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Daily Prelims Test – 17_August_2021

Consider the following statements regarding Hydrogen gas:

1)      It is a colourless, odourless gas abundant in the Earth’s atmosphere.

2)      It can be stored physically in both the gas and liquid state.

3)      It is not a source of energy like fossil fuels or renewable sources.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)      1 and 3 only

b)      2 only

c)      3 only

d)      1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: National Hydrogen Mission launched

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi the government is focusing on meeting its climate targets and towards this end, he announced the National Hydrogen Mission.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi said the government is focusing on meeting its climate targets and towards this end, he announced the National Hydrogen Mission.
  • The proposal for the National Hydrogen Mission was made in the Budget 2021 to launch NHM that would enable the generation of hydrogen “from green power sources”.
  • Currently imports 85% of its oil and 53% of gas demand, spending ₹12 trillion annually to meet the energy needs.
  • About Hydrogen gas 
  • Hydrogen is a colourless, odourless gas abundant in the Earth’s atmosphere and is utilised for industrial uses such as petroleum refining, aerospace applications and manufacturing of chemicals, steel, and ammonia fertilisers. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Hydrogen is the lightest and first element on the periodic table.Since the weight of hydrogen is less than air, it rises in the atmosphere and is therefore rarely found in its pure form, H2.
  • At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a nontoxic, nonmetallic, odorless, tasteless, colorless, and highly combustible diatomic gas.
  • Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel burned with oxygen.
  • Molecular hydrogen is not available on Earth in convenient natural reservoirs. Most hydrogen on Earth is bonded to oxygen in water and to carbon in live or dead and/or fossilized biomass. It can be created by splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen.
  • For industrial processes, hydrogen is extracted primarily through two methods, the gasification of coal or through a process called steam methane reformation (SMR).
  • In SME, methane from natural gas, when heated with steam, produces carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be used as fuel.
  • However, these methods aren’t carbon-friendly, which means they cause vast emissions of greenhouse gasses like carbon dioxide. The hydrogen produced from these methods is called ‘brown’ hydrogen.
  • Another form of hydrogen, known as ‘blue hydrogen’ is also extracted similarly through SMR but is more carbon-friendly because it captures the carbon dioxide released and stores it, as opposed to emitting it into the atmosphere.
  • According to WEC, as of 2019, “96 per cent of hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels via carbon intensive processes”. Hydrogen thus obtained is called ‘grey’ hydrogen as the process, though not as expensive as the other methods, releases a lot of carbon dioxide.

        Hydrogen is not a source of energy, like fossil fuels or renewable sources like sunlight and air, but an energy carrier, which means it has to be produced, or extracted, and stored before it can be used. Hence statement (3) is correct.

Hydrogen can be stored physically as either a gas or a liquid. Hence statement (2) is correct.

  • Storage of hydrogen as a gas typically requires high-pressure tanks.
  • Storage of hydrogen as a liquid requires cryogenic temperatures because the boiling point of hydrogen at one atmosphere pressure is −252.8°C.
  • Hydrogen can also be stored on the surfaces of solids (by adsorption) or within solids (by absorption).

Sourcehttps://indianexpress.com/article/india/from-ioc-to-reliance-indias-hydrogen-push-gains-traction-7454869/

Consider the following statements regarding Procedure Established by Law:

1)      It means that a law that is duly enacted by legislature or the concerned body is valid if it has followed the correct procedure.

2)      This doctrine provides for more fair treatment of individual rights.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)      1 only

b)      2 only

c)      Both 1 and 2

d)      Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Pegasus case: Govindacharya asks Supreme Court to revive his 2019 petition

Procedure established by law

  • It means that a law that is duly enacted by legislature or the concerned body is valid if it has followed the correct procedure. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • In this the court would assess that whether there is law or not, whether the Legislature is competent to frame the law and whether it had followed the procedure laid down to legislate and would not assess the intent of the said law.
  • This doctrine has a major flaw. It does not assess whether the laws made by Parliament is fair, just and not arbitrary. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • “Procedure established by law” means a law duly enacted is valid even if it’s contrary to principles of justice and equity.
  • Strictly following procedure established by law may raise the risk of compromise to life and personal liberty of individuals due to unjust laws made by the law making authorities. Thus, Procedure established by law protect the individual against the arbitrary action of only the executive.

Due Process of Law

  • Due process of law doctrine not only checks if there is a law to deprive the life and personal liberty of a person, but also see if the law made is fair, just and not arbitrary.
  • If SC finds that any law as not fair, it will declare it as null and void. This doctrine provides for more fair treatment of individual rights.
  • Under due process, it is the legal requirement that the state must respect all of the legal rights that are owed to a person and laws that states enact must confirm to the laws of the land like – fairness, fundamental rights, liberty etc.
  • It also gives the judiciary to assess the fundamental fairness, justice, and liberty of any legislation.
  • Thus Due process protect the individual against the arbitrary action of both executive and legislature.

Sourcehttps://www.thehindu.com/news/national/pegasus-case-govindacharya-asks-supreme-court-to-revive-his-2019-petition/article35922422.ece

Consider the following statements regarding Aroma Mission:

1)      CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants is the nodal laboratory for this Mission.

2)      It is aimed at development of superior aroma crop varieties and their agro-technologies.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)      1 only

b)      2 only

c)      Both 1 and 2

d)      Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: CSIR has Visible Footprints in Jammu & Kashmir and the Northeast of the Country, which are Priority Areas for the Government

  • Delivering keynote address at the Special Webinar on Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Aroma Mission on the eve of India’s 75th Independence Day, Dr Jitendra Singh said that the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has visible footprints in Jammu & Kashmir and Northeast, both being the priority areas of the Modi Government.

About CSIR Aroma Mission: 

  • Launch: 2016
  • The CSIR Aroma Mission is envisaged to bring transformative change in the aroma sector through desired interventions in the areas of agriculture, processing and product development for fuelling the growth of aroma industry and rural employment. 
  • It is aimed at development of superior aroma crop varieties and their agro-technologies and assessment of their suitability for the large scale cultivation in specific agro-climatic regions. Hence statement (2) is correct
  • The nodal laboratory for the Mission:  CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR-CIMAP), Lucknow. Hence statement (1) is correct
  • It also seeks to provide technical and infrastructure support for distillation and value-addition to farmers/growers all over the country, apart from enabling effective buy-back mechanisms to assure remunerative prices to the farmers/growers.

The objectives include

       Development of superior varieties and their agro-technologies and assessment of their suitability for specific agro-climatic regions.

  • Value-addition of aromatic crops (High-end aroma chemicals and products)         Skill development activities
  • Intellectual property generation, valuation and management
  • Entrepreneurship development/Spin-offs
  • Business development
  • Making public aware of Mission activities and achievements using an appropriate interface.

Source: PIB

 Consider the following statements:

1)      Tribunals are a part of the original constitution.

2)      Tribunals are a quasi-judicial institution that is set up to deal with problems such as resolving administrative or tax-related disputes.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)      1 only

b)      2 only

c)      Both 1 and 2

d)      Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Supreme Court remarks on tribunal law is latest flashpoint between legislature, judiciary

  • Attorney General for India KK Venugopal, who had defended the Tribunals Reforms Ordinance in court, on Monday said at an event that the fresh tussle would be “worth waiting and watching”.
  • Chief Justice of India NV Ramana’s remarks questioning the law passed last week relating to the process of appointment of tribunal members has triggered a fresh stand-off between the legislature and the judiciary over the powers of and limitations on lawmaking.

About Tribunals

  • Tribunal is a quasi-judicial body set up to deal with problems such as resolving administrative or tax-related disputes. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The provision for Tribunals was added by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act which added two new articles to the constitution. Hence statement (1) is incorrect.
  • Article 323A: It empowers the parliament to provide for the establishment of administrative tribunals for adjudicating the disputes relating to recruitment and conditions of service of a person appointed to public service of centre, states, local bodies, public corporations and other public authority.
  • Accordingly, parliament has enacted the Administrative Tribunals Act, 1985 which authorizes parliament to establish Centre and state Administrative tribunals (CAT & SATs).
  • Article 323B: It empowers the parliament and the state legislatures to establish tribunals for adjudication of disputes related to matters of taxation, foreign exchange, industry and labour, land reforms, elections to parliament and state legislature, rent and tenancy Rights, etc.

Sourcehttps://indianexpress.com/article/explained/sc-remarks-on-tribunal-law-latest-flashpoint-between-legislature-judiciary-7457091/

 Consider the following statements regarding TAPAS initiative:

1)      It is the initiative of National Institute of Social Defence. 

2)      It aims to provide access to lectures by subject experts, study material and more for five courses.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)      1 only

b)      2 only

c)      Both 1 and 2

d)      Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Ministry Of Social Justice And Empowerment Launches TAPAS To Offer MOOC Courses

  • Union Minister for Social Justice and Empowerment Dr. Virendra Kumar launched an online portal TAPAS (Training for Augmenting Productivity and Services), developed by the National Institute of Social Defence
  • The idea of TAPAS was conceptualised at a time when exploring the online medium for work and education had become imperative due to the outbreak of Covid 19 pandemic.

About TAPAS initiative:

  • TAPAS is the initiative of National Institute of Social Defence (NISD), Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, to provide access to lectures by subject experts, study material and more, but in a manner that it supplements the physical classroom without compromising on the quality of teaching. Hence statement (1) is correct and statement (2) is correct.
  • The main objective of introducing the course modules is to impart training and enhance the knowledge and skills for the capacity building of the participants.
  • It can be taken up by anyone who wishes to enhance his or her knowledge on the topics and there is no fee for joining.
  • The five basic courses are on Drug (Substance) Abuse Prevention, Geriatric/Elderly Care, Care and Management of Dementia, Transgender Issues and on comprehensive course on Social Defence Issues.
  • It is a standard MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) platform with course material such as filmed lectures and e-study material.
  • There is no fee for joining. Supplements the physical classroom without compromising on the quality of teaching.
  • The online medium for work and education had become imperative due to the outbreak of the Covid 19 pandemic.
  • Ensuring maximum participation of stakeholders and volunteers working in the field of social defence for better training and capacity building.

Sourcehttps://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1745781

Consider the following statements regarding National Monuments Authority:

1)      It has been set up as per provisions of The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (Amendment and Validation) Act, 2010.

2)      It aims to protect and preserve monuments and sites through management of the prohibited and regulated area around the centrally protected monuments. 

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)      1 only

b)      2 only

c)      Both 1 and 2

d)      Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Sh G. Kishan Reddy will inaugurate two exhibitions ‘Katha Kranthi Veeron Ki’ and ‘Monuments of Victory & Valour’

          Katha Kranthi Veeron Ki is an exhibition of revolutionaries at Lalit Kala Akademi

  • Monuments of Victory & Valour will contain photos of resistance and valour across millennia and organised at NMMA
  • Katha Kranthi Veeron Ki:
  • It is an exhibition of revolutionaries with a dedicated exhibition on Alluri Seetharamaraju and exhibits of paintings of Shaheedi Diwas, Champaran Satyagraha and Jallianwala Bagh.
  • It will be organized by Lalit Kala Akademi. 

Monuments of Victory & Valour:

  • The exhibition will be organized by the National Monuments Authority(NMA).
  • It is an exhibition that will contain photos of resistance and valour across millennia.
  • This will include photos of the:
  • Kakaitya Kala Thoranam at Warangal
  • Fort of Jhansi Laxmi Bhai that symbolises her valour against the British in the war of independence in 1857 and 
  • Vijaya Stambh in Chittorgarh that commemorates the victory over the sultanates led by Mahmud Khilji.

About National Monuments Authority

  • National Monuments Authority (NMA) under the Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India has been setup as per provisions of The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains AMASR (Amendment and Validation) Act, 2010 which was enacted in March, 2010Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Several functions have been assigned to the NMA for the protection and preservation of monuments and sites through management of the prohibited and regulated area around the centrally protected monuments. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The Act provides for NMA to be constituted with a Chairperson and up to 5 Whole Time and 5 Part Time Members each and a Member Secretary. DG ASI is an ex officio Member.

A few important changes have been brought in by the 2010 Act. Some of these are:-

  • Statutory provision for the ‘prohibited’ and regulated areas.
  • Complete ban on construction in the prohibited area.
  • Providing statutory procedures for applications seeking permission for construction/repair/renovation.
  • The authority shall make necessary scrutiny of the Heritage bye laws and accord approval after inviting objections/suggestions from the public.
  • Grading and classification of monuments.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1745858

Consider the following statements:

1)      Sainik schools are run by the Sainik Schools Society which is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Defence.

2)      Sainik schools are the brainchild of VK Krishna Menon who conceived this idea in 1961.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)      1 only

b)      2 only

c)      Both 1 and 2

d)      Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: All Sainik schools will now admit girls: PM Modi

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced that all Sainik Schools in the country will now be open for girls also. At present, 33 Sainik schools are operating in the country.
  • During his Independence Day speech , the prime minister said that two-and-a-half years ago, the maiden experiment of admitting girls in Sainik schools was carried out in Mizoram.
  • Sainik schools are run by the Sainik Schools Society which is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Defence. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The aim of establishing Sainik schools was to prepare the students from an early age for their entry into the Indian armed forces.
  • Sainik schools are the brainchild of VK Krishna Menon who conceived this idea in 1961.Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • A provision for 100 new Sainik Schools to be set up in partnership with NGOs, private schools and states was announced in the Union Budget for 2021-22 fiscal.
  • Students are selected for Sainik Schools through an annual entrance examination. They are inducted at the middle-school level.

Sourcehttps://indianexpress.com/article/india/top-retired-military-officials-welcome-provision-of-100-new-sainik-schools-7170526/

Consider the following statements regarding SAMVAD Programme:

1)      It aims to provide mental health outreach for children who are abandoned and orphaned, child survivors of trafficking, or in conflict with law.

2)      It is led by National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences and is funded by Ministry of Women and Child Development.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)      1 only

b)      2 only

c)      Both 1 and 2

d)      Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union WCD Minister Smt. Smriti Irani launches 2nd Phase of SAMVAD To Ensure Holistic Psychosocial Well-Being of Children & Adolescents

          The Union Minister of Women and Child Development, Smriti Zubin Irani, on the eve of Independence Day, launched 2nd phase of SAMVAD programmetoday in Bengaluruand commemorated the successful completion of one year of SAMVAD – Support, Advocacy & Mental health interventions for children in Vulnerable circumstances And Distress. 

About SAMVAD Programme:

  • SAMVAD standsfor Support, Advocay & Mental health interventions for children in Vulnerable circumstances And Distress.
  • It is a National Initiative and Integrated Resource that works in child protection, mental health and psychosocial care. 
  • Aim: To provide mental health outreach for children who are abandoned and orphaned, child survivors of trafficking, or in conflict with lawHence statement (1) is correct.
  • The programme is led by National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences(NIMHANS). It is funded by Ministry of of Women and Child Development. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • Under the Programme, training is being provided to Child Protection Functionaries, tele-counsellors, educators, law professionals among others. The training will be provided to cope mechanisms for children in distress.
  • In the second phase, SAMVAD is slated to begin work with Panchayati Raj institutions to integrate child protection and mental health in aspirational districts across the country. This will help facilitate awareness generation and improve service delivery at the grassroot level.

Sourcehttps://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1745898

With respect to Slender Loris, Consider the following statements:

1)      It is commonly found in the tropical scrub and deciduous forests.

2)      It is endangered species under the IUCN classification.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)      1 only

b)      2 only

c)      Both 1 and 2

d)      Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:

  • The Kadavur hills in central Tamil Nadu’s Karur district are home to the Kadavur Reserve Forest. These forests are home to the shy and reclusive slender loris, a species of primate. There is a conservation dilemma regarding these animals in the area currently.
  • The Karur forest division was created in 1997, after the formation of the Karur revenue district. About 5,450 hectares have been afforested in the Kadavur Reserve Forest under the Tamil Nadu Afforestation Project (TAP) programme aided by the Japanese government.
  • The loris species is also found in the adjoining forest areas on the eastern, southern and western slopes of the Kadavur hills, which are managed by the Tiruchirappalli and Dindigul forest divisions respectively.

About Slender loris:

  • Commonly found in the tropical scrub and deciduous forests as well as the dense hedgerow plantations bordering farmlands of Southern India and Sri Lanka, the Slender Loris is a small, nocturnal primate. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It prefers to inhabit thick, thorny bushes and bamboo clumps where it can evade predators and also find insects, which is the main diet.
  • Slender loris (Loris tardigradus) is secretive and has nocturnal habits. It usually travels from the canopy of one tree to another. But, at times, it also comes down to bushes at the ground level to feed.
  • It sleeps by day in the foliage or in a hole or crevice. It comes out at dusk in search of prey. They are fond of lantana berries and also eat insects, lizards, small birds, tree frogs, tender leaves and buds.
  • They are usually solitary but sometimes found in pairs. As it is believed that these animals have some medicinal properties, they are captured and sold.
  • IUCN has listed them as Endangered, whereas they are listed under the Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act of India, 1972, according them the highest level of legal protection. Hence statement (2) is correct.

Sourcehttps://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/forests/in-karur-a-conservation-dilemma-regarding-the-slender-loris-78489

With reference to land reforms in independent India, which one of the following statements is correct?

a)      The ceiling laws were aimed at family holdings and not individual holdings.

b)      The major aim of land reforms was providing agricultural land to all the landless.

c)      It resulted in cultivation of cash crops as a predominant form of cultivation.

d)      Land reforms permitted no exemptions to the ceiling limits.

Answer: (b) The major aim of land reforms was providing agricultural land to all the landless.

Explanation:

The Land reform constitutes the most important measures to improve the economic con­dition of agricultural tenants .

  • The Land reforms program in post-Independence India has evolved through different phases and these includes Abolition of Intermediaries, Tenancy reforms, consolidation of holdings and determination of holdings per family, imposition of ceilings with fewer exemptions, and to distribute surplus land among landless peoples. Hence Option (b) is correct.