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Daily Prelims Test – 16_July

1.Consider the following statements regarding the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019

It includes a transgender person as a trans-men , trans-women and persons with intersex variations, gender-queers.

It proposes to Set up a National Council for Transgender persons to advise the central government on policies and legislation related to transgender persons

It states that the transgender person may make an application to the District Magistrate for a certificate of identity

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 and 2 only

2 and 3 only

2 only

1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: No medical examination required for trans ID certificate, say draft rules

The Government has released a new Draft of Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Rules, 2020, along with giving a window of 30 days for suggestions and amendments.

The draft Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Rules, 2020 issued recently, stated that a District Magistrate would issue a transgender identity certificate and card based on an affidavit by the applicant, but without any medical examination.

Earlier draft of the rules had mandated a report from a psychologist along with the affidavit for the application.

These rules were framed under the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019.

About The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019: 

It defines a transgender person as one whose gender does not match the gender assigned at birth.  

It includes trans-men and trans-women, persons with intersex variations, gender-queers, and persons with socio-cultural identities, suchas kinnar and hijra. Hence statement 1 is correct

It prohibits the discrimination against a transgender person, including denial of service or unfair treatment in relation to: (i) education; (ii) employment; (iii) healthcare; (iv) access to, or enjoyment of goods, facilities, opportunities available to the public.

Every transgender person shall have a right to reside and be included in his household.  If the immediate family is unable to care for the transgender person, the person may be placed in a rehabilitation centre, on the orders of a competent court.

A transgender person may make an application to the District Magistrate for a certificate of identity, indicating the gender as ‘transgender’.  Hence statement 3 is correct

A revised certificate may be obtained only if the individual undergoes surgery to change their gender either as a male or a female. 

It states that the relevant government will take measures to ensure the full inclusion and participation of transgender persons in society. 

National Council for Transgender persons (NCT) would be established to advise the central government as well as monitor the impact of policies, legislation and projects with respect to transgender persons. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/no-medical-examination-required-for-trans-id-certificate-say-draft-rules/article32076579.ece

2.’Non Personal Data Governance’ which was in news recently, is associated with which of the following?

Kris Gopalakrishnan

Injeti Srinivas Committee

Justice A.K Mathur Commission

Bimal Jalan Committee

Answer: (a) Kris Gopalakrishnan

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is non-personal data?

government committee headed by Infosys co-founder Kris Gopalakrishnan has suggested that non-personal data generatedin the country be allowed to be harnessed by various domestic companies and entities. Hence option (a) is correct

In its most basic form, non-personal data is any set of data which does not contain personally identifiable information. This in essence means that no individual or living person can be identified by looking at such data.

For example, while order details collected by a food delivery service will have the name, age, gender, and other contact information of an individual, it will become non-personal data if the identifiers such as name and contact information are taken out.

The government committee, which submitted its report has classified non-personal data into three main categories, namely public non-personal data, community non-personal data and private non-personal data.

Depending on the source of the data and whether it is anonymised in a way that no individual can be re-identified from the data set, the three categories have been divided.

India, with the second-largest smartphone userbase, is one of the largest data markets in the world.

A law that regulates the sharing, commercial use and privacy of non-personal data of users will ensure that big corporations don’t end up creating data monopolies which would invariably harm smaller businesses and tech startups.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/non-personal-data-explained-6506613/

3.Consider the following statements regarding Saharan Air Layer

It is an extremely hot dust-laden layer of the atmosphere that often overlies the cooler, more-humid surface air of the Atlantic Ocean

This extremely dry air can weaken a tropical cyclone or tropical disturbance by promoting downdrafts around the storm.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Incredible Sahara Dust Plume Sweeping Across The Atlantic Is Largest on Record

The ESA’s (European Space Agency) Copernicus Sentinel and Aeolus satellites have tracked the largest Sahara dust, nick-named Godzilla.

About Saharan Air Layer (SAL)

  • SAL is an extremely hot dust-laden layer of the atmosphere that often overlies the cooler, more- air of the Atlantic Ocean. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • They occur when high-velocity winds pick up tiny dry particles from the Earth’s surface and carry them long distances.
  • SAL activity typically ramps up in mid-June and peaks from late June to mid-August, with new outbreaks occurring every three to five days. During this peak period, it is common for SAL outbreaks to reach Central America (an 8,000 km journey)
  • Saharan Air Layer’s dry, dusty air has about 50% less moisture than the typical tropical atmosphere. This extremely dry air can weaken a tropical cyclone or tropical disturbance by promoting downdrafts around the stormHence statement 2 is correct
  • SAL’s warmth acts to stabilize the atmosphere, which can suppress the formation of clouds. The SAL’s suspended mineral dust also absorbs sunlight, which helps maintain its warmth as it crosses the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The haze can trigger air quality alerts, and can be a health risk, especially for people with underlying health conditions.

Source: https://www.sciencealert.com/watch-this-incredible-plume-of-dust-from-africa-cross-the-entire-atlantic-ocean

4.Ingenuity Mars Helicopter is launched by which of the following international space organisation?

Canadian Space Agency

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

Indian Space Research Organisation

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Answer: (d) National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Explanation:

In NEWS: Ingenuity Mars Helicopter: Six things to know
When NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance rover launches from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida later this summer, an innovative experiment will ride along: the Ingenuity Mars Helicopter. Hence option (d) is correct

  • Ingenuity is a technology demonstration and weighs about 1.8 kilograms.
  • It features four specially made carbon-fiber blades, arranged into two rotors that spin in opposite directions at around 2,400 rpm.
  • It also has solar cells, batteries, and other components but not science instruments.
  • It will have a lot of autonomy to make its own decisions about how to fly to a waypoint and keep itself warm.
  • If successful, these technologies could enable other advanced robotic flying vehicles that might be included in future robotic and human missions to Mars.

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/science/ingenuity-mars-helicopter-six-things-to-know/articleshow/76972191.cms

5.Consider the following statements regarding State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) 2020

It is jointly produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization , UN World Food Programme and World Health Organization

It aims to produce most authoritative global study on the progress towards ending hunger and malnutrition

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Fight against hunger disrupted by coronavirus-induced recession

  • Between 8.3 crore and 13 crore people globally are likely to go hungry this year due to the economic recession triggered by coronavirus
  • The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020 (SOFI 2020) report presents the most recent and authoritative estimates of the extent of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition around the world. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The report is jointly produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), United Nations Children’s Fund(UNICEF), UN World Food Programme(WFP) and World Health Organization(WHO). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • This year, the report includes a special focus on transforming food systems for affordable healthy diets.
  • The number of undernourishment people in India declined from 21.7% in 2004-06 to 14% in 2017-19. Asiaremains home to the greatest number of undernourished people followed by Africa, Latin America and Caribbean.
  • Theprevalence of stunting in children under 5 years of age in India declined from 47.8% in 2012 to 34.7% in 2019.
  • The number of adults (18 years and older) who are obese grew from 3.1% in 2012 to 3.9% in 2016.
  • The number of women of reproductive age (15–49) affected by anaemia grew from 165.6 million in 2012 to 175.6 million in 2016
  • The world is not on track to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 2 (Zero Hunger) by 2030.
  • The number of people affected by hunger will surpass 840 million by 2030, or 9.8% of the world population.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/8-crore-to-13-crore-people-may-go-hungry-due-to-covid-induced-recession/article32095212.ece

6.The second edition World Wildlife Crime Report 2020, was recently published by which of the following ?

World Wide Fund for Nature

UN Office on Drugs and Crime

Wildlife Conservation Society

International Union for Conservation of Nature

Answer: (b) UN Office on Drugs and Crime

Explanation:

In NEWS: Pangolin scale seizures jumped 10 times between 2014 and 2018: UN report

The second edition ‘World Wildlife Crime Report 2020’ was recently published by the UN Office on Drugs and CrimeHence option (b) is correct

  • Pangolins have, recently, been vilified because of reports that linked them to the emergence of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes the COVID-19 disease

Key points of World Wildlife Crime Report 2020

  • Nearly 6,000 species have been seized between 1999-2018. No single species is responsible for more than 5% of the seizure incidents.
  • Zoonotic diseases represent up to 75 % of all emerging infectious diseases.
  • Pangolins are the most trafficked wild mammals in the world, with the seizure of their scales increasing 10 times between 2014 and 2018.
  • No single country was identified as the source of more than 9 % of the total number of seized shipments of wildlife.
  • Report also analysed the markets for illicit rosewood, ivory, rhino horn, live reptiles, big cats and the European eel. Trends show demand for African ivory and rhino horn is in decline, indicating that the market for them is smaller than previously suggested.
  • A common theme in the illicit trade of ivory and rhino horn (and more generally with all illicit wildlife trade) is corruption in the form of bribes.
  • Wildlife trade has also gone digital, with traffickers selling live reptiles and tiger bone products through online platforms and encrypted messaging apps.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/pangolin-scale-seizures-jumped-10-times-between-2014-and-2018-un-report-72263

7.What is common to the Food Crops known as Ranjit Sub1, Swarna Sub1 and Bahadur Sub1?

Wheat

Maize

Millets

Rice

Answer: (d) Rice

Explanation:

In NEWS: Amid deluge, Assam farmer stands out with flood-resistant paddy

Farmers from Golaghat district in Assam have cultivated new flood resistant paddy varieties to shift from the traditional ones. Hence option (d) is correct

  • The varieties called Ranjit Sub1, Swarna Sub1 and Bahadur Sub1 have been used by about 60% farmers of the West Brahmaputra area.
  • Farmers in flood-prone areas of Assam have been harvesting the water-resistant Swarna Sub1, developed by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and the Manila-based International Rice Research Institute, since 2009.

Significance of this varieties:

  • The new rice varieties can resist submergence for up to two weeks, and significantly do not get damaged by the heavy flood.
  • Enriched with the ‘submergence’ (sub in short) gene, the varieties can yield up to five tonnes per hectare on an average.
  • Some 1,500 farmers cultivate on about 950 hectares in crop-yielding areas which have been impacted by the regular flood. Therefore, rice varieties can reduce flood-caused crop loss substantially
  • These varieties can get regenerated again in case damaged by the flood, hence ensure maximum productivity

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/amid-deluge-assam-farmer-stands-out-with-flood-resistant-paddy/article32060811.ece

8.Consider the following statements regardingSpike Missile

It is a fire-and-forget 4th generation anti-tank guided missile.

It is developed and designed by the Israeli company Rafael Advanced Defence Systems.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Army to place repeat order for Spike missiles from Israel

  • The Army is set to place a repeat order for Spike-LR (Long Range) Anti-Tank Guided Missiles (ATGM) from Israel as part of emergency procurement
  • The emergency procurement comes in the backdrop of continuing tensions on LAC with China

About Spike Anti-Tank Guided Missiles (ATGM)

  • Spike is an Israeli fire-and-forget 4th generation anti-tank guided missile. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It was developed and designed by the Israeli company Rafael Advanced Defence Systems. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is available in man-portable, vehicle-launched, and helicopter-launched variants.
  • It includes three versions:
  • SPIKE-MR (Medium Range) : It is a man-portable fire-and-forget missile that can be launched by infantry and special-forces, to accurately strike targets within a 200m to 2,500m range.
  • SPIKE -LR (Long Range) : It can be launched from a ground-based tripod and light combat vehicles for ranges between 200m and 4,000m.
  • SPIKE-ER (Extended Range): It is designed for launch by land vehicles, helicopters and naval platforms to defeat tanks within a range of 8km.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/army-to-place-repeat-order-for-spike-missiles-from-israel/article32083307.ece

9.Consider the following statements regarding 5G technology

It is the next generation cellular technology that will provide faster and more reliable communication with ultra-low latency

It will provide 100 times more peak speed as compared to 4G.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Jio off