumonia receive the antibiotics they need.
  • Pneumonia is both preventable and treatable.
  • Symptoms: High fever and chills, cough with phlegm, physical weakness and a feeling of being unwell, shortness of breath and rapid breathing and a racing pulse.
  • Transmission:
  • The viruses and bacteria that are commonly found in a child’s nose or throat can infect the lungs if they are inhaled.
  • They may also spread via air-borne droplets from a cough or sneeze.
  • It may also spread through blood especially during and shortly after birth.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/first-indigenous-vaccine-for-infant-pneumonia-approved/article32095084.ece

2.Consider the following statements regardingUnited Nations Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC)

  • It is one of the six main organs of the United Nations
  • It has 54 members selected by the General Assembly for three-year terms

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:On UN’s 75th anniversary, PM Modi to virtually address ECOSOC on July 17

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will virtually deliver a keynote address at the valedictory session of High-Level Segment of UN ECOSOC (United Nations Economic and Social Council) on July 17 in New York, on the eve of 75th anniversary of the United Nations.
  • The High-Level Segment is held annually by ECOSOC and convenes a diverse group of high-level representatives from the Government, the private sector, civil society and academia.
  • The theme of the High-level Segment is “Multilateralism after COVID19: What kind of UN do we need at the 75th anniversary”.

About UN ECOSOC (United Nations Economic and Social Council)

  • The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is one of the principal organs of the United Nations established by the UN Charter in 1945.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It consists of 54 Members of the United Nations elected by the General Assembly for three year termsHence statement 2 is correct
  • It is responsible under the General Assembly for co-ordinating economic, social and related work of the fourteen United Nations specialized agencies, functional commissions and five regional commissions.
  • Headquarters: New York, United States.

Functions of ECOSOC:

  • Promoting higher standards of living, full employment, and economic and social progress
  • Identifying solutions to international economic, social and health problems
  • Facilitating international cultural and educational cooperation
  • Encouraging universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/international/on-un-s-75th-anniversary-pm-modi-to-virtually-address-ecosoc-on-july-17-120071500225_1.html

3.Consider the following statements regarding Maternal Mortality Ratio(MMR)

  • It is defined as the number of maternal deaths per 1,00,000 live births.
  • The target 3.1 of UN Sustainable Development Goals aims to reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 1,00,000 live births.
  • According to the special bulletin on Maternal Mortality in India 2016-18, India registers a steep increase in maternal mortality ratio

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:India registers a steep decline in maternal mortality ratio

The Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) in India has declined to 113 in 2016-18 from 122 in 2015-17 and 130 in 2014-2016, according to the special bulletin onMaternal Mortality in India 2016-18. Hence statement 3 is incorrect

About Maternal Mortality Ratio(MMR)

  • It is one of the key indicators of maternal mortality. It is defined as the number of maternal deaths per 1,00,000 live births.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The target 3.1 of UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) aims to reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 1,00,000 live births.Hence statement 2 is correct

MMR in statewise

  • Northern states registered a higher MMR: Assam (215), Bihar (149), Madhya Pradesh (173), Chhattisgarh (159), Odisha (150), Rajasthan (164), Uttar Pradesh (197) and Uttarakhand (99).
  • The southern states registered a lower MMR: Andhra Pradesh (65), Telangana (63), Karnataka (92), Kerala (43), and Tamil Nadu (60).

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/india-registers-a-steep-decline-in-maternal-mortality-ratio/article32106662.ece

4.What is the aim of NISHTHA Programme?

  • It aims a public-private partnership scheme aims to harness technology for better learning outcomes in higher education
  • It is a capacity building programme for Improving Quality of School Education through Integrated Teacher Training
  • It aims to enhance the employability of Indian youth by providing on-job work exposure and stipend
  • It is an initiative to develop a roadmap for research to solve major engineering and technology challenges in technology domains relevant to India.
  • Answer: (b) Itis a capacity building programme for “Improving Quality of School Education through Integrated Teacher Training”

Explanation:

In NEWS:Teacher training drive launched in State

  • Education Minister Adimulapu Sureshstated the State would lengthen full cooperation in efficient implementation of NISHTHA (National Initiative for School Heads and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement), a capability constructing programme for bettering high quality of school education via built-in instructor training.
  • The first on-line NISHTHA programme for 1,200 key sources individuals of Andhra Pradesh was launched
  • This is being organised by constituting National Resource Groups (NRGs) and State Resource Groups (SRGs) on the nationwide and the State degree. NISHTHA in face-to-face mode was launched on August 21 final yr and thereafter 33 States and Union Territories launched this programme in collaboration below Samagra Shiksha.
  • In 29 States and UTs, the NISHTHA training programme has been accomplished by the NCERT.

About NISHTHA

  • NISHTHA is a capacity building programme for “Improving Quality of School Education through Integrated Teacher Training”. Hence option (b) is correct
  • It aims to build competencies among all the teachers and school principals at the elementary stage.
  • The functionaries (at the state, district, block, cluster level) shall be trained in an integrated manner on learning outcomes, school based assessment, learner – centred pedagogy, new initiatives in education, addressing diverse needs of children through multiple pedagogies, etc

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/andhra-pradesh/teacher-training-drive-launched-in-state/article32107398.ece

5.Consider the following statements regarding Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)

  • It is an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare
  • It is a statutory body under ICAR Act, 2001

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Indian Council of Agricultural Research celebrates its 92nd Foundation Day

  • Union Minister of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare appreciated the efforts of the agricultural scientists due to which ICAR has contributed immensely in the progress of agriculture in the country during the last nine decades. 
  • ICAR and KVK scientists also have to ensure that the benefits of contract farming reach the small farmers.

About ICAR:

  • It is an autonomous organisation under the Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE), Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It was established on 16 July 1929 as a registered society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The Council is the apex body for coordinating, guiding and managing research and education in agriculture including horticulture, fisheries and animal sciences in the entire country. 
  • With 102 ICAR institutes and 71 agricultural universities spread across the country this is one of the largest national agricultural systems in the world.
  • The ICAR has played a pioneering role in ushering the Green Revolution and subsequent developments in agriculture in India through its research and technology development, making a visible impact on the national food and nutritional security
  • It has played a major role in promoting excellence in higher education in agriculture.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1639132

6.Consider the following statements regarding Indian Bioresource Information portal (IBIN)

  • It aims to collate, translate and complement information from diverse data servers on bio-prospecting and utilization, protection of rights, conservation and management of biological diversity of the country
  • It is funded by the Department of Biotechnology

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Nano technology enables scientists to study migrations of Pied Cuckoo

  • A new project by a number of agencies is using advancements in nano technology to study migratory patterns of the Pied Cuckoo, a bird closely linked with the arrival of the south west monsoon in India.
  • The project is a joint effort by the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun and the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), which comes under the Indian Space Research Organisation or ISRO.
  • In 2019, the team had banded a Pied Cuckoo on the outskirts of Dehradun to check whether it would return to the same site the following year. Sure enough, the bird returned this summer.
  • The Pied Cuckoo migration study is part of a larger project — Indian Bioresource Information portal

About Indian Bioresource Information portal

  • IBIN portal will provide platform to the diverse data providers in a mutually sharable environment with full ownership protocols.
  • The data will be maintained and compiled by the owners independently but agree to organize the datasets in uniform standard and provide the data through the Indian Bio-resource Information Network (IBIN) portal.
  • The value added and knowledge acquired from diverse datasets will be of immense value and the IPR will lie with the knowledge builder.
  • Thus IBIN Portal aims to collate, translate and complement information from diverse data servers on bio-prospecting and utilization, protection of rights, conservation and management of biological diversity of the country.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Funded by: Department of Biotechnology, under the Union Ministry of Science and Technology.Hence statement 2 is correct

Sourcehttps://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/nano-technology-enables-scientists-to-study-migrations-of-pied-cuckoo-72336

7.Sometimes seen in news, Chattogram port is associated with

  • Myanmar
  • Singapore
  • Srilanka
  • Bangladesh

Answer: (d) Bangladesh

Explanation:

In NEWS:First trial movement of a container ship from Kolkata port to Bangladesh’s Chattogram port flagged off. Hence option (d) is correct

  • The trial consignment includes TMT steel bars destined for Tripura and pulses for Assam. After reaching Chattogram, the consignment will move to Agartala on Bangladeshi trucks.
  • The trial run follows the understanding reached between the two countries during the visit of PM Sheikh Hasina to India in 2019 when the Standard Operating Procedures (SoP) for the use of Chattogram and Mongla ports for transit of goods was finalised.
  • The operationalisation of these ports of transit for Indian goods will significantly reduce the time taken in carrying goods through Bangladesh while it will also enhance business and revenue for Bangladesh as its trucks and vessels will be used to move the Indian cargo.
  • In recent years both the countries have enhanced cooperation in shipping and inland water trade. Under the Protocol on Inland Water Transit and Trade, in addition to the six existing Ports of Call, five more in each country have been added recently. 

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/first-trial-movement-of-a-container-ship-from-kolkata-port-to-bangladeshs-chattogram-port-flagged-off/article32106986.ece

8.Kihoto Hollohan vs Zachillhu 1992 Judgment is related to which of the following issue?

  • Triple Talaq Judgement
  • Repealing Section 377
  • Right to property
  • Tenth Schedule

Answer: (d) Tenth Schedule

Explanation:

In NEWS:‘Judicial review can’t be available prior to Speaker’s decision’

  • A 28­year­old judgment of the Supreme Court in KihotoHollohan versus Zachillu and Others has said that “judicial review cannot be available at a stage prior to the making of a decision by the Speaker/Chairman and a quiatimet action would not be permissible. Nor would interference be permissible at an interlocutory stage of the proceedings.”
  • Constitutional courts cannot judicially review disqualification proceedings under the Tenth Schedule (anti-­de­fection law) of the Constitu­tion until the Speaker or Chairman makes a final deci­sion on merits.
  • The judgment is significant in the case of ousted Rajasthan Deputy Chief Minister Sachin Pilot and the 18 MLAs, who were issued notice under the anti­-defection law after the ruling Congress sought their dis­ qualification.
  • They have ap­proached the Rajasthan High Court challenging the constitutionality of Para­ graph 2(1)(a) of the Tenth Schedule which makes “vo­luntarily giving up member­ ship of a political party” lia­ble for disqualification

About Kihoto Hollohan case

  • The law covering the disqualification of legislators and the powers of the Speaker in deciding such matters became part of the statute book in 1985 when the Tenth Schedule to the Constitution was adopted.Hence option (d) is correct
  • A constitutional challenge to the Tenth Schedule was settled by the apex court in Kihoto Hollohan.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/judicial-review-cant-be-available-prior-to-speakers-decision/article32106036.ece

9.Consider the following statements regarding Prashad scheme

  • It aims at integrated development of pilgrimage destinations in planned, prioritised and sustainable manner to provide complete religious tourism experience.
  • It was launched by the Ministry of Tourism

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Funded under PRASHAD Scheme of Tourism Ministry, the project successfully completed at a cost of Rs. 45.36 crores

Union Minister of State(IC) for Tourism Shri Prahlad Singh Patel virtually joins the inauguration of project ‘Development of Pilgrimage Amenities at Somnath, Gujaratunder Prashad scheme of Tourism Ministry

About Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive’ (PRASHAD) scheme:

  • It was launched in 2014-15 by Union Ministry of Tourism.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It aims at integrated development of pilgrimage destinations in planned, prioritised and sustainable manner to provide complete religious tourism experience.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Under the PRASHAD Scheme, 41 religious cities/sites in 25 States have been identified for development.

Objectives:

  • Harness pilgrimage tourism for its direct and multiplier effect upon employment generation and economic development.
  • Enhance tourist attractiveness in sustainable manner by developing world class infrastructure in the religious destinations.
  • It also seeks to promote local art, culture, handicraft, cuisine, etc.
  • The scheme aimed at infrastructure development such as entry points (Road, Rail and Water Transport), last mile connectivity, basic tourism facilities like Information/ Interpretation Centers, ATM/ Money exchange, eco-friendly modes of transport, area Lighting and illumination with renewable sources of energy, parking, drinking water, toilets, cloak room, waiting rooms, first aid centers, craft bazars /haats/ souvenir shops/ cafeteria, rain shelters, Telecom facilities, internet connectivity etc. 

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1639135

10.Under which Schedule of the Constitution of India can the transfer of tribal land to private parties for mining be declared null and void?

  • Third Schedule
  • Fifth Schedule
  • Ninth Schedule
  • Twelfth Schedule

Answer: (b) Fifth Schedule

Explanation:

  • The Indian Constitution provides autonomy to tribal areas in matters of governance under the Fifth and Sixth Schedules, which is further fortified by the Samatha v. State of Andhra Pradesh &Ors (1997) judgment where the Supreme Court declared that the transfer of tribal land to private parties for mining was null and void under the Fifth Schedule.Hence option (b) is correct
  • The framework for protection of the rights of tribal and indigenous people is further strengthened by the Recognition of Forest Rights Act, 2006 which protects the individual and community rights of tribal people in forest areas and their right to free and prior informed consent in event of their displacement and resettlement.