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Daily Prelims Test – 16_September 2020

 Consider the following statements regarding phosphine gas

  1. It is a colorless, flammable, and explosive gas at ambient temperature that has the odor of garlic or decaying fish.
  2. It is released by microbes in oxygen-starved environments

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Reading life signature on Venus

  • An announcement by an international team of astronomers about the discovery of phosphine gas in the atmosphere of Venus on Monday triggered global excitement about the possibility of the presence of lifeforms on the neighbouring planet.

So, is there life on Venus?

  • No one is saying that as of now. What scientists have discovered is the presence of a chemical which is known to be produced only through biological process, and not through any naturally occurring chemical process.

About Phosphine gas

  • Phosphine is a colorless, flammable, and explosive gas at ambient temperature that has the odor of garlic or decaying fish. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is slightly soluble in water. 
  • Although industrially produced, Phosphine is also made naturally by some species of anaerobic bacteria—organisms that live in the oxygen-starved environments of landfills, marshlands, and even animal guts. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Phosphine gas is associated with living organisms.
  • Phosphine is used in semiconductor and plastics industries, in the production of a flame retardant, and as a pesticide in stored grain.
  • Acute (short-term) inhalation exposure to phosphine may cause headaches, dizziness, fatigue, drowsiness

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/reading-life-signature-on-venus-phosphine-gas-6596355/


Consider the following statements regarding Cauvery River

  1. It originates in the Western Ghats at Brahmagiri Hill in Kodagu district of Karnataka.
  2. It is spread over states of Karnataka , Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry only

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Won”t allow Mekedatu dam construction, CM assures TN Assembly

  • Chief Minister K Palaniswami assured the Tamil Nadu Assembly that the state government would not allow construction of a reservoir across river Cauvery at Mekedatu in Karnataka.
  • Being set up by the Karnataka government, the Mekedatu dam project is near Mekedatu, in Ramanagaram district, across the river Cauvery from Tamil Nadu.
  • Its primary objective is to supply drinking water to Bengaluru and recharge the groundwater table in the region.
  • The project has received approval from the Union Water Resources Ministry for the detailed project report and is awaiting approval from the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF).
  • Tamilnadu says that the project was meant to “appropriate the waters to maximum extent possible including the flows in the uncontrolled catchment which was considered as part of the flows receivable by Tamil Nadu and it violates the decisions of the Supreme Court and the Cauvery Tribunal.

About Cauvery River:

  • The Cauvery is the fourth-largest river in south India. 
  • It originates in the Western Ghats, at Brahmagiri Hill in Kodagu district of KarnatakaHence statement 1 is correct
  • It passes through Tamil Nadu and finally reaches the Bay of Bengal at Poompuhar, also known as Kaveripoompattinam in Tamil Nadu.
  • The Cauvery basin is spread over 81,155 square kilometres (sq km) in the states of Karnataka(34,273 sq km), Tamil Nadu (43,856 sq km) and Kerala (2,866 sq km) and the Union Territory of Puducherry (160 sq km). Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The Cauvery’s major tributaries, Kabini and Moyar, join it before it reaches the Stanley Reservoir at Mettur in Tamil Nadu’s Salem district. 
  • The river’s total length, from source to mouth, is 802 kilometres.

Source: https://www.outlookindia.com/newsscroll/wont-allow-mekedatu-dam-construction-cm-assures-tn-assembly/1936125


Consider the following statements regarding PM-KISAN Nidhi scheme

  1. Under this scheme an income support of 6,000/- per year in three equal installments will be provided to small and marginal farmer families.
  2. It will be directly transferred to the farmers families bank accounts of the land holding/ownership of upto 2 hectares.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Seven arrested in Villupuram district for fraud in PM-KISAN scheme

90,000 ineligible beneficiaries under PM-KISAN Nidhi scheme identified in Villupuram district.

About PM-KISAN Nidhi scheme

  • The PM-KISAN scheme aims to supplement the financial needs of the Small and Marginal Farmers (SMFs )in procuring various inputs to ensure proper crop health and appropriate yields, commensurate with the anticipated farm income at the end of each crop cycle. 
  • It is a Central Sector Scheme with 100% funding from the Government of India. 
  • It is being implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer’s Welfare.
  • Under the PM-KISAN scheme, all landholding farmers’ famities shall be provided the financial benefit of Rs.6000 per annum per family payable in three equal installments of Rs.2000 each, every four months. Hence statement 1 is correct and Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/seven-arrested-in-villupuram-district-for-fraud-in-pm-kisan-scheme/article32597864.ece


Consider the following statements regarding NISHTHA programme

  1. It is a capacity building programme for improving Quality of School Education through Integrated Teacher Training
  2. It aims to build competencies among all the teachers and school principals at the elementary stage.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: 16,99,931 School Heads and Teachers have been trained under NISHTHA in 2019-20: Education Minister

  • The Department of School Education and Literacy launched a National Mission to improve learning outcomes at the Elementary level through an Integrated Teacher Training Programme called NISHTHA – National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement

About NISHTHA

  • NISHTHA is a capacity building programme for “Improving Quality of School Education through Integrated Teacher Training“. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It aims to build competenciesamong all the teachers and school principals at the elementary stage. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The initiative is first of its kind wherein standardized training modules are developed at national level for all States and UTs.
  • The objective is to motivate and equip teachers to encourage and foster critical thinking in students.
  • The functionaries shall be trained in an integrated manner on learning outcomes, school based assessment, learner – centred pedagogy, new initiatives in education, addressing diverse needs of children through multiple pedagogies, etc.
  • This will be organized by constituting National Resource Groups (NRGs) and State Resource Groups (SRGs) at the National and the State level who will be training 42 lakhs teachers subsequently. 

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1654054


Consider the following statements regarding Hilsa fish

  1. It is well distributed in the Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems in India and bhutan
  2. It is a salt water fish which migrates from Bay of Bengal to the fresh waters of Ganga to spawn.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Bangladesh gives special permission for export of Hilsa fish to India

  • The Commerce Ministry of Bangladesh has given special permission for traders to export Hilsa fish to India on a limited scale in view of the forthcoming Durga Puja.
  • The Commerce Ministry has allowed nine exporters to send a total of approximately 1500 tonnes of Hilsa to India.

About Hilsa fish

  • It is a salt water fishwhich migrates from Bay of Bengal to the fresh waters of Ganga to spawn. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is well distributed in the Ganga-Brahmaputra river systems in India and Bangladesh. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It is a species of fish related to the herring, in the family Clupeidae.
  • It is the national fish of Bangladesh and state symbol in the Indian states of West Bengal and Tripura.
  • It received the status of “Threatened Species” under IUCN red list.

Source: http://www.newsonair.com/News?title=Bangladesh-gives-special-permission-for-export-of-Hilsa-fish-to-India&id=399855


Consider the following statements regarding Samagra Shiksha

  1. It aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education at all levels of school education.
  2. It subsumes the three erstwhileCentrally Sponsored Schemes of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE).

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Steps taken by Ministry of Education to ensure Quality Education to Students across the country

In order to target Universalisation of Secondary Education, the Department of School Education & Literacy has launched the Integrated Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Samagra Shiksha from 2018-19

About Samagra Shiksha:

  • It is an Integrated Scheme for School Education launched by Department of School Education & Literacy.
  • It is an overarching programme for the school education sector extending from pre-school to class XII.
  • It aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education at all levels of school education. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It subsumes the three erstwhile Centrally Sponsored Schemes of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE). Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The scheme envisages the ‘school’ as a continuum from pre-school, primary, upper primary, secondary to Senior Secondary levels.
  • Under Samagra Shiksha Scheme, support is given for strengthening of infrastructure of government schools at all levels.
  • The main outcomes of the Scheme are envisaged as Universal Access, Equity and Quality, promoting Vocationalisation of Education and strengthening of Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs).
  • The Scheme will help improve the transition rates across the various levels of school education and aid in promoting universal access to children to complete school education.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1654056


Consider the following statements regarding Anti-Satellite Missile

  1. It is a DRDO-developed Ballistic Missile Defence Interceptor Missile which successfully engaged an Indian orbiting target satellite in Low Earth Orbit in a ‘Hit to Kill’ mode.
  2. Some country has used ASAT in a military warfare

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Postage Stamp released on A-SAT: India’s First Anti Satellite Missile

  • A Customized My Stamp on India’s First Anti Satellite Missile (A-SAT) launch was released by Department of Posts on the occasion of Engineers Day today in the august presence of Shri AjitDoval, National Security Advisor (NSA).

About Anti-Satellite (A-SAT)

  • Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) successfully conducted an Anti-Satellite (A-SAT) missile test ‘Mission Shakti’ from Dr APJ Abdul Kalam Island in Odisha on 27th March 2019.
  • A DRDO developed A-SAT Missile successfully engaged an Indian orbiting target satellite in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in a ‘Hit to Kill’ modeHence statement 1 is correct
  • The interceptor missile was a three-stage missile with two solid rocket boosters. Tracking data from range sensors had confirmed that the mission met all its objectives.
  • With this success, India became fourth nation in the world to possess such capability.
  • US first tested the ASAT technology in 1958 which was followed by USSR in 1964. China joined the club in 2007.
  • No country has used ASAT yet in a military conflict. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1654607


With respect to National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project , Consider the following statements

  1. It aims to undertake suitable structural and non-structural measures to mitigate the effects of cyclones in the coastal states and Union Territories of India.
  2. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) under the aegis of Ministry of Home Affairs(MHA) will implement this Project

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: There are seven Warning Centers covering the east & west coasts of our country

  • Among these, three are Area Cyclone Warning Centres (ACWCs) located at Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata and remaining four are Cyclone Warning Centres (CWCs) located at Ahmedabad, Thiruvananthapuram, Visakhapatnam and Bhubaneswar.
  • Government of India has initiated the National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP) with a view to address cyclone risks in the country.

About National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP)

  • The overall objective of the Project is to undertake suitable structural and non-structural measures to mitigate the effects of cyclones in the coastal states and UTs of India. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) under the aegis of Ministry of Home Affairs(MHA) will implement the Project in coordination with participating State Governments and the National Institute for Disaster Management (NIDM). Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Project has identified 13 cyclone prone States and Union Territories (UTs), with varying levels of vulnerability.
  • These States/UT have further been classified into two categories, based on the frequency of occurrence of cyclone, size of population and the existing institutional mechanism for disaster management. 
  • The Project development objective of the NCRMP is to reduce vulnerability of coastal communities to cyclone and other hydro meteorological hazards through:
  • improved early warning dissemination systems
  • enhanced capacity of local communities to respond to disasters
  • improved access to emergency shelter, evacuation, and protection against wind storms, flooding and storm surge in high areas
  • strengthening DRM capacity at central, state and local levels in order to enable mainstreaming of risk mitigation measures into the overall development agenda.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1654653


Consider the following statements regarding Aircraft(AmendmentBill2020

  1. It seeks to amend the Aircraft Act, 1934
  2. The Bill gives statutory powers to the Directorate General of Civil Aviation, the Bureau of Civil Aviation Security and the Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: New powers for aviation regulators

  • The Aircraft (Amendment) Bill, 2020, which was passed by the Lok Sabha on March 17, was passed by Parliament on Tuesday after a heated discussion in Rajya Sabha over privatisation of airports. The Upper House passed the Bill by a voice vote.

About the Aircraft (Amendment) Bill, 2020

  • The Bill seeks to amend the Aircraft Act, 1934 that regulates the manufacture, possession, use, operation, sale, import and export of civil aircraft, and licensing of aerodromes. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Bill gives statutory powers to the Directorate General of Civil Aviation, the Bureau of Civil Aviation Security and the Aircraft Accident Investigation Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Bill empowers the DGCA to levy enhanced penalties of upto ₹1 crore, from the existing ₹10 lakh, on airlines, airports and other aviation entities.
  • The Bill provides for the appointment of designated officers, not below the rank of Deputy Secretary to adjudicate penalties under the Bill
  • Aircraft belonging to the naval, military, or air forces of the Union are exempted from the provisions of the Act.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/parliament-passes-bill-to-give-statutory-status-to-aviation-regulators/article32609985.ece


With reference to the Parliament of India, which of the following Parliamentary Committees scruitinizes and reports to the House whether the powers to make regulations, rules, sub -rules, by -laws, etc. conferred by the Constitution or delegated by the Parliament are being properly exercised by the Executive within the scope of such delegation?

  1. Committee on Government Assurances
  2. Committee on Subordinate Legislation
  3. Rules Committee
  4. Business Advisory Committee

Answer: (b) Committee on Subordinate Legislation

Explanation:

  • The Committee on Subordinate Legislation examines and reports to the House whether the powers to make rules, regulations, bye – laws, schemes or other statutory instruments conferred by the Constitution or delegated by Parliament are being properly exercised. In both the Houses, the committee consists of 15 members. It was constituted in 1953. Hence option (b) is correct