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Daily Prelims Test – 15_June

1.Recently, the term olm or proteus is seen in news, it is related to

  • Rare aquatic creatures
  • New organ in the human body
  • Asteroid belt in the solar system
  • Parasitic fungi on mustard

Answer: (a) Rare aquatic creatures

Explanation:

In NEWS: Cave-dwelling ‘baby dragons’ go on display for first time in Slovenia

  • Tourists visiting Slovenia’s famous Postojna caves will soon be able to see three extremely rare aquatic creatures, popularlyknown as ‘baby dragons’, Reuters reported on Friday. Officially called olms, these creatures earned their nickname during medieval times, when locals believed that they were descendants of dragons due to their lizard-like appearance. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The three juvenile ‘olms’, as they are officially called, will be kept in a special subterranean aquarium where the general public will be able to see them for the first time since they hatched in 2016
  • The three going on display are among 21 offspring that hatched in 2016 when one of the Olms at the cave lay around 60 eggs. Given that the average Olm lays eggs only once or twice in a decade, the mystifying ‘baby dragons’ at Postojna caves have been closely monitored since their birth
  • These pale pink eel-like creatures are completely blind and are often called ‘human fish’ because of their long thin bodies and four legs. Olms are found exclusively in the waters of dark caves in the southern European Karst region. They can grow up to a foot in length, making them the world’s largest cave-dwelling animals

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/world/cave-welling-baby-dragons-go-on-display-for-first-time-in-slovenia-6457189/

2.Consider the following statements regarding Karst topography

  • It is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum.
  • It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Baby dragons

Olms are found exclusively in the waters of dark caves in the southern European Karst region. They can grow up to a foot in length, making them the world’s largest cave-dwelling animals.

  • Karst is a landscape which is underlain by limestone which has been eroded by dissolution, producing towers, fissures, sinkholes, etc.
  • It is so named after a province of Yugoslavia on the Adriatic sea coast where such formations are most noticeable.
  • Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes, caves etc.. Hence statement 2 is correct.

Conditions Essential for Full Development of Karst Topography

  • Presence of soluble rocks, preferably limestone at the surface or sub-surface level.
  • These rocks should be dense, highly jointed and thinly bedded.

Source: TH

3.The word ‘Gondwanatheria’ is sometimes mentioned in media in reference to

  • an early human species
  • a cave system found in North -East India
  • a geological period in the history of Indian subcontinent
  • an extinct group of Mammaliaformes

Answer: (d) an extinct group of Mammaliaformes

Explanation:

In NEWS: Scientists find ancient mammal ‘stepping stone’

  • Chilean and Argentine researchers have unearthed teeth in far-flung Patagonia belonging to a mammal that lived 74 million years ago, the oldest such remains yet discovered in the South American country, the Chilean Antarctic Institute reported
  • Scientists uncovered the tiny teeth, which belonged to a species called Magallanodon baikashkenke, on a dig near Torres del Paine National Park, a remote area of Patagonia famous for its glacier-capped Andean spires and frigid ocean waters.
  • The small mammal would have lived in southern Patagonia during the late Cretaceous era, alongside dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles and birds, according to an article published in the bulletin of the Natural History Museum of Chile.
  • It is the southernmost record of Gondwanatheria, a group of long-extinct early mammals that co-existed with dinosaurs.
  • Gondwanatheriis an extinct group of mammals that lived during the Upper Cretaceous era are extremely rare, particularly in this part of southern South America. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The small mammal would have lived in southern Patagonia during the late Cretaceous era, alongside dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles and birds, according to an article published in the bulletin of the Natural History Museum of Chile.

Source: TH

https://www.hindustantimes.com/science/74-million-year-old-mammal-teeth-discovered-in-chile-s-patagonia/story-AgNb13wZejGPth9VobwoXI.html

4.Consider the following statements

  • Chikungunya was first identified in congo in the early 1952
  • There is no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat chikungunya virus.
  • Chikungunya is a viral disease which is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 3 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Persistent global transmission of chikungunya from India

  • Chikungunya virus is transmitted to people through mosquito Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites.
  • Chikungunya virus is most often spread to people by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoe These are the same mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  • They bite during the day and at night. Chikungunya virus is transmitted rarely from mother to newborn around the time of birth.
  • The most common symptoms are fever and joint pain.
  • Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, or rash.
  • Chikungunya disease does not often result in death, but the symptoms can be severe and disabling.
  • Chikungunya was first identified in Tanzania in the early 1952 and has causedperiodic outbreaks in Asia and Africa since the 1960s. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • There is no vaccine to prevent or medicineto treat chikungunya virus. Hence statement 2 is correct.

Source: TH

5.Tulung La is situated at which of the following state in India?

  • Arunachal Pradesh
  • Sikkim
  • Bihar
  • Uttarakhand

Answer: (a)  Arunachal Pradesh

Explanation:

In NEWS: Forgotten in fog of war, the last firing on the India-China border

  • Four Indian soldiers died when a patrol of Assam Rifles jawans was ambushed at Tulung La in Arunachal Pradesh in 1975. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The 1967 clash between India and China is often remembered as the last shot fired on the India-China border.
  • That clash in Sikkim, where India got the better of China just five years after defeat in the 1962 war, saw more than 80 Indian soldiers killed while estimates say 400 Chinese soldiers may have been killed.
  • A U.S. State Department cable from 1975 noted India’s view that the “Chinese ambush was sprung 500 metres south of Tulung La” and took place on Indian territory.
  • The cable noted that Tulung La was among the more remote passes in the region, a few dozen kilometres from Bum La and Tawang. It noted China had used the pass during the 1962 war as a channel to send its troops down to Bomdi La, to defeat the Indian resistance there to their offensive.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/forgotten-in-fog-of-war-the-last-firing-on-the-india-china-border/article31827344.ece

6.Consider the following statements regardingKyasanur Forest Disease

  • It is not a zoonotic disease
  • The disease was first reported in 1957 from Shimoga district, Karnataka
  • There is no specific treatment for KFD

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 3 only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 2 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Row over monkey park plan

  • Environmentalists have opposed the Karnataka government’s plan to set up a mon-
  • key park on the uninhabited islands in the Sharavathi backwater region.
  • Following a spike in cases of monkeys raiding agricultural and plantation crops in the Malnad region, farmers staged protests demanding a solution to the problem.
  • Fearing that the project may trigger outbreaks of diseases like the Kyasanur Forest Disease, locals opposed the project. The Nittur panchayat also passed a resolution against the project.

About the Kyasanur Forest Disease

  • Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD) is a zoonotic disease associated with sudden onset of high grade fever, prostration, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and occasionally neurological & haemorrhagic manifestations. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • The disease was first reported in 1957 from Shimoga district, Karnataka, which is a primitive sylvan territory in Western Ghats of India. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • After an incubation period of 3-8 days, the symptoms of KFD begin suddenly with chills, fever, and headache. Severe muscle pain with vomiting, gastrointestinal symptoms and bleeding problems may occur 3-4 days after initial symptom onset.
  • Patients may experience abnormally low blood pressure, and low platelet, red blood cell, and white blood cell counts.
  • There is no specific treatment for KFD, but early hospitalization and supportive therapy are important. Supportive therapy includes the maintenance of hydration and the usual precautions for patients with bleeding disorders. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  • Transmission to humans may occur after a tick bite or contact with an infected animal, most importantly a sick or recently dead monkey. No person-to-person transmission has been described.

Sourcehttps://www.thehindu.com/news/national/karnataka/plan-for-a-monkey-park-draws-ire-of-greens/article31828617.ece

7.Consider the following statements regarding Malabar gliding frog

  • It is endemic to the rain forests of the Eastern Ghats.
  • It has been listed as a least concern species under the IUCN red list

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Malabar gliding frog spotted at Pullad

  • A green frog with a slender body, webbed feet, unusual body positions, very well camouflaged and gliding in the air. This was how a juvenile Malabar gliding frog (Rhacophorus malabaricus), a rare amphibian that can glide in the air up to 10­12 m, was spotted in the orchard of a house at Pullad, near Kozhencherry in Kerala
  • The frog has got a body length of 10 cm, making it one of the largest mossy frogs.
  • Rhacophorus malabaricus (Malabar Gliding Frog) is a species of amphibians in the family Old World tree frogs. It is associated with freshwater habitat.
  • The frog is endemic to the rain forests of the Western Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern. Hence statement 2 is correct.

Source: TH

8.Consider the following statements regardingIndian Ocean Commission

  • It is an intergovernmental organization and is based in Mauritius
  • India is a founding member of this commission

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India looks to deploy Naval Liaisons

After joining the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) as Observer in March, India is looking to post Navy Liaison Officers at the Regional Maritime Information Fusion Centre (RMIFC) in Madagascar and also at the European maritime surveillance initiative in the Strait of Hormuz for improved Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA). Hence statement 2 is incorrect.

About Indian Ocean Commission (IOC)

  • The IOC is an intergovernmental organization that was created in1982 at Port Louis, Mauritius and institutionalized in 1984 by the Victoria Agreement in Seychelles. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The IOC is composed of five African Indian Ocean nations: Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion (an overseas region of France), and Seychelles.
  • These five islands share geographic proximity, historical and demographic relationships, natural resources and common development issues.

Aims and Objectives of IOC

  • IOC’s principal mission is to strengthen the ties of friendship between the countries and to be a platform of solidarity for the entire population of the African Indian Ocean region.
  • IOC’s mission also includes development, through projects related to sustainability for the region, aimed at protecting the region, improving the living conditions of the populations and preserving the various natural resources that the countries depend on.
  • Being an organisation regrouping only island states, the IOC has usually championed the cause of small island states in regional and international fora.

Source: TH

9.Raja Parba is a three-day-long festival celebrated in which of the following state in India?

  • West Bengal
  • Bihar
  • Odisha
  • Tamil Nadu

Answer: (c) Odisha

Explanation:

In NEWS: Odisha’s unique festival Raja Parba begins today

Raja Parba, Odisha’s three-day unique festival celebrating the onset of monsoon and the earth’s womanhood has begun. Hence option (c) is correct

  • The festivities begin a day before Mithuna Sankranti and conclude two days after that.
  • The first day of the festival is called Pahili Raja, the second is Mithuna Sankranti and the third Bhu daha or Basi Raja. The preparation begins one day before Pahili Raja, and it is called Sajabaja. Primarily, it is a time for the unmarried girls to prepare for their matrimony. They follow various customs related to the festival by consuming nutritious food like Podapitha, not walking barefoot, taking a bath on the first day, and merrily swinging on ropes attached to a tree.
  • Goddess Earth (Bhuma Devi), the consort of Lord Vishnu, undergoes her menstrual cycle during this period. Interestingly, the word ‘Raja’ in Odia means menstruation, and it is derived from Rajaswala, meaning a menstruating woman
  • The festival concludes with a custom called Vasumati Snana or the bathing of Bhuma Devi. Women worship a stone that symbolises the Mother Earth. They give her a bath with turmeric paste and offer her flowers and smear her with Sindoor.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=Odisha%e2%80%99s-unique-festival-Raja-Parba-begins-today&id=391261

10.Who among the following were the founders of the “Hind Mazdoor Sabha” established in 1948?

  •  Krishna Pillai, E.M.S. Namboodiripad and K.C. George
  • Jayaprakash Narayan, Deen Day al Upadhyay and M.N. Roy
  • P. Ramaswamy Iyer, K. Kamaraj and Veeresalingam Pantulu
  • Ashok Mehta, T.S. Ramanujam and G.G. Mehta

Answer: (d) Ashok Mehta, T.S. Ramanujam and G.G. Mehta

Explanation :

 The Hind Mazdoor sabha was founded in Howrah in west bengal on 29 December 1948, by socialists, Forward Bloc followers and independent unionists. It was founded by Basawon Singh, Ashok Mehta, R.S. Ruikar, Maniben Kara, Shibnath Banerjee, R.A. Khedgikar, T.S. Ramanujam, V.S. Mathur, G.G. Mehta. R.S. Ruikar was elected president and Ashok Mehta general secretary. HMS absorbed the Royist Indian Federation of Labour and the Hind Mazdoor Panchayat, which was formed in 1948 by socialists leaving the increasingly communist dominated AITUC. Hence option (d) is correct