KingMakers IAS Academy logo

Daily Prelims Test – 16_December 2020

Recently, the term Tettilobus trishula is seen in news, it is related to

  • a new species of grasshopper
  • a very rare species of toads
  • a species of freshwater turtle
  • a new cave fish in Meghalaya

Answer: a) a new species of grasshopper

Explanation:

In NEWS: Red List Assessment of Indian grasshoppers to kickstart

The assessment will include a recently-discovered grasshopper in Eravikulam National Park in Kerala
The Grasshopper Specialist Group of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is initiating the Red List Assessment of grasshoppers in India for the first time by the end of this year
Most of the 1,033 known Indian grasshopper species were described by foreign researchers
The Red List assessment of endemic grasshoppers of NBR would update their conservation status and kick off India’s grasshopper conservation activities
The new species Tettilobus trishula has been given the common name ‘Shiva’s pygmy trishula’ since it has protrusions on its pronotum that are shaped like the trident, the weapon of the Hindu deity, Shiva.The pronotum is a prominent plate-like structure that covers all or part of the thorax of some insects.
The specimen was documented in January 2018 in the Eravikulam National Park. Spread over 97 square kilometres, the park consists of high-altitude grasslands interspersed with sholas (Southern montane wet temperate forest), at a base elevation of about 2,000 metres.The paper noted that Tettilobus trishula “was spotted on the bark of a tree from the shola forest ecosystem of Eravikulam NP at 2200 m elevation (N10 13’43.05” E077 05’09.39’), in the wet, humid habitat with trees fully covered in moss. Hence option (a) is correct
Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/red-list-assessment-of-indian-grasshoppers-to-kickstart-74646


Consider the following statements regarding Cabomba

  • It is a submerged perennial aquatic plant that grows in stagnant to slow-flowing freshwater
  • It dominantly belongs to Central and South America.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Kerala’s ‘pink phenomenon’ can choke water bodies and drains, warn scientists

The plant behind the ‘pink phenomenon’ is forked fanwort, which comes from the family of Red Cabomba (Cabomba Furcata)
Cabomba is a submerged perennial aquatic plant that grows in stagnant to slow-flowing It dominantly belongs to Central and South America. Hence statement 1 is correct and Hence statement 2 is correct.
The plant will spread in the water bodies across the state, choking them as well as the drainage canals. It requires a huge amount of oxygen to grow and that could badly affect freshwater biodiversity. The water quality would also be affected
The team is now preparing a detailed action plan that would be submitted to the Kozhikode district administration to remove the invasive plant.
Among the measures to contain the spread of Cabomba include mechanical removal of Cabomba furcata and its drying on land; habitat modification to increase shading (planting trees); tarpaulin shade over Cabomba-infested area, especially where it cannot be mechanically removed; regular weeding on both aquatic and terrestrial habitats based on inputs from monitoring.
The first known information on Cabomba in Kerala became available in 1952. Later, in 1965 and 1966, embryological studies were carried out at the University of Madras, Chennai
Kerala has records of biological invasions dating back to the 19th century. It continues to experience several waves of alien invasions till today
Terrestrial invasive alien plants such as Chromoleanaodorata, Lantana Camara, Mikaniamicrantha, Mimosa diplotricha, and Sphagenticolatrilobata, and invasive fauna such as the giant African snail Achatinafulica, papaya mealybug Paracoccusmarginatus, etc have affected the biodiversity of rural and urban spaces in Kerala
The invasion of Cabombas has led to a decrease in the diversity of native aquatic plants and caused economic losses by affecting the yield of freshwater fishes.
Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/kerala-s-pink-phenomenon-can-choke-water-bodies-and-drains-warn-scientists-74645


Consider the following statements regarding apple scab

  • It is a disease caused by a fungus that infects both leaves and fruit
  • It can be minimized by exposing the plant in sunlight.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Fungal scab attack can spell doom for Kashmir’s apple growers this year

A couple in Tahab area of south Kashmir packs their apples. The apple scab disease returned in Jammu and Kashmir after 35 years
Kashmir’s apple output may be hit by scab disease this season as a fallout of climatic factors. While the fruits would remain edible, the fungal infection would leave marks, making it tough for farmers to get a good price. Hence statement 1 is correct.
Apple orchard owners across the valley are reporting the fungus (Venturia inaequalis), said Fayaz Ahmad Malik, who leads fruit growers and dealers at the fruit wholesale market in Sopore
It noted that apple scab generally did not kill trees, but can cause defoliation, that weakens the tree and influences its survival during winter conditions. It observed that early infections could lead to abnormal growth (fruit deformation) and fruit drop.
If the fruit is infected late in the summer or just before harvest, black, circular, minimal (0.1-4 mm diameter) lesions called ‘pin-point scab’ would appear during storage.
The disease can be minimised / prevented through good horticultural practices such as selecting sites that provide more than six hours of sunlight a day; spacing trees adequately following proper pruning practices to open the tree canopy; sanitising in orchards to prevent pseudothecial formation in overwintering apple leaves. Hence statement 2 is correct.


Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/agriculture/fungal-scab-attack-can-spell-doom-for-kashmir-s-apple-growers-this-year-74631


Consider the following statements regarding Delimitation commission of India

  • It is established under the provisions of the Delimitation Commission Act.
  • Under Article 82, the Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act after every 10 years
  • It is appointed by the President of India in collaboration with the Election Commission of India.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Pranab Mukherjee’s son, daughter spar over publication of his memoir

A paper released by the Pranab Mukherjee Foundation (PMF) has suggested that the next delimitation exercise should be a two-step process:

First a Delimitation Commission should be set up to redraw boundaries of constituencies on the basis of the 2031 Census
And then a State Reorganization Act be passed to split States into smaller ones
The 84th Amendment to the Constitution in 2002 had put a freeze on the delimitation of Lok Sabha and State Assembly constituencies till the first Census after 2026. While the current boundaries were drawn on the basis of the 2001 Census, the number of Lok Sabha seats and State Assembly seats remained frozen on the basis of the 1971 Census.

Delimitation:

It means the act or process of fixing limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies in a country or a province having a legislative body.
Delimitation is done on the basis of the preceding Census.The first such exercise in 1950-51 was carried out by the President, with the help of the Election Commission.
Following the Delimitation Commission Act in 1952, all such exercises have been conducted by Delimitation Commissions — set up in 1952, 1963, 1973 and 2002.There was no delimitation after the 1981 and 1991 Censuses.
About Delimitation commission of India:

It is established under the provisions of the Delimitation Commission Act. Hence statement 1 is correct.
Under Article 82, the Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act after every 10 years (after every Census). Hence statement 2 is correct.
The main task of the commission is redrawing the boundaries of the various assembly and Lok Sabha constituencies based on a recent census.
The present delimitation of constituencies has been done on the basis of 2001 census under the provisions of Delimitation Act, 2002.
Its orders can’t be challenged in any court of law.
The Delimitation Commission appointed by the President of India in collaboration with the Election Commission of India. Hence statement 3 is correct.
According to the Delimitation Commission Act, 2002, the Delimitation Commission appointed by the Centre has to have three members: a serving or retired judge of the Supreme Court as the chairperson, and the Chief Election Commissioner or Election Commissioner nominated by the CEC and the State Election Commissioner as ex-officio members.
Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/pranabs-son-objects-to-publication-of-final-volume-of-memoir/article33336395.ece


With reference to the benefits of Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA), consider the following statements

  • It reduces energy consumption without sacrificing the comfort levels
  • It reduces air and water pollution
  • It Limits waste generation due to recycling and reuse
  • It Increases water consumption
  • It reduces destruction of natural areas, habitats, and biodiversity, and reduced soil loss from erosion

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  • 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
  • 2 and 5 only
  • 1, 3 and 4 only
  • 1, 2, 3 and 5 only

Answer: d) 1, 2, 3 and 5 only

Explanation:

In News: Finance Commissions and local bodies should encourage green buildings through tax incentives – Vice President

GRIHA is an acronym for Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment. GRIHA throughout their life cycles, from construction to operation and then demolition, they consume resources in the form of energy, water, materials, etc. and emit wastes either directly in the form of municipal wastes or indirectly as emissions from electricity generation.
GRIHA attempts to minimize a building’s resource consumption, waste generation, and overall ecological impact to within certain nationally acceptable limits / benchmarks.
Benefits
It reduces energy consumption without sacrificing the comfort levels
It reduces air and water pollution
It Limits waste generation due to recycling and reuse
It Reduces water consumption. Hence statement 4 is incorrect.
It reduces destruction of natural areas, habitats, and biodiversity, and reduced soil loss from erosion.
Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1680744


Consider the following statements regarding India water impact summit 2020

  • It is a five-day long summit, hosting experts and academicians from all over the world to discuss and debate issues related to water conservation, water security and river rejuvenation.
  • The event is co-organized by National Mission for Clean Ganga and Centre for Ganga River Basin Management and Studies.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research signs MOU with cGanga (think-tank of NMCG) for development of sludge management framework in India

India Water Impact Summit continues with many more experts from India and abroad sharing their insights on the topic of conservation and development.
India Water Impact 2020 is a five-day long summit, hosting experts and academicians from all over the world to discuss and debate issues related to water conservation, water security and river rejuvenation. Hence statement 1 is correct.
The event is co-organized by National Mission for Clean Ganga and Centre for Ganga River Basin Management and Studies. Hence statement 2 is correct.
During the event, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research signed MOU with cGanga (think-tank of NMCG) for development of sludge management framework in India.
Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1680606


7.Consider the following statements regarding Indian Gaur

  • They are found only in India
  • The gaur is the State Animal of Goa and Bihar.
  • It is listed as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List.

Select the correct answer using the code given below

  • 1 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1, 2 and 3

Answer: c) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In News: After death of a Gaur in Pune, lessons to be learnt on how to avoid such tragic incidents

It is one of the largest extant bovines. It is one of the largest species among the wild cattle, reaching a shoulder height of up to 220 cm.
They are found in India, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, and Nepal. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
The Western Ghats in southern India constitute one of the most extensive extant strongholds of gaur, in particular in the Wayanad – Nagarhole – Mudumalai – Bandipur complex.
The gaur is the State Animal of Goa and Bihar. Hence statement 2 is correct.
It is listed as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) Red List. hence statement 3 is correct.
The Indian Government has included it in the Schedule I of the Wild Life Protection Act, 1972.
It is listed in CITES Appendix I.
Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/pune-city-gaur-indian-bison-human-animal-conflicts-maharashtra-7102153/


Recently, The State of Land Report-India was released by

  • NITI Aayog
  • World Bank
  • Centre for Social Development
  • Centre for Land Governance

Answer: d) Centre for Land Governance

Explanation:

In NEWS: The Landless women: Only 12.9% Indian women hold agricultural land

The index ranks states in terms of women holding land rights in percentage points
Lakshadweep and Meghalaya are the best among all the 35 states and Union Territories at providing land rights to women; Punjab and West Bengal are the worst, according to an index created by the Bhubaneswar-based Centre for Land Governance, an arm of consultancy firm NR Management Consultants.
The index was prepared using the data on women’s operational holdings from the agriculture census of 2011, the share of adult women owning farm land from the Indian Human Development Survey of 2011-12, the share of women-headed households owning land from the Socio-economic Caste Census of 2011, and the share of women owning house and/or land (alone or jointly) from the National Family Health Survey of 2015-16.
The index ranks states in terms of women holding land rights in percentage points. On average, 12.9% of Indian women hold land.
In the southern states, 15.4% of women hold land, and in the northeast, 14.1%. Despite such low figures, these states outperform the northern states (9.8%), and the eastern states (9.2%).
Secure and impartial land rights for women are crucial for a country to achieve sustainable developments goals, such as ending poverty and achieving gender equality.
The government had professed an intention to give joint titles to men and women while distributing land and home sites since the Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85).
But, the data shows a poor record. Women constitute a third (32%) of India’s agricultural labour force and contribute 55-66% to farm production, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization. Yet, they hold only 12.8% of operational holdings in India, according to the Center for Land Governance index.
Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/the-landless-women-only-12-9-indian-women-hold-agricultural-land-120121300771_1.html


Electricity Market Report 2020 was released by

  • International Energy Agency
  • Energy Information Administration
  • International Atomic Energy Agency
  • None of the above

Answer: a) International Energy Agency

Explanation:

In NEWS: India, China will lead power usage growth in 2021: IEA

India, along with China, will lead the growth in global demand for electricity in 2021.
The latest projection reaffirms the green shoots of recovery of the Indian economy.
Global electricity demand in 2020 is projected to fall by around 2%.
China will be the only major economy to see higher electricity demand in 2020.
Major consumers including the United States, India, Europe, Japan, Korea and Southeast Asia are all set to experience declines in demands for the year as a whole.
Renewable electricity generation is projected to grow by almost 7% in 2020, squeezing conventional generation.
The impact of Covid-19 on the Indian electricity sector and electricity demand has been significant.
Following the start of the lockdown, weather-corrected electricity demand relative to 2019 initially fell by 17%, followed by a further decline to reach a 28% reduction by the end of March.
Total electricity demand for 2020 is anticipated to be down 2% from last year, with a rebound expected in 2021.
Cross-border imports in financial year 2019/20 were 7 Terawatt-hour (TWh) from Bhutan.
Total losses on the transmission and distribution networks in India, including non-technical losses, fell from their 2001 high of 33% to 21% in 2018.
Terawatt-hour significantly higher than other emerging economies such as Brazil at 16% or China at 7%, or the world average of 8.5%.
India’s power system is undergoing a transformation towards cleaner electricity, driven by a national-level renewables target of 175 GW by 2022 and a national renewables ambition of 450 GW by 2030.
As of 2020 conventional power generation dominates, with coal and lignite making up 205 GW (55%) and gas representing 25 GW (7%) of 373 GW total capacity.
Renewables (including small hydro, biomass, waste, solar PV and wind) represent the second-largest source at over 88 GW (24%) followed by large hydro at over 45 GW (12%).
There are numerous new coal-fired power plants planned in the short term, while a few states, such as Gujarat, have committed to no new coal power plants beyond 2021.
In 2020, around 70% of India’s electricity is set to be generated by coal fired power plants, while renewables including hydro are also playing a significant role (23%).
2020 sees a 4% fall in conventional generation relative to 2019.
Gas-fired generation increases by 10%, fuelled by a sharp rise in spot LNG imports.
August 2020 marked the launch of the “Green Market” on the IEX, to fulfil client’s Renewables Purchase Obligations through market purchases.
Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/india-china-will-lead-power-usage-growth-in-2021-iea/articleshow/79737344.cms


A constitutional government by definition is a

  • government by legislature
  • popular government
  • multi-party government
  • limited government

Answer: (d) limited government

Explanation:

Constitutionalism has a variety of Most generally, it is “a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law”. Constitutionalism’ means limited government or limitation on government. It is the antithesis of arbitrary powers. Constitutionalism recognizes the need for a government with powers but at the same time insists that limitation be placed on those powers. Hence option (d) is correct
Topics: UPSC, Preliminary Examination, IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS, Civil Services Examination, UPSC Mains, prelims, prelims practice questions, Prelims mcq, prelims mcq questions