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Daily Prelims Test – 15_February 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Long Range Surface to Air Missiles

It is jointly developed by DRDO and IAI Israel

It can provide point and area defence against various aerial targets including fighter aircraft, subsonic & supersonic cruise missiles.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Flag off ceremony of final production batch of LRSAM Missiles

  • The final production batch of Long Range Surface to Air Missiles (LRSAM), designed and developed by DRDO in collaboration with various industry partners and integrated by BDL was flagged off on 14 Feb 2021 at DRDL,APJ Abdul Kalam Missile Complex, Hyderabad 

About Long Range Surface to Air Missiles

  • LRSAM is jointly developed by DRDO and IAI Israel to equip latest ships of Indian Navy. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • This LRSAM Missile system can provide point and area defence against various aerial targets including fighter aircraft, subsonic & supersonic cruise missiles. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The Missile is powered by indigenously developed dual-pulse rocket motor and dual control system to impart required manoeuvrability at the terminal phase.
  • This state of art weapon system is designed with active Radio Frequency (RF) seeker to identify, track, engage and destroy the target with high kill probability.
  • Both maritime and land-based versions of the system are available.
  • The LRSAM programme consists of Missiles, MFSTAR (Radar), Weapon Control System, Vertical Launcher unit and Two- way data link.
  • All the subsystems of the missile performed as predicted and achieved the desired goal of hitting the incoming target.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Hyderabad/bdl-integrated-long-range-missiles-final-production-batch-flagged-off/article33836794.ece


Consider the following Statements regarding Grand Anicut/ Kallanai Dam

It was constructed by King Karikala Chola in the 2ndcentury A.D

Its unique structure involves several large unhewn stones extending across the Cauvery river

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Recently, the Prime Minister laid foundation stone for the extension and modernisation of the Grand Anicut Canal System

  • The canal is important for irrigation in the Cauvery delta districts. 
  • It will be modernised at a cost of Rs. 2,640 crore so as to improve its carrying capacity.

About the Grand Anicut/Kallanai Dam

  • The dam was originally built by King Karikalan of the Chola Dynasty in c. 100 BC – c. 100 AD. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The dam is located on the River Kaveri, approximately 20km from the city of Tiruchirapalli.
  • The purpose of the Kallanai was to divert the waters of the Kaveri across the fertile delta region for irrigation via canals and to its northern delta branch Kollidam/Coleroon.
  • Improvements were made to the dam in the 19th century by Arthur Cottons, a British general and irrigation engineer.
  • It is the fourth oldest water diversion or water-regulator structures in the world and the oldest in India which is still in use
  • The Lower Anicut was built by Sir Aurthur Cotton in 19th century on a major tributary of River Kaveri.

Design of the dam

  • The Grand Anicut is a simple check dam constructed across the direction of flow of the Kaveri river in order to divert water into the fertile delta of Tamil Nadu.
  • Its unique structure majorly involves several large unhewn stones extending across the Kaveri, stuck in the Cauvery river to divert the flow of current to the fertile delta.   Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Before the modifications made by the British, the original Kallanai dam had some unique design features which worked well for both the environment and residents. 
  • These features include the curved shape of the masonry section, an irregular descent, and a sloping crest.
  • These features reshaped the water current flowing towards the dam smoothly and it had a good sedimentation process.

Difference between Dam and Anicut

  • A dam is simply a barrier built across a river or any large water source. Its function is diverting water; to prevent flood or for irrigation and also to retain water for domestic use and power supply.
  • Anicut is a dam built across a stream or river for maintaining and regulating irrigation.
  • In terms of function, a dam can clearly do more than the Grand Anicut. A standard dam has the ability to divert and retain water from a large water source for water supply and power generation. The Grand Anicut, on the other hand, was designed to retain water and divert the surplus to irrigate lands.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1697914


Consider the following Statements regarding PSLV-C51 mission

  1. It is the 53rd mission of the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) program
  2. It will carry India’s earth observation satellite Amazonia-1 as the primary satellite along with 20 co-passenger satellites

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: PSLV-C51 LAUNCH ON 28 FEB: ISRO TO LAUNCH AMAZONIA-1, 20 COMMERCIAL SATELLITES VIA NSIL

  • The Indian Space Research Organisation is all set to launch its first mission of the year 2021(53rd mission of the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) , and has chosen to launch its Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle C51 (PSLV-C51). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The rocket will be launching from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota
  • The launch is subject to suitable weather conditions at the launchpad. ISRO will be launching a Brazilian satellite along with 20 other Indian satellites.
  • Amazonia-1 is an optical earth observation satellite that has been designed, integrated, tested and operated by Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research (INPE) – the research unit under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • Amazonia-1 will be used to provide remote sensing data to users for monitoring deforestation in the Amazon region and analysis of diversified agriculture across the Brazilian territory. 
  • Amazonia-1 is NewSpace India Limited’s (NSIL) first commercial mission.
  • Along with the primary payload on PSLV-C51, Amazonia-1, there will be 20 other satellites launched as secondary payloads. These include one ISRO nanosatellite INS-2TD, four from IN-SPACe, and 15 from NSIL.
  • One of the satellites from IN-Space is the Satish Dhawan Satellite from Space Kidz India. 

Source: https://www.isro.gov.in/launcher/pslv-c51-scheduled-to-launch-amazonia-1-and-20-co-passenger-satellites-february-28-2021


Consider the following Statements regarding Satish Dhawan Satellite

  1. It is a 3U satellite developed by SpaceKidz India
  2. The Goals of the Satellite to study space radiation, Magnetosphere and demonstrate the indigenously designed and developed nanosatellite

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: New satellite to carry Bhagavad Gita, PM Modi’s photo

  • A copy of the Bhagavad Gita, a photograph of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, and the names of 25,000 individuals will be carried to space by the Satish Dhawan Satellite, or SD SAT, which will be launched at the end of the month by the polar satellite launch vehicle
  • The nanosatellite, named after one of the founding fathers of India’s space programme and developed by SpaceKidz India, an organisation dedicated to promoting space science among students, will also carry three scientific payloads — one to study space radiation, one to study the magnetosphere, and another that will demonstrate a low-power wide-area communication network. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Indian Satellite – Satish Dhawan Satellite – (SD Sat) is set to carry the names of common people across the world to space in an effort to create awareness, generate curiosity and to get more people fascinated about space science.
  • SD Sat is a 3U cube satellite named after the former Chairman and one of the founding fathers of the Indian space programme Professor Satish Dhawan. It is being launched into orbit by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) onboard the PSLV-C51 (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) rocket. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The satellites would be primarily using frequency-shift keying (FSK) to transmit data back to earth, LoRa would be the secondary. Experimenting with LoRa would help them study the feasibility of using LoRa in ground communications for industrial purposes.
  • The satellite also tests the capabilities of LoRa technology in space which could be helpful for many applications in the future in short and M2M communication

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/new-satellite-to-carry-bhagavad-gita-pm-s-photo-101613337234088.html


In which state Karlapat Wildlife sanctuary is located?

  1. Kerala
  2. Assam
  3. Rajasthan
  4. Odisha

Answer: (d) Odisha

Explanation:

In NEWS: Six elephants die in Odisha in two weeks

  • Another female elephant was found dead near a waterbody at Karlapat Wildlife sanctuary in Odisha”s Kalahandi district. Hence option (d) is correct
  • Haemorrhagic septicemia appears to be sweeping through the forests of Karlapat Wildlife Sanctuary in Kalahandi where at least five elephants have fallen to a bacterial organism

About Karlapat sanctuary

  • The Karlapat sanctuary is located in Kalahandi South Division which is 12km from Bhawanipatna in Kalahandi district covering a dense patch of lush green dry deciduous forest. 
  • A beautiful waterfall, ‘Phurlijharan’ has been developed as a picnic spot for the local visitors and draws large number of visitors from far off places in and around Kalahandi District.
  • The sanctuary is rich in wildlife such as leopard, gaur, sambar, nilgai, barking deer, mouse deer,soft claws ottawa, a wide variety of birds and reptiles.
  • It lies within the Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests ecoregion

About Haemorrhagic septicaemia

  • It is a severe bacterial disease caused by certain strains.
  • Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is a major disease of cattle and buffaloes characterised by an acute, highly fatal septicaemia with high morbidity and mortality 
  • In many Asian countries HS disease outbreaks mostly occur during the climatic conditions typical of monsoon
  • Cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are the principal hosts of hemorrhagic septicaemia, and it is widely considered that buffaloes are the more susceptible  
  • Although outbreaks of hemorrhagic septicaemia have been reported in sheep, goats and swine, it is not a frequent or significant disease. Infrequent cases have been reported in deer, camels, elephants, horses, donkeys and yaks
  • The disease is also spread through contact with infected animals, contaminated clothing, equipment, and through ingestion or inhalation of the bacteria.
  • Primary symptoms include swishing tails, reduced cudding, undigested food in faeces and reduced milk yield.
  • There are no reported cases of human infection

Source: TH


Consider the following Statements regarding SVEEP

  1. It is the flagship program of the Election Commission of India
  2. It is a programme of multi interventions through different modes and media designed to educate citizens, electors and voters about the electoral process

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Assam uses combs for voter literacy

  • The Goalpara district administration has been distributing combs and other utilitarian items of daily use, such as sanitary pads, with SVEEP messages printed on them.
  • The district election office is particularly ramping up SVEEP activities in areas with polling stations that have recorded low overall and low female voter turnout in the 2016 Assembly and 2019 Lok Sabha elections
  • About SVEEP (Systematic Voters Education and Electoral Participation )
  • SVEEP, started in 2009 is the flagship program of the Election Commission of India for voter education, spreading voter awareness and promoting voter literacy in India. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • SVEEP is a programme of multi interventions through different modes and media designed to educate citizens, electors and voters about the electoral process in order to increase their awareness and participation in the electoral processes. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • SVEEP is designed according to the socio-economic, cultural and demographic profile of the state as well as the history of electoral participation in previous rounds of elections and learning thereof
  • Now it includes enhanced interaction with the citizens through social media, online contests and voters’ festivals; awareness about new initiatives of linking EPIC with AADHAAR and National Voters’ Service Portal and a regularised yearly plan of activities
  • In addition to target groups of women, youth, urban voters and the marginalized sections, the inclusion of groups like service voters, NRIs, persons with disabilities, prospective voters/ students is of primary focus

Source: TH


Consider the following Statements regarding ARIES

  1. It is one of the leading research Institutes which specializes in observational Astronomy & Astrophysics and Atmospheric Sciences.
  2. It is an autonomous body under the Department of Science and Technology

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Scientists design rotation profile of the Sun based on century-old sunspot images

  • A team of international solar researchers, led by Bibhuti Kumar Jha, a PhD scholar from Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES) in Nainital, has designed a rotation profile of the Sun after studying the varying behaviours of sunspots observed over 100 years.

About Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences

  • ARIES ( an acronym of Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences ) is one of the leading research Institutes which specializes in observational Astronomy & Astrophysics and Atmospheric Sciences. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The main research interests of Astronomy & Astrophysics division are in solar, planetary, stellar, galactic and extra-galactic astronomy including stellar variabilities, X-ray binaries, star clusters, nearby galaxies, quasars, and inherently transient events like supernovae and highly energetic gammaray bursts.
  • It is an autonomous institute of the Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The unique position of ARIES (79° East), places it at almost in the middle of 180° wide longitude band, between Canary Island (20° West) and Eastern Australia (157° East), and therefore complements observations which might not be possible from either of these two places.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/technology/science/suns-equator-rotates-faster-than-its-poles-finds-global-study-led-by-indian-researcher-7188363/


Consider the following Statements regarding Sunspots

  1. They are areas that appear dark on the surface of the Sun. 
  2. They are cooler than other parts of the Sun’s surface

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Scientists design rotation profile of the Sun based on century-old sunspot images

  • Sunspots are small and dark but cooler areas on the solar surface having strong magnetic forces.
  • The solar rotation profile is based on the fact that the bigger sunspots rotate at a slower rate in comparison to the smaller ones.
  • The presence of strong magnetic fields around bigger sunspots prevents them from having a faster rotation rate. This, as opposed to smaller sunspots which possess a comparatively less intense magnetic field allowing it to rotate faster
  • Run by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru, KoSO has a repository of about 4 lakh images of the Sun recorded since 1904. All of them have been digitised in the recent years.

About Sunspots

  • Sunspots are areas that appear dark on the surface of the Sun. They appear dark because they are cooler than other parts of the Sun’s surface. Hence statement 1 is correct and Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Solar flares are a sudden explosion of energy caused by tangling, crossing or reorganizing of magnetic field lines near sunspots.
  • The surface of the Sun is a very busy place. It has electrically charged gases that generate areas of powerful magnetic forces. These areas are called magnetic fields. The Sun’s gases are constantly moving, which tangles, stretches and twists the magnetic fields. This motion creates a lot of activity on the Sun’s surface, called solar activity.
  • Sunspots are areas that appear dark on the surface of the Sun. They appear dark because they are cooler than other parts of the Sun’s surface. The temperature of a sunspot is still very hot though—around 6,500 degrees Fahrenheit!
  • Why are sunspots relatively cool? It’s because they form at areas where magnetic fields are particularly strong. These magnetic fields are so strong that they keep some of the heat within the Sun from reaching the surface.
  • They typically consist of a dark region called the ‘umbra’, which is surrounded by a lighter region called the ‘penumbra’.
  • In every solar cycle, the number of Sunspots increases and decreases

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/technology/science/suns-equator-rotates-faster-than-its-poles-finds-global-study-led-by-indian-researcher-7188363/


Consider the following Statements regarding Solar cycle

  1. It is the cycle that the Sun’s magnetic field goes through approximately every 11 years
  2. The beginning of a solar cycle is a solar minimum

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

What is the Solar Cycle?

  • Like seasons on Earth, the Sun follows a cycle of 11 years, during which solar activities fluctuate between solar minima and maxima. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Depending on the number of sunspots detected on the Sun, scientists term it is as solar maxima (highest number of sunspots) or solar minima (lowest number of sunspots).
  • Sunspots are small and dark, yet cooler areas formed on the solar surface, where there are strong magnetic forces.
  • They start appearing at Sun’s higher latitudes and later shift towards the equator as a cycle progresses.
  • In short, when the Sun is active, there are more sunspots in comparison to fewer sunspots during the lesser active phase.
  • Maxima or minima is not a specific time in the 11-year cycle but is a period that can last for a few years. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • One of the important elements researchers look out for on the Sun’s surface is the number of sunspots.
  • A new cycle commences when the Sun has reached its lowest possible minima phase.
  • Every time the cycle changes, the Sun’s magnetic poles reverse.
  • On this basis, scientists announced the completion of solar cycle 24, which lasted between December 2008 and December 2019.
  • With the Sun’s activities having reached its lowest minima between the two cycles, the new solar cycle 25 has now commenced.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/technology/science/suns-equator-rotates-faster-than-its-poles-finds-global-study-led-by-indian-researcher-7188363/



The plan of Sir Stafford Cripps envisaged that after the Second World War 

  1. India should be granted complete independence 
  2. India should be partitioned into two before granting independence
  3. India should be made a republic with the condition that she will join the Commonwealth 
  4. India should be given Dominion status

Answer: (d) India should be given Dominion status

Explanation:

  • Cripps Mission was sent to India under the president ship of Stafford Cripps in march 1942. The intention was to get Indian support for Britishers in the ongoing World War II. It proposed: An Indian Dominion that will be free to decide its relations with the commonwealth and United Nations A constituent assembly to be convened to frame a new constitution. Any province not willing to join the Union could have a separate constitution and form a separate. Other points in the proposal were- Acceptance of Indian constitution by British government would be subject to condition that any province would have the right to have separate union and a treaty to be negotiated to effect the power transfer to safeguard racial and religious minorities Defense of India to remain in British hands.