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Daily Prelims Test – 16_October 2020

Consider the following statements regarding the report titled ‘Stacked Odds’

  1. It is conducted by Walk Free, International Labor Organization (ILO) and the International Organization for Migration
  2. According to the report, one in every 130 females globally is living in modern slavery

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: One in every 130 females globally is living in modern slavery: UN report

  • Even as it remains true that modern slavery has an effect on everyone, females across the world account for about 71% of all victims, according to a report by the United Nations. It is conducted by Walk Free, International Labor Organization (ILO) and the International Organization for Migration. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Pointing towards the modern slavery being largely a gender issue, the report titled ‘Stacked Odds’ states that modern slavery is enabled by power imbalances and for women and girls, this imbalance is exacerbated by gender inequality and discrimination.
  • According to the report, one in every 130 females globally is living in modern slavery. Females account for a staggering 99% of all victims of forced sexual exploitation, 84% of all victims of forced marriage, and 58% of all victims of forced labour. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The report highlighted that in most countries girl children continue to have relatively less access to school and medical care, which in turn makes women more vulnerable to end up in poverty
  • Females outnumber males as victims of modern slavery in four of the five world regions. They account for 73% of victims in the Asia and Pacific, 71% in Africa, 67% in Europe and Central Asia, and 63 % in the Americas, the UN report states.
  • Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/one-in-every-130-females-globally-is-living-in-modern-slavery-un-report/story-VAVHGWAg8EMmCszl0YZZgO.html

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Consider the following statements

1.Epigenetics is the study of how your behaviors and environment can cause changes that affect the way your genes work.

2.Unlike genetic changes, epigenetic changes are reversible and do not change your DNA sequence, but they can change how your body reads a DNA sequence.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Blood test that detects genetic abnormalities may help predict pregnancy complications before symptoms: Study

Epigenetics researchers have found that a blood test commonly used to detect foetal genetic abnormalities may help predict complications associated with pregnancy even before the symptoms develop.

What is epigenetics?

Epigenetics is the study of how your behaviors and environment can cause changes that affect the way your genes work. Hence statement 1 is correct

Unlike genetic changes, epigenetic changes are reversible and do not change your DNA sequence, but they can change how your body reads a DNA sequence. Hence statement 2 is correct

While genetic changes can alter which protein is made, epigenetic changes affect gene expression to turn genes “on” and “off.”

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/science/blood-test-that-detects-genetic-abnormalities-may-help-predict-pregnancy-complications-before-symptoms-study/articleshow/78640013.cms

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Consider the following statements regarding Public debt

1.It is the total liabilities of the Union government that have to be paid from the Consolidated Fund of India.

2.It includes small saving and provident funds accounts

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India’s public debt ratio to jump to 90 per cent because of COVID-19: IMF

India’s public debt ratio, which remarkably remained stable at around 70 per cent of the GDP since 1991, is projected to jump by 17 percentage points to nearly 90 per cent because of increase in public spending due to COVID-19

In our projections, the increase in public spending, in response to COVID-19, and the fall in tax revenues and economic activity, will make public debt jump up by 17 percentage points to almost 90 per cent of GDP

Public Debt

In the Indian context, public debt includes the total liabilities of the Union government that have to be paid from the Consolidated Fund of India. Hence statement 1 is correct

Public debt is the total amount borrowed by the government of a country.

Public debt, sometimes also referred to as government debt, represents the total outstanding debt (bonds and other securities) of a country’s central government.

Public debt as a percentage of GDP is usually used as an indicator of the ability of a government to meet its future obligations.

It is an important source of resources for a government to finance public spending and fill holes in the budget.

Public debt can be split into internal (money borrowed within the country) and external (funds borrowed from non-Indian sources).

However, it does not include small savings, provident funds and other accounts, reserve funds and deposits. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/indicators/indias-public-debt-ratio-to-jump-to-90-per-cent-because-of-covid-19-imf/articleshow/78661641.cms

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Consider the following options

1.G-secs

2.T-bills

3.External Assistance

4.Short term borrowings

Which of the above following options are Sources of Public Debt in India?

3 only

1 and 2 only

2 and 4 only

1,2,3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1,2,3 and 4

Explanation:

In NEWS: India’s public debt ratio to jump to 90 per cent because of COVID-19: IMF

According to Gaspar, India’s public debt ratio has been remarkably stable since 1991. It is interesting to note that the debt ratio has been stable at around 70 per cent of GDP over the past decade

Going forward it is projected to stabilise in 2021, before slowly declining up to the end of the projection period, in 2025. Broadly speaking the pattern of public debt in India is close to the norm around the world

Types of Public Debt

The Union government broadly classifies its liabilities into two broad categories.

The debt contracted against the Consolidated Fundof India is defined as public debt and includes all other funds received outside Consolidated Fund of India under Article 266 (2) of the Constitution, where the government merely acts as a banker or custodian.

The second type of liabilities is called public account.

Sources of Public Debt

  • Dated government securities or G-secs
  • Treasury Bills or T-bills
  • External Assistance
  • Short term borrowings
  • Public Debt definition by Union Government
  • The Union government describes those of its liabilities as public debt, which is contracted against the Consolidated Fund of India. This is as per Article 292 of the ConstitutionHence option (d) is correct

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/indicators/indias-public-debt-ratio-to-jump-to-90-per-cent-because-of-covid-19-imf/articleshow/78661641.cms


Consider the following statements regarding UN Human Rights Council

  1. It is made up of 47 United Nations Member States and no member may occupy a seat for more than three consecutive terms.
  2. It is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations system responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the globe

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Pakistan re-elected to United Nations Human Rights Council

  • Pakistan has been re-elected to the United Nations Human Rights Council despite opposition from activist groups over its abysmal human rights records.
  • Last week, a coalition of human rights groups from Europe, the US and Canada called on UN member states to oppose the election of China, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Cuba and Uzbekistan, saying their human rights records make them unqualified.

About UN Human Rights Council

  • Human Rights Council is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations system responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the globe and for addressing situations of human rights violations and make recommendations on them. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It has the ability to discuss all thematic human rights issues and situations that require its attention throughout the year.
  • It meets at the UN Office at Geneva, Switzerland.
  • The Human Rights Council replaced the former United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
  • The Council is made up of 47 United Nations Member States which are elected by the UN General Assembly.
  • The term of each seat is three years, and no member may occupy a seat for more than two consecutive terms. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The seats are distributed among the UN’s regional groups as follows: 13 for Africa, 13 for Asia, six for Eastern Europe, eight for Latin America and the Caribbean (GRULAC), and seven for the Western European and Others Group (WEOG).

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/pakistan-re-elected-to-united-nations-human-rights-council/article32851107.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Sheath blight disease

  1. It is a fungal disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani
  2. It is a big threat to rice crops and occurs only in summer season

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Modulating pathogen functions control sheath blight disease: study

  • A recent study conducted by Indian researchers has discovered that modulating the functions of the pathogen responsible for sheath blight disease could be a game changer in the fight against the menacing rice disease.
  • Rice is a staple food all over the world and India is the second-largest producer and consumer of rice at the global level. Production of rice in India is limited by several biotic and abiotic factors.
  • The study by the New Delhi-based National Institute of Plant Genome Research (NIPGR) is important towards understanding the sheath blight pathogen. It affects not just rice but also tomatoes and many other crops.

About Sheath blight

  • Sheath blight is a fungal disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Rice sheath blight is an increasing concern for rice production, especially in intensified production systems.
  • It is a major issue in rice cultivation. It can cause up to 60% reduction in rice yield. It is difficult to breed disease resistant rice varieties as there is a lack of natural source of disease resistance. Thus, controlling the disease in a sustainable manner has remained a challenge
  • Sheath blight occurs in areas with high temperature(28−32°C), high levels of nitrogen fertilizer, and relative humidity of crop canopy from 85−100%.
  • Plants are more vulnerable to sheath blight during the rainy season. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/science-technology/modulating-pathogen-functions-control-sheath-blight-disease-study-73829


Consider the following statements regarding Saviour Sibling

  1. It refers to babies that are created to serve an older sibling as a donor of organs, bone marrow or cells.
  2. They are created with In vitro fertilisation

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: A sister born to save ailing brother

  • India’s first ‘saviour sibling’ experiment is a success, say doctors.
  • The Saviour Sibling named Kavya saved her 6-year-old brother. 150- 200 ml bone marrow was harvested from Kavya in an hour-long procedure and then given to her brother Abhijeet through transfusion.
  • ‘Saviour Sibling’ refers to babies that are created to serve an older sibling as a donor of organs, bone marrow or cells. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Stem cells from the umbilical cord blood or blood of the saviour sibling are used for treatment of serious blood disorders like thalassemia, sickle cell anaemia.
  • They are created with In vitro fertilisation (IVF) so that they can undergo pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (or testing) to rule out any genetic disorders and also check bone marrow compatibility. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The world’s first saviour sibling, Adam Nash, was born in 2000 in the USA.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/a-sister-born-to-save-ailing-brother/article32856312.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005

  1. It is primarily meant to provide protection to the wife or female live-in partner from domestic violence at the hands of the husband or male live-in partner or his relatives
  2. The Act provides for breach of protection order as a cognizable and non-bailable offence punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Supreme Court: Woman has right of residence in ‘shared household’ of in-laws

  • The progress of any society depends on its ability to protect and promote the rights of its women
  • A woman is entitled to claim right to residence in a “shared household” where she has been living with her husband even if the said premises belongs to his relatives.
  • A three-judge Bench of Justices Ashok Bhushan, R Subhash Reddy and M R Shah overruled a 2006 judgement of the court and said “In event, the shared household belongs to any relative of the husband with whom in a domestic relationship the woman has lived, the conditions mentioned in Section 2(s) (of The Protection of Women From Domestic Violence Act, 2005) are satisfied and the said house will become a shared household”.

About Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005:

  • The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to protect women from domestic violence.
  • The Act provides for the first time in Indian law a definition of domestic violence with this definition being broad and including not only physical violence, but also other forms of violence such as emotional/verbal, sexual, and economic abuse.
  • It is a civil law meant primarily for protection orders and not for meant to be enforced criminally.
  • It is primarily meant to provide protection to the wife or female live-in partner from domestic violence at the hands of the husband or male live-in partner or his relatives. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The law also extends its protection to women living in a household such as sisters, widows or mothers.
  • Domestic violence under the act includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse whether physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or economic (harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands).
  • One of the most important features of the Act is the woman’s right to secure housing. The Act provides for the woman’s right to reside in the matrimonial or shared household, whether or not she has any title or rights in the household.
  • The Act provides for breach of protection order as a cognizable and non-bailable offence punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to twenty thousand rupees or with both. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Non-compliance or discharge of duties by the Protection Officer is also sought to be made an offence under the Act with similar punishment.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/supreme-court-woman-has-right-of-residence-in-shared-household-of-in-laws-6747697/


Which of the following are the benefits of using fly ash?

  1. Reduces soil erosion by replacing topsoil
  2. Production of crude oil from polyethylene.
  3. Sewage treatment
  4. Reduces the amount of greenhouse gases

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1 ,3 and 4 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1,2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2,3 and 4

Answer: (d) 1,2,3 and 4

Explanation:

In NEWS: Fly ash goes long distance as NTPC begins to transport

  • The power producer is leveraging Indian Railways’ sprawling network to transport fly ash in economical and environment friendly manner. As per a statement issued by NTPC Ltd., NTPC Rihand is the first power plant in the State of Uttar Pradesh to send conditioned fly ash to cement manufacturers.
  • During the financial year 2019-20, almost 44.33 million tonnes of fly ash was utilised for various productive purposes. NTPC produces approximately 65 Million Tonnes of Ash annually, out of which 80% (approx. 52 Million MT) is Fly Ash.
  • Fly ash is a byproduct from burning pulverized coal in electric power generating plants.

Benefits:

  • Reduces soil erosion by replacing topsoil as ingredients for most construction mixes.
  • Reduces the amount of greenhouse gases being added to the atmosphere.
  • Hydrophobic nature helps in proper draining off of water from roads and structures.
  • Production of crude oil from polyethylene.
  • Also used in sewage treatment and generation of biofuel as an alternate source of energy resources. Hence option (d) is correct

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1664263#:~:text=The%20power%20producer%20is%20leveraging,fly%20ash%20to%20cement%20manufacturers.


With reference to the history of India, “Ulgulan” or the Great Tumult is the description of which of the following events?

  1. The Revolt of 1857
  2. The Mappila Rebellion of 1921
  3. The Indigo Revolt of 1859 – 60
  4. Birsa Munda’s Revolt of 1899 -1900

Answer: (d) Birsa Munda’s Revolt of 1899 -1900

Explanation:

Munda Rebellion is one of the prominent 19th century tribal rebellions in the subcontinent. Birsa Munda led this movement in the region south of Ranchi in 1899 -1900. the ulgulan, meaning ‘Great Tumult’, sought to establish Munda Raj and independence. Hence option (d) is correct