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Daily Prelims Test – 17 August

Consider the following statements regarding Air Unique-quality Monitoring (AUM) Photonic System

  •  It is an innovative application of the principles of laser backscattering, statistical mechanics, optoelectronics, artificial intelligence, machine/deep learning, and Internet of Things.
  •  It is portable, compact, low powered and economical, works on plug and play system, requires no setting uptime, and no additional civil infrastructure for housing.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Indigenous Air Unique-quality Monitoring (AUM) Photonic System developed for Real-Time Remote Monitoring of Air Quality

  • World Health Organisation (WHO)’s reports show that the worsening state of poor air quality is responsible for more than 7.5 million fatalities worldwide annually.
  • This highlights the necessity for accurate, yet cost-effective monitoring of air quality parameters as monitoring is critical to solution.
  • The current systems and technologies used for air quality monitoring are prohibitively expensive for wider deployment. This underlines the need for development of systems for real-time remote monitoring of relevant air quality parameters

About Indigenous Air Unique-quality Monitoring (AUM) Photonic System:

  • The AUM system is an innovative application of the principles of laser backscattering, statistical mechanics, optoelectronics, artificial intelligence, machine/deep learning, and Internet of Things. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It can identify, classify, and quantify various pollutants simultaneously and meteorological parameters, with very high precision, sensitivity and accuracy.
  • It has been found to be highly sensitive and accurate and capable of simultaneous detection and quantification of all air quality parameters and offers a number of merits over any of the currently available conventional systems.
  • It is portable, compact, low powered and economical, works on plug and play system, requires no setting uptime, and no additional civil infrastructure for housing. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It provides information on all gases and meteorological parameters simultaneously.
  • It is a non-intrusive remote, real-time monitoring system with very high sensitivities and accuracies and is capable of monitoring in both spatial and temporal domains, with very high sampling frequencies.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1645699

Recently, the term Omega Centauri is seen in news. What is it?

  • It is a supermassive black hole sits 26,000 light years away from Earth
  • It is the brightest and the largest globular cluster in our Galaxy
  • It is icy rock, which orbits in the dark and frigid Kuiper Belt about a billion miles beyond Pluto.
  • It is a system of seven Earth-size planets orbiting an ultra-cool dwarf star about 40 light-years away.

Answer: (b)It is the brightest and the largest globular cluster in our Galaxy

Explanation:

In NEWS: Indian Scientists discovers Helium enhanced cool bright stars among Omega Centauri globular cluster

  • According to the Ministry of Science and Technology, this is the first time He abundance has been found in Omega Centauri and the work has been published in ‘The Astrophysical Journal’.
  • Indian scientists discover Helium enhanced stars! Scientists at Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) which is an autonomous institute of Department of Science & Technology (DST), have studied stars of Omega Centauri globular cluster and found some Helium (He)-enhanced cool bright stars that are present among the metal-rich sample of the cluster.
  • There have been estimations of He-enhancement in the H-core burning main-sequence stars (like Sun) of Omega Cen but it is the first-ever spectroscopic determination of He-abundance in Omega Centauri.
  • The study provides a very important clue for the origin of the He-enhanced population establishing that these are the second generation of stars formed from the metal-rich and He-enhanced material from the first generation of stars.
  • Omega Centauri is the brightest and the largest globular cluster in our Galaxy i.e. the Milky Way. Hence option (b) is correct
  • The different stars of Omega Centauri do not show the same metal content, a parameter that indicates its age, but a large range in it.
  • Globular clusters are the stellar systems with millions of stars formed from the same gaseous cloud which implies that stars present in this cluster are homogeneous in their chemical composition of elemental form.

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/lifestyle/science/indian-scientists-discovers-helium-enhanced-cool-bright-stars-among-omega-centauri-globular-cluster/2055104/

Consider the following statements

  •  The Special Marriage Act, 1954 and the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 also prescribe 18 and 21 years as the minimum age of consent for marriage for women and men respectively.
  •  An individual attains the age of majority at 18 as per the Indian Majority Act, 1875.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: The logic of, and debate around minimum age of marriage for women

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that the central government has set up a committee to reconsider the minimum age of marriage for women during his address to the nation on the 74th Independence Day.
  • Currently, the law prescribes that the minimum age of marriage is 21 years and 18 years for men and women respectively.
  • The minimum age of marriage is distinct from the age of majority which is gender-neutral. An individual attains the age of majority at 18 as per the Indian Majority Act, 1875. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It will also look at key parameters like Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR), Total Fertility Rate (TFR), Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) and Child Sex Ratio (CSR), and will examine the possibility of increasing the age of marriage for women from the present 18 years to 21 years.
  • For Hindus, Section 5(iii) of The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, sets 18 years as the minimum age for the bride and 21 years as the minimum age for the groom. However, child marriages are not illegal — even though they can be declared void at the request of the minor in the marriage.
  • In Islam, the marriage of a minor who has attained puberty is considered valid.
  • The Special Marriage Act, 1954 and the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 also prescribe 18 and 21 years as the minimum age of consent for marriage for women and men respectively. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • In 1929, The Child Marriage Restraint Act set 16 and 18 years as the minimum age of marriage for girls and boys respectively. The law, popularly known as the Sarda Act
  • From bringing in gender-neutrality to reduce the risks of early pregnancy among women, there are many arguments in favour of increasing the minimum age of marriage of women. Early pregnancy is associated with increased child mortality rates and affects the health of the mother.
  • Articles 14 and 21 of the Constitution, which guarantee the right to equality and the right to live with dignity, were violated by having different legal ages for men and women to marry.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/pm-modi-74th-independence-day-women-empowerment-marriage-age-6555937/

Consider the following statements regarding world’s tallest pier bridge

  • It is constructed by the Indian Railways
  • It is being constructed across river Ijai

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Indian Railways constructing world’s tallest pier bridge across river Ijai in Manipur

  • Indian Railways is constructing the world’s tallest pier bridge in Manipur. . Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The bridge which is being constructed across river Ijai near Noney is an engineering marvel because the tallest pier height will be 141 meter. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It will surpass the existing record of 139 meter of Mala – Rijeka viaduct, Montenegro in Europe.
  • The bridge is a part of Jiribam-Tupul-Imphal new BG line project. The total length of the bridge will be 703 meter. The piers of the bridge are constructed using hydraulic augers, the tall piers needed specially designed “slip-form technique” to ensure efficient and continual construction.
  • The steel girders used in the construction of the bridge are pre-fabricated in a workshop, transported in segments and erected at the site by Cantilever launching scheme. A North East Frontier Railway official said, there are a total of 45 tunnels in the project. The longest is Tunnel No. 12 with a length of 10.280 km. This will be the longest railway tunnel in the North East.

Source: http://www.newsonair.com/News?title=Indian-Railways-constructing-world%E2%80%99s-tallest-pier-bridge-across-river-Ijai-in-Manipur&id=397469

Consider the following statements regarding SalivaDirect

  • It is a quick and cheap saliva-based laboratory diagnostic test for Covid-19
  • It is developed by a team from the Yale School of Public Health

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: U.S. FDA nod for rapid, inexpensive saliva test

  • In what could prove a game­ changer in the global battle against COVID­19, a new, ra­pid diagnostic test for the novel coronavirus that uses saliva samples was granted an emergency use authorisa­tion by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • The inexpensive test, called SalivaDirect, deve­ loped by a team from the Yale School of Public Health, has high sensitivity and can detect the virus even when the number of virus copies in the saliva sample is as low as 6­12 copies per microlitre. . Hence statement 2 is correct
  • SalivaDirect is simpler, less expensive, and less invasive than the traditional method for such testing, known as nasopharyngeal (NP) swabbing. Results so far have found that SalivaDirect is highly sensitive and yields similar outcomes as NP swabbing. . Hence statement 1 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/fda-approves-rapid-inexpensive-saliva-test-for-novel-coronavirus/article32366694.ece

Consider the following statements regarding National Digital Health Mission

  • It is a complete digital health ecosystem with personal health IDs for every Indian, digitisation of health records as well as a registry of doctors and health facilities across the country.
  • It is implemented by the National Health Authority

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Embrace the national digital health mission, but with care and safeguards

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced a National Digital Health Mission in his Independence Day speech.
  • Personal data, especially health data, is sensitive, and its privacy must be protected. We now have the technology to ensure that happens. We can use Blockchain technology to guarantee that data that is created is encrypted and cannot be altered

About National Digital Health Mission (NDHM):

  • The NDHM is a complete digital health ecosystem with personal health IDs for every Indian, digitisation of health records as well as a registry of doctors and health facilities across the country. . Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The digital platform will be launched with four key features – health ID, personal health records, Digi Doctor and health facility registry.
  • This ID will be applicable across states, hospitals, diagnostic laboratories and pharmacies.
  • The National Health Authority (NHA), the implementing agency for Ayushman Bharat has been given the mandate by the government to design, build, roll-out and implement the NDHM in the country. . Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The six union territories where the mission was rolled out through a pilot launch are Chandigarh, Puducherry, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Daman & Diu, Dadra & Nagar Haweli and Daman & Diu, Ladakh, and Lakshwadeep.
  • The platform is voluntary as it will be up to an individual to get enrolled on the app.
  • Health records will be shared only after authorisation by the individual.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/analysis/embrace-the-national-digital-health-mission-but-with-care-and-safeguards/story-9ITJ2cbLtw2IK7Gpzw4G1H.html

Which of the following statements with respect to ‘Navroz’?

  • It is a war dance performed in Jammu and Kashmir
  • It is a high speed air-to-air missile.
  • It is a bacterial disease which only affects rice crop.
  • It is celebrated to mark the beginning of the new Persian calendar.

Answer: (d) It is celebrated to mark the beginning of the new Persian calendar.

Explanation:

In NEWS: Parsi New Year 2020: Significance, history, wishes to send to your loved ones this Navroz

  • Parsi New Year, also known as Navroz or Nowroz, is celebrated to mark the beginning of the Iranian calendar. In Persian, ‘Nav’ stands for new, and ‘Roz’ stands for the day, which literally translates to ‘new day’. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Navroz falls in the month of August, according to the Gregorian calendar. This year it’s being celebrated on August 16.
  • Navroz is also known as Jamshed-i-Navroz, after the Persian King, Jamshed. The king is credited with having created the Persian calendar, or the Shahenshahi calendar
  • The holy festival is marked by grand celebrations and the atmosphere is full of positivity and prayers.
  • The Parsi community follows the religion Zoroastrianism, which was founded by Zarathustra in Persia.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/art-and-culture/parsi-new-year-2020-significance-history-wishes-to-send-to-your-loved-ones-this-navroz/story-6CmzABAkfshbTdlnDgoffJ.html

Consider the following statements regarding Swasthya portal

  • It is a one-stop solution for the health & nutrition status of the tribal population of India.
  • It has developed by the  Ministry of Tribal Affairs in collaboration with Piramal Swasthya

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union Tribal Affairs Minister has announced that the Ministry will launch “Swasthya” on 17th August.

About Swasthya-Tribal Health & Nutrition Portal

  • It is a first of its kind Tribal Health & Nutrition Portal.
  • It is a one-stop solutionfor the health & nutrition status of the tribal population of India. . Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Ministry of Tribal Affairs in collaboration with Piramal Swasthya, the Centre of Excellence has developed the Tribal Health and Nutrition Portal ‘Swasthya’. . Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is a one-stop solution presenting all information pertaining to tribal health and nutrition related to Scheduled Tribe people.
  • It is the first of its kind comprehensive platform for health and nutrition related information of the tribal population of India.
  • It has a dashboard, knowledge repository, partner segment, Sickle Cell Diseases (SCD) support corner.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1645834

Which Article of the Constitution of India conferred on the Supreme Court the power to punish contempt of itself?

  • Article 129 
  • Article 215
  • Article 143
  • Article 200

Answer: (a) Article 129

Explanation:

In NEWS: Lapsing into contempt

Finding Prashant Bhushan guilty of contempt reflects a low threshold for criticism

Supreme Court held advocate Prashant Bhushan guilty of contempt of court in a case registered against him over two of his tweets.

Constitutional Provisions

  • The adoption of Constitution of India made Contempt of Court as one of the restrictions on freedom of speech and expression.
  • Article 129of the Constitution of India conferred on the Supreme Court the power to punish contempt of itself. Hence option (a) is correct
  • Under Article 215, the High Courts have been conferred with the power to punish contempt of itself.
  • The Contempt of Courts Act, 1971, gives statutory backing to the Contempt of Court.
  • The Contempt of Court Act 1971 has provided that the contempt of court can either be civil contempt or criminal contempt.
  • The Act defines civil contempt as wilful disobedience to any judgment, decree, direction, order, writ or other process of a court or wilful breach of an undertaking given to a court.

Source: TH

Which one of the following National Parks lies completely in the temperate alpine zone?

  • Manas National Park
  • Namdapha National Park
  • Neora Valley National Park
  • Valley of Flowers National Park

Answer: (d) Valley of Flowers National Park

Explanation:

  • The Valley of Flowers national park located in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand and is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora.Situated approximately 3255m above sea level, this splendid park is spread across 87.5 sq km of land. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The valley has three sub-alpine between 3,200m and 3,500m which is the limit for trees, lower alpine between 3,500m and 3,700m, and higher alpine above 3,700m.
  • The rich diversity of species reflects the valley’s location within a transition zone between the Zanskar and Great Himalayas ranges to the north and south, respectively, and between the Eastern Himalaya and Western Himalaya flora.