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Daily Prelims Test – 16_February 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Bhimbetka Rock Shelters

It is located in the foothills of the Aravalli Mountains in Rajasthan.

It is closely associated with a hunting and gathering economy as demonstrated in the rock art

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Fossils of ‘Dickinsonia’ found at Bhimbetka

  • Researchers have discovered three fossils of the earliest known living animal — the 550-million-year-old ‘Dickinsonia’ — on the roof of the Bhimbetka Rock Shelters, about 40 km from Bhopal.
  • The new discoveries, published in a journal, Gondwana Research, can be seen right at the beginning of the ‘Auditorium Cave’, the first of such caves at Bhimbetka, a UNESCO heritage site, located about 3.5 metres above the ground.
  • It is an extinct genus of basal animal that lived during the late Ediacaran period in what are now Australia, Russia and Ukraine.

About Bhimbetka Rock Shelters.

  • It is located in the foothills of the Vindhya Mountains in Madhya PradeshHence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Dr V. S. Wakankar (one of the most renowned archeologists) , discovered these caves in 1958.
  • It contains paintings which date from the Mesolithic Period right through to the historical period.
  • It was declared a World Heritage Site in 2003 by UNESCO.
  • It reflects a long interaction between people and the landscape, as demonstrated in the quantity and quality of its rock art.
  • It is closely associated with a hunting and gathering economy as demonstrated in the rock art and in the relicts of this tradition in the local adivasi villages on the periphery of this site. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Pictures of animals like rhinoceros, tigers, wild buffalo, bears, antelopes, boars, lions, elephants, lizards etc. also descripted.
  • Natural red and white pigments are common colors used in these paintings. Green and yellow colours are also used.
  • The colors are a combination of manganese, hematite, wooden coal, soft red stone, plant leaves and animal fats.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/fossils-of-dickinsonia-found-at-bhimbetka/article33837185.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding Kaladan Multimodal Project

It will connect the Kolkata seaport with Sittwe in Rakhine State of Bangladesh by sea

It is an alternate route to India’s North-East bypassing the Siliguri Corridor.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India-Myanmar Kaladan project in final stages: Jaishankar

  • The $484 million Kaladan project, originally scheduled to be completed by 2014, will connect the Kolkata seaport with Sittwe in Rakhine State of Myanmar by sea. In Myanmar, it will link the Sittwe seaport with Paletwa in the Chin State via the Kaladan river boat route, and then from Paletwa by road to Mizoram.
  • The road building has been the cause of delay because there are some law and order challenges in that region. But we are now confident that we will be able to push it through.
  • In Myanmar, it can hyperlink the Sittwe seaport with Paletwa within the Chin State through the Kaladan river boat route, after which from Paletwa by highway to Mizoram.

About Kaladan Multimodal Project

  • The Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project was jointly identified by the India and Myanmar to create a multi-modal mode of transport for shipment of cargo from the eastern seaport of India to Myanmar and to the North-Eastern part of India through Myanmar. This project connects Sittwe Port in Myanmar to the India-Myanmar border, is expected to contribute to the economic development of the North-Eastern States of India. . Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It is expected to open up sea routes and promote economic development in the North-eastern states, and also add value to the economic, commercial and strategic ties between India and Myanmar.
  • India has for years sought transit access through Bangladesh to ship goods to the landlocked north-eastern States. This project will reduce distance from Kolkata to Sittwe by approximately 1328 km and will reduce the need to transport good through the narrow Siliguri corridor, also known as Chicken’s Neck. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The new route through Sittwe would significantly lower the cost and distance of movement from Kolkata to Mizoram and beyond. 
https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/0fOTZ0nKgzPT57kRBj1IW-dW3HC7rVeEKw-G5PRMMYT-L7EQTBt2Zh40gdcNcfLYiJJgkeRq8bUDMI863sHnw9Z6h00R7QvB8zBInW-z0xU2YPWp5KGl4qYDPzSWgOO1X1-6ZT4

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-myanmar-kaladan-project-in-final-stages-jaishankar/article33844879.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding International Space Station

  1. It is a habitable artificial satellite in low Earth orbit.
  2. It is visible to the naked eye from Earth’s surface.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: Russia launches cargo ship to International Space Station

  • An unmanned Russian cargo ship launched successfully Monday with a load of supplies for the International Space Station. It is also called Progress 77.
  • The cargo ship was launched using the Soyuz rocket from Site 31 of the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
  • It includes 1,400 kg of research and crew supplies such as food and clothing.
  • It also carries a supply of fresh water, nitrogen gas and propellant for the Zvezda service module propulsion system of the ISS.

About International Space Station

  • The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Its first component launched into orbit in 1998, and the ISS is now the largest human-made body in low Earth orbit.
  • The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology, and other fields.
  • It serves as a home where crews of astronauts and cosmonauts live. The space station is also a unique science laboratory.
  • The ISS programmeis a joint project among five participating space agencies: NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, and CSA.
  • It orbits Earth at an average altitude of approximately 250 miles. It travels at 17,500 mph. This means it orbits Earth every 90 minutes
  • On a clear day, the ISS is easily visible to the naked eye from the ground. Observers on the ground can see the station pass by overhead by tracking it using tools provided by NASA. Hence statement 2 is correct

About Soyuz Rocket

  • It is a 152-foot-tall or 46-meters launch vehicle comprising of the three-stages. The rocket will head on a north-easterly trajectory to reach the ISS

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/world/russia-launches-cargo-ship-to-international-space-station/article33841615.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding Ebola virus disease

  1. It was first discovered in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
  2. It cannot spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact
  3. The rVSV-ZEBOV is an experimental Ebola vaccine used in Ebola outbreak countries

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Ebola outbreak in Guinea: Why is it a huge concern? Who is ‘patient zero’?

Health authorities in Guinea declared a resurgence of Ebola outbreak in the west African nation after seven cases of the viral disease and four related deaths were confirmed

Why Ebola outbreak a “huge concern”?

  • Ebola virus disease (EVD) often proves fatal for humans if untreated, with an average case fatality rate around 50 per cent and has varied from 25 per cent to 90 per cent in past outbreaks
  • The virus transmission takes place from wild animals to humans and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmissionHence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The virus first appeared in two simultaneous outbreaks in 1976 in South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).  Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The virus outbreak in DRC occurred in a village near Ebola river, from where the disease takes its name.
  • The last major Ebola outbreak started in 2014, which emerged in Guinea and then moved across borders to Sierra Leone and Liberia. The Western African Ebola virus epidemic (2013–2016) was the most widespread outbreak of EVD in history. It was caused by the Zaire ebolavirus species.

It is caused by an infection with a group of viruses within the genus Ebolavirus:

  • Zaire ebolavirus
  • Sudan ebolavirus
  • Taï Forest ebolavirus
  • Bundibugyo ebolavirus
  • Reston ebolavirus
  • Bombali ebolavirus

Of these, only four (Zaire, Sudan, Taï Forest, and Bundibugyo viruses) are known to cause disease in people.

  • An experimental Ebola vaccine, called rVSV-ZEBOV proved highly protective against EVD in a major trial in Guinea in 2015. The rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine is being used in the ongoing 2018-2019 Ebola outbreak in DRC. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should have access to the vaccine under the same conditions as for the general population. Hence statement 3 is correct

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news


Consider the following Statements regarding INS Karanj

  1. It is one of the six Scorpene-class submarines with superior stealth and combat capabilities.
  2. It is a diesel-electric attack submarine has been built under Mazagon Dock Limited’s Project-75 in collaboration with a French firm.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Third Scorpene class submarine delivered to Indian Navy

  • The Mazagaon Dock Limited (MDL) on Monday delivered the third Scorpene-class submarine to the navy after two years of sea trials. The submarine was launched in January 2018 for sea trials and will be commissioned as INS Karanj

About Scorpene-class submarines

  • Scorpene submarines can undertake multifarious missions like anti-surface and anti-submarine warfare as well as intelligence gathering, mine laying, area surveillance, etc.
  • The state-of-the-art technology utilised for the construction of Scorpene class submarines has ensured superior stealth features such as advanced acoustic silencing techniques, low radiated noise levels, hydro-dynamically optimized shape, and the ability to launch an attack on the enemy using precision-guided weapons. 
  • The attack can be mounted with both torpedoes and tube-launched anti-ship missiles, at the same time as underwater or on the surface.
  • The stealth of this strong platform is enhanced by the special attention given to various signatures.
  • The first such submarine INS Kalvari was launched in October 2015 and commissioned in December 2017, five years behind the schedule. The second, INS Khanderi, was launched in January 2017 for sea trials and commissioned in September 2019. INS Vela was launched in May 2019 and is undergoing sea trials. INS Vagir was launched in November 2020 and is also undergoing sea trials. The sixth submarine INS Vagsheer is at the stage of outfitting.

About INS Karanj

  • INS Karanj is India’s third of the six Scorpene-class submarines with superior stealth and combat capabilities. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is a diesel-electric attack submarine has been built under MDL’s Project-75 in collaboration with a French firm. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • INS Karanj was launched in January 2018.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/third-scorpene-class-submarine-delivered-to-indian-navy-101613446494802.html


Consider the following Statements regarding King Suheldev

He had fought, defeated and killed the Ghaznavid general Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud in Bahraich.

He is mentioned in Mirat-i-Masudi written by Abd-ur-Rahman Chishti during the reign of the Mughal emperor Jahangir.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both1 and 2 

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM Modi to lay foundation stone for king Suheldev’s statue in Uttar Pradesh

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi will virtually lay a foundation stone for a statue of the 11th-century warrior king Suheldev of Shravasti in Uttar Pradesh’s Bahraich
  • Rajbhar community members, who consider Suheldev as their icon, constitute a significant percentage of the Purvanchal population and are regarded as the second politically dominant force to reckon with after the Yadavs in eastern Uttar Pradesh.
  • About King Suheldev
  • Suhaldev or Suheldev is an Indian king from Shravasti,
  • King Suheldev had fought, defeated and killed the Ghaznavid general Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud in a famous battle held on the bank of Chittora lake in Bahraich in 1033. The battle was such that it is said that the whole of Masud’s army got eliminated in it. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • He is mentioned in the 17th century Persian-language historical romance Mirat-i-Masudi written by Abd-ur-Rahman Chishti during the reign of the Mughal emperor Jahangir. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Mirat-i-Masudi  is a historical romance and a biography of Salar Masud. Ghazi Salar Masud, a nephew of Mahmud of Ghazni, invaded India at the age of 16. He crossed the Indus river, and conquered Multan, Delhi, Meerut

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/pm-modi-to-lay-foundation-stone-for-king-suheldev-s-statue-in-uttar-pradesh-101613444721341.html


Consider the following Statements regarding Leatherbacks Turtle

They are found in all oceans except the Arctic and the Antarctic.

According to IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, it is listed as vulnerable species

They are also listed in Schedule I of India’s Wildlife Protection Act, 1972

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Leatherback nesting sites could be overrun by Andamans development project

  • Proposals for tourism and port development in the Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Islands have conservationists worried over the fate of some of the most important nesting populations of the Giant Leatherback turtle in this part of the Indian Ocean.
  • The A&N Islands are prominent in the National Marine Turtle Action Plan released on February 1, 2021, by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. The plan notes that “India has identified all its important sea turtle nesting habitats as ‘Important Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Areas’ and included them in the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) – 1
  • South Bay and West Bay on Little Andaman and Galathea on Great Nicobar, along with other nesting beaches in the islands, find a specific mention here as “Important Marine Turtle Habitats in India” and the largest Leatherback nesting grounds in India.

About Leatherback

  • The largest of the seven species of sea turtles on the planet and also the most long-ranging.
  • Leatherbacks are found in all oceans except the Arctic and the AntarcticHence statement 1 is correct
  • Within the Indian Ocean, they nest only in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  • Leatherback turtles are named for their shell, which is leather-like rather than hard, like other turtles.
  • They are the largest sea turtle species and also one of the most migratory, crossing both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
  • Numbers of leatherback turtles have seriously declined during the last century as a result of intense egg collection and fisheries bycatch
  • They are protected in Indian Wildlife Protection Act of 1972, under Schedule I. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • They are also protected under the Biodiversity Conservation and Ganga Rejuvenation programme.

Five species of Indian turtles along with their IUCN status are as follows: 

  • Olive Ridley – Vulnerable
  • Green turtle – Endangered
  • Loggerhead – Vulnerable. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • Hawksbill – Critically Endangered
  • Leather back – Vulnerable

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/leatherback-nesting-sites-could-be-overrun-by-andamans-project/article33845010.ece#:~:text=Proposals%20for%20tourism%20and%20port,part%20of%20the%20Indian%20Ocean.


What is SANDES, that was in News recently? 

  1. Electric Vehicle
  2. Exo Planet
  3. Missile defence system
  4. Instant Messaging Platform

Answer: (d) Instant Messaging Platform

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is Sandes, the government’s new Instant Messaging platform?

  • The National Informatics Centre has launched an instant messaging platform called Sandes on the lines of WhatsApp. Like WhatsApp, the new NIC platform can be used for all kinds of communications by anyone with a mobile number or email id. Hence option (d) is correct

Why has NIC launched this instant messaging platform?

  • Following the nationwide lockdown imposed in March 2020 to contain the spread of Covid-19, the government felt the need to build a platform to ensure secure communication between its employees as they worked from home.
  • After security scares, the Ministry of Home Affairs had in April last year issued an advisory to all government employees to avoid using platforms like Zoom for official communication. This was after the Computer Emergency Response Team (Cert-In) had also posted an advisory against Zoom over safety and privacy concerns.
  • The idea for a secure communication network dedicated exclusively to government employees has been in the works for the past four years

What is different in the new app developed by NIC?

  • The instant messaging app, called Sandes, has an interface similar to many other apps currently available in the market. Although there is no option to transfer the chat history between two platforms, the chats on government instant messaging systems or GIMS can be backed up to a users’ email.
  • GIMS, like other instant messaging apps in the market, uses a valid mobile number or email id to register the user for the first time. It also offers features such as group making, broadcast message, message forwarding and emojis.
  • Further, as an additional safety feature, it allows a user to mark a message as confidential, which, the app’s description says, will allow the recipient to be made aware the message should not be shared with others. The confidential tag, however, does not change the way the message is sent from one user to another.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-sandesh-the-governments-new-instant-messaging-platform-7189759/


Bhuvan, VEDAS and MOSDAC are recently in news, is related to which of the following?

  1. Minimized Satellite 
  2. DNA database
  3. Human Atlas
  4. Geospatial portals

Answer: (d) Geospatial portals

Explanation:

In NEWS: ISRO, MapmyIndia join hands to take on Google Maps/Earth

  • Isro, MapmyIndia join hands to take on Google’s Maps, Earth products. Indian Space Research Organisation and location and navigation technology solutions provider MapmyIndia announced an initiative to partner together to offer India’s best, and fully indigenous, mapping portal and geospatial services
  • The collaboration will enable them to jointly identify and build a holistic geospatial portal utilising earth observation datasets, ‘NavIC’, Web Services and APIs (application programming interface) available in MapmyIndia, ISRO said in a statement adding that the geospatial portals will be called ‘Bhuvan’, ‘VEDAS’ and ‘MOSDAC’. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System also known as NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation), is an indigenous navigation system, developed by ISRO.
  • Bhuvan is the national geo-portal developed and hosted by ISRO comprising geospatial data, services, and tools for analysis.
  • VEDAS (Visualisation of Earth observation Data and Archival System) is an online geoprocessing platform that uses optical, microwave, thermal, and hyperspectral EO data covering applications particularly meant for academia, research and problem solving, ISRO said.
  • MOSDAC (Meteorological and Oceanographic Satellite Data Archival Centre) is a data repository for all the meteorological missions of ISRO and deals with weather-related information, oceanography, and tropical water cycles.

About Geospatial

  • Geospatial data is data about objects, events, or phenomena that have a location on the surface of the earth.
  • The location may be static in the short-term, like the location of a road, an earthquake event, malnutrition among children, or dynamic like a moving vehicle or pedestrian, the spread of an infectious disease.
  • Geospatial data combines location information, attribute information (the characteristics of the object, event, or phenomena concerned), and often also temporal information or the time at which the location and attributes exist.
  • Geo-spatial data usually involves information of public interest such as roads, localities, rail lines, water bodies, and public amenities.

Source: TH/Outlook


Which of the following statements is/are correct? 

  1. A Bill pending in the Lok Sabha lapses on its prorogation.
  2. A Bill pending in the Rajya Sabha, which was not been passed by the Lok Sabha, shall not lapse on dosslution of the Lok Sabha. 

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 only 
  2. 2 only 
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

  • When the Lok Sabha is dissolved, all business including bills, motions, resolutions, notices, petitions and so on pending before it or its committees lapse. They (to be pursued further) must be reintroduced in the newly constituted Lok Sabha. 
  • However, some pending bills and all pending assurances that are to be examined by the Committee on Government Assurances do not lapse on the dissolution of the Lok Sabha.

 The position with respect to lapsing of bills is as follows: 

  • A bill pending in the Lok Sabha lapses (whether originating in the Lok Sabha or transmitted to it by the Rajya Sabha).
  • A bill passed by the Lok Sabha but pending in the Rajya Sabha lapses.
  • A bill not passed by the two Houses due to disagreement and if the president has notified the holding of a joint sitting before the dissolution of Lok Sabha, does not lapse. 
  • A bill pending in the Rajya Sabha but not passed by the Lok Sabha does not lapse. 
  • A bill passed by both Houses but pending assent of the president does not lapse. 
  • A bill passed by both Houses but returned by the president for reconsideration of Houses does not lapse.