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Daily Prelims Test – 15_July 2021

Consider the following statements regarding BHIM App:

  • It was developed by the State Bank of India.
  • It is a payment app that lets you make simple, easy and quick transactions using Unified Payments Interface.
  • BHIM is based on Unified Payment Interface (UPI) to facilitate e-payments directly through banks.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Finance Minister Smt Nirmala Sitharaman and Finance Minister of Bhutan Mr Lyonpo Namgay Tshering jointly launch BHIM–UPI in Bhutan

  • Bhutan is now the first country to adopt UPI standards for its QR deployment. It will also be the first country in our immediate neighbourhood to accept mobile-based payments through the BHIM App.
  • Bhutan is also the second country after Singapore to have BHIM-UPI acceptance at merchant locations

Bharat Interface for Money

  • Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM) is an initiative to enable fast, secure, reliable cashless payments through your mobile phoneHence statement (2) is correct.
  • BHIM is based on Unified Payment Interface (UPI) to facilitate e-payments directly through banks. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • It is interoperable with other Unified Payment Interface (UPI) applications, and bank accounts.
  • Unified Payment Interface(UPI) is an instant payment system built over the IMPS infrastructure and allows you to instantly transfer money between any two parties’ bank
  • BHIM is developed by the National Payment Corporation of India (NPCI). Hence statement (1) is incorrect.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1735075

Consider the following statements:

  • Liquid oxygen is used as an oxidant for liquid fuels in the propellant systems of missiles and rockets.
  • Liquid oxygen is classified as an industrial gas and is banned for medical purposes.
  • Contact with liquid oxygen can cause severe skin and eye irritation.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 3 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (c) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: The benefits and hazards of liquid oxygen

  • Liquid oxygen has a pale blue colour and is a cryogenic liquid. Cryogenic liquids are liquefied gases that have a normal boiling point below -238 degrees Fahrenheit (-150 degrees Celsius).

Benefits of Liquid Oxygen:

  • In commerce, liquid oxygen is classified as an industrial gas and is widely used for industrial and medical purposes. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • Liquid oxygen is used as an oxidant for liquid fuels in the propellant systems of missiles and rockets. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • Oxygen is widely applied in the metal industries in conjunction with acetylene and other fuel gases for metal cutting, welding, hardening, cleaning and melting.
  • Liquid oxygen therapyis the medical process of providing additional oxygen to a patient who cannot get enough oxygen on their own. Conditions such as asthma, lung disease and pneumonia can be treated by this method.

Hazards of Liquid Oxygen:

  • Contact with liquid oxygen can cause severe skin and eye irritation and burns as well as frostbite. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • Similarly, Inhalation of 80 percent oxygen at one atmospheric pressure for more than 12 hours can cause irritation of the respiratory tract, nausea, dizziness, vision loss, coughing, chest pain etc.
  • A characteristic neurological syndrome can be observed when pure oxygen is inhaled at pressures greater than two or three atmospheres.
  • Characteristic epilepsy-like convulsions, which may be preceded by visual disturbances such as loss of peripheral vision, also occur. Continued exposure can cause severe convulsions, leading to death.
  • Some common materials like asphalt, kerosene, cloth, wood, paint, tar and dirt containing oil or grease can react violently with liquid oxygen at certain pressures and temperatures.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/health/the-benefits-and-hazards-of-liquid-oxygen-77917

Consider the following statements:

  • Flex Fuel Vehicle is a modified version of vehicles that could run both on gasoline and doped petrol with different levels of ethanol blends.
  • Flex Fuel Vehicles have compatible engines to run on more than 84 percent ethanol blended petrol.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Govt may issue guidelines for ‘flex-fuel’ vehicles by October

  • Auto companies may soon be asked to manufacture vehicles that run on multiple fuel configuration aimed at reducing the use of polluting fossil fuels and cutting down harmful emissions
  • New guidelines for use of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) using flex engines is expected to be issued by the third quarter of current year (FY22) that would specify engine configuration and other changes required in vehicles to conform to stipulated changes in fuel mix

What are Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFVs)?

  • An FFV is a modified version of vehicles that could run both on gasoline and doped petrol with different levels of ethanol blendsHence statement (1) is correct.
    FFVs will allow vehicles to use all the blends and also run on unblended fuel.
  • The concept of FFV has been proposed in view of the rising ethanol percent in petrol.
  • According to the NITI Aayog report, FFVs have compatible engines to run on more than 84 percent ethanol blended petrol. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • In fact, these vehicles are a logical extension of the Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) programme launched by the Union Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas in January 2003.
  • The programme makes it mandatory on the part of oil marketing companies like Indian Oil, HPCL, BPCL, etc to sell ethanol blended petrol.
  • For India, FFVs will present a different advantage as they will allow vehicles to use different blends of ethanol mixed petrol available in different parts of the country.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/automobile/govt-may-issue-guidelines-for-flex-fuel-vehicles-by-october-121070400149_1.html

Consider the following statements:

  • The UltraViolet-C air duct disinfection system was developed by CSIR-CSIO.
  • UltraViolet-C radiation can destroy the outer protein coating of the SARS-Coronavirus.
  • UltraViolet-C radiation is recently found and used to disinfect the air in hospitals, laboratories and water treatment.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 and 2 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is UV-C technology, and how does it work on coronavirus?

  • The Union Ministry for Science and Technology has informed that Ultraviolet-C or UV-C Disinfection Technology will soon be installed in Parliament for the mitigation of airborne transmission of SARS-COV-2.

UV-C air duct disinfection system

  • The UV-C air duct disinfection system was developed by CSIR-CSIO (Central Scientific Instruments Organisation). Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The system is designed to fit into any existing air-ducts and the virucidal dosages using UV-C intensity and residence time can be optimized according to the existing space.
  • The release adds that the virus is deactivated in any aerosol particles by the calibrated levels of UV-C light. It can be used in auditoriums, malls, educational Institutions, AC buses, and railways.

Can UV-C kill coronavirus?

  • UV-C radiation (wavelength around 254 nm) has been used for decades to disinfect the air in hospitals, laboratories, and also in water treatment. Hence statement (3) is incorrect.
  • But these conventional germicidal treatments are done in unoccupied rooms as they can cause health problems.
  • It can destroy the outer protein coating of the SARS-Coronavirus.Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • The device is specifically developed to disinfect non-living things.
  • UV-C radiation used in this device could be harmful to the skin and eyes of living beings.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-uv-c-technology-and-how-does-it-work-on-coronavirus-7404573/

Which one of the following articles deals with the appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes?

  1. a) Article 340
  2. b) Article 360
  3. c) Article 338
  4. d) Article 333

Answer: (a) Article 340

Explanation:

In NEWS: OBC sub-categorisation commission’s term extended by 6 months

  • The commission was set up to examine the possibility of creating categories within OBCs for the reservation to ensure “equitable distribution” of representation among all OBC communities.
  • The Union Cabinet on Wednesday extended the term of the commission examining the possibility of sub-categorisation within the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in the Central list by six months beyond July 31 this year to January 31 next year
  • The commission, which took charge on October 11, 2017, is headed by retired Delhi high court chief justice G Rohini
  • Its objectives include working out a mechanism, criteria, norm and parameters through a scientific approach for sub-categorisation within the OBCs and identifying the respective castes or communities or sub-castes or synonyms in the Central List of OBCs and classifying them into their respective sub-categories.
  • Currently, OBCs are granted 27% reservation in government jobs and educational institutes. The demand for sub-categorization comes from the notion that only a few affluent communities among the castes included in the Centre list of OBCs enjoy a major part of this 27% reservation.

What is Article 340 of the Indian Constitution?

  • It deals with the appointment of a commission to investigatethe conditions of backward classes. Hence option (a) is correct.
  • Article 340 (1):The President may by order appoint a Commission consisting of such persons as he thinks fit to investigate the conditions of socially and educationally backward classes within the territory of India.
  • The Commission shall provide recommendations as to the steps that should be taken by the Union or any State to remove such difficulties and to improve their condition.
  • Article 340 (2): A Commission so appointed shall investigate the matters referred to them and present to the President a report setting out the facts as found by them and making such recommendations as they think proper.
  • Article 340 (3):The President shall cause a copy of the report so presented together with a memorandum explaining the action taken thereon to be laid before each House of Parliament.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/obc-sub-categorisation-commission-s-term-extended-by-6-months-101626279420499.html

Recently, the place Spin Boldak is seen in news, is located on which of the following borders?

  1. a) Afghanistan-Pakistan
  2. b) Afghanistan-China
  3. c) Afghanistan-Uzbekistan
  4. d) Afghanistan-Tajikistan

Answer: (a) Afghanistan-Pakistan

Explanation:

In NEWS: Taliban seize border crossing with Pak.

Spin Boldak is the latest in a string of border crossings and dry ports taken by Taliban in recent weeks


  • The Taliban captured the strategic border crossing of Spin Boldak on the frontier with Pakistan continuing sweeping gains made since foreign forces stepped up their withdrawal from Afghanistan. Hence option (a) is correct.
  • Afghanistan’s Interior Ministry denied the insurgents had taken the area even as social media was flooded with pictures of Taliban fighters relaxing in the frontier town.
  • The seizure of the border crossing follows days of heavy fighting across Kandahar province, where the government was forced to deploy commando fighters to prevent the fall of the provincial capital even as the insurgents inched closer to taking the frontier.

About Spin Boldak

  • Spin Boldak is a border town and the headquarters of Spin Boldak District in the southern Kandahar province of Afghanistan, next to the border with Pakistan.

Source: TH Pg: No: 13

Consider the following statements:

Core inflation excludes food and fuel items from headline inflation.

Core inflation is more volatile than headline inflation.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: WPI inflation remains ‘high’

  • Wholesale price inflation stayed high in June as costlier fuels and manufactured products pegged the provisional headline number at 12.07%, following May’s record 12.94%.
  • The Office of Economic Adviser in the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade attributed the ‘high’ inflation to a low base effect combined with the rise in prices of petrol, diesel, naphtha and ATF, as well as those of basic metals and food products.
  • While the core inflation hardened further to 10.4% in June, from 10% in May, the pace of the month-on-month uptick in this index eased to a four-month low of 0.5%

About Core inflation

  • Core inflation is also a term used to denote the extent of inflation in an economy. But Core inflation does not consider the inflation in food and fuel. This is a concept derived from headline inflation.
  • There is no index for direct measurement of core inflation and now it is measured by excluding food and fuel items from Wholesale Price Index (WPI) or Consumer Price Index (CPI).
  • Headline inflation refers to the change in value of all goods in the basket.
  • Core inflation excludes food and fuel items from headline inflation. Since the prices of fuel and food items tend to fluctuate and create ‘noise’ in inflation computation, core inflation is less volatile than headline inflation. Hence statement (1) is correct and statement (2) is incorrect.

Source: TH Pg: No: 14

Consider the following statements:

  • The Leader of the Rajya Sabha is appointed by the party in power at Centre.
  • Office of leader of the Rajya Sabha is enshrined in the constitution of India.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union Minister Piyush Goyal appointed as Leader of House in Rajya Sabha

  • Union Minister and senior BJPleader Piyush Goyal  was appointed as the Leader of the House in the Rajya Sabha, filling the vacancy left by Thaawarchand Gehlot who is now the Governor of Karnataka.

Leader of the Rajya Sabha

  • The term Leader of the House has been defined in Rules of Procedure of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
  • Office of leader of the House is not enshrined in the constitution. It is provided under Rules of Rajya Sabha. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • Leader of the House, according to Rule 2 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in the Lok Sabha means the Prime Minister, if he is a Member of the House or a Minister who is a Member of the House and is nominated by the Prime Minister to function as the Leader of the House.
  • According to the Rajya Sabha Practice and Procedure, “the Leader of the House is an important parliamentary functionary who exercises direct influence on the course of parliamentary business”.
  • The Leader of the Rajya Sabha is appointed by the party in power at Centre. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The arrangement of Government business is the ultimate-responsibility of the Leader of the House, though the details are settled, subject to his approval, by the Chief Whip.
  • The Leader of the House makes proposals for the dates of summoning and prorogation of the House for the approval of the Chair.
  • He/she has to draw up the programme of official business to be transacted in the Session of Parliament, namely, Bills, motions, discussions on general or specific subjects like five-year plans, foreign policy, economic or industrial policy and other important State activities.
  • He/she fixes inter se priorities for various items of business to ensure their smooth passage.
  • The Business Advisory Committee determines the allocation of time for Government Bills and otter business on the basis of suggestions made by or received from him from time to time.
  • The Leader of the Lok Sabha. viz., Prime Minister, never sits in the Business advisory Committee; he or she is represented by the Minister for Parliamentary Affairs in the Business Advisory Committee. The Leader of the House in the Rajya Sabha is generally a member of the Business Advisory Committee (BAC).

Source: TH

The Report State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021 is released by which one of the following international organization?

  1. a) International Food Policy Research Institute
  2. b) Food and Agriculture Organization
  3. c) United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund
  4. d) World Food Programme

Answer: (b) Food and Agriculture Organization

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘One in three couldn’t afford food year-round in 2020’

  • The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)’s latest State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021report has a grim reminder of this impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.  Hence option (b) is correct.
  • The FAO report has quoted a study done in 63 low- and middle-income countries covering a population of 3.5 billion on changes in the income of people. It has extrapolated its impact on choice of diets.
  • The study found a significant dip in people’s affordability for healthy food due to a loss in income.
  • The primary reason for this is the loss of income. But food price rise has made the situation more acute. By the end of 2020, global consumer food prices were the highest in six years.
  • Nearly 12 percent of the global population faced severe levels of food insecurity or they ran out of food and in worst situations, must have a day without food. In one year — that is 2020 — the rise in the food insecure population was more than the combined number of the last five years.
  • The overall decline in food intake has also increased hunger levels in 2020, making the primary Sustainable Development Goal of ending hunger by 2030 impossible now. Between 720 and 811 million people in the world will endure hunger in 2020. In comparison to 2019, there were an additional 161 million people who faced hunger.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/health/-one-in-three-couldn-t-afford-food-year-round-in-2020–77932

The term ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contributions’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of

  1. a) pledges made by the European countries to rehabilitate refugees from the war-affected Middle East
  2. b) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world to combat climate change
  3. c) capital contributed by the member countries in the establishment of Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
  4. d) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world regarding Sustainable Development Goa

Answer: (b) plan of action outlined by the countries of the world to combat climate change

Explanation:

Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) is a term used under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that all countries that signed the UNFCCC were asked to publish in the lead up to the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference held in Paris, France in December 2015. The INDCs, which lay out the blueprint for tackling climate change, emphasised eight key goals — sustainable lifestyles, cleaner economic development, reducing emission intensity of GDP, increasing the share of non fossil fuel based electricity, enhancing carbon sink, adaptation and mobilising finance, technology transfer and capacity building. Hence option (b) is correct.