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Daily Prelims Test – 15_August_2021

Port of Ningbo-Zhoushan is located in which of the following countries?

  1. a) Japan
  2. b) Singapore
  3. c) Mozambique
  4. d) China

Answer: (d) China

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why is the Ningbo port shutdown in China significant?

  • In what could potentially threaten global supply chains and impact maritime trade, China has partially shut down the world’s third-busiest container port after a worker there tested positive for Covid-19.
  • The Meishan terminal at Ningbo-Zhoushan port, which is south of Shanghai, accounts for over a fourth of the container cargo handled at the Chinese port.
  • About Port of Ningbo-Zhoushan:
  • The Port of Ningbo-Zhoushan is a port that is the busiest in the world in terms of cargo tonnage. It handled 888.96 million tons of cargo in 2015.
  • The port is located in Ningbo and Zhoushan, on the coast of the East China Sea, in Zhejiang province on the southeast end of Hangzhou Bay, across which it faces the municipality of Shanghai
  • Ningbo Port was established in 738. During the Tang Dynasty (618-907), it was known as one of the three major seaports for foreign trade under the name “Mingzhou”, along with Yangzhou and Guangzhou
  • The port is at the crossroads of the north-south inland and coastal shipping route, including canals to the important inland waterway to interior China, the Yangtze River, to the north.
  • The port consists of several ports which are Beilun (seaport), Zhenhai (estuary port), and old Ningbo harbor (inland river port). T
  • The Port of Ningbo-Zhoushan complex is a modern multi-purpose deep water port, consisting of inland, estuary, and coastal harbors.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/china-ningbo-port-shutdown-trade-impact-explained-7451836/

Consider the following statements regarding International Baccalaureate:

  • It aims to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect.
  • It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. c) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Delhi Board of School Education signs MoU with International Baccalaureate, programme to be implemented in 30 govt schools

Delhi government has signed an agreement with the International Baccalaureate (IB), which would be a partner in the newly set up Delhi Board of School Education (DBSE).

  • The IB will be a knowledge partner to DBSE which is the first ever school board of Delhi set up in March 2021.
  • The collaboration with IB will ensure revolutionary changes in the field of school education in the national capital.
  • A team of experts will visit the schools associated with DBSE and it would assist the teachers to improve the standard of education.
  • In July 2021, the Delhi government had announced that 30 of its schools will be affiliated to CBSEfor the first academic session (2021-22).
  • Currently, 193 schools in India are affiliated to the IB board, all of which are private schools.

International Baccalaureate:

  • It is formerly known as the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO)founded in 1968.
  • It is a non-profit foundationoffering educational programmes.
  • It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • Objectives of International Baccalaureate
  • It offersfour educational programmes:
    • the IB Diploma Programmeand the IB Career-related Programme for students aged 15 to 19;
    • the IB Middle Years Programmefor students aged 11 to 16; and
    • theIB Primary Years Programme for children aged 3 to 12
  • It focuses on fostering critical thinking and building problem-solving skills, while encouraging diversity, international mindedness, curiosity, and a healthy appetite for learning and excellence. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It provides students distinct advantages as they enter a world where asking the right questions is as important as discovering answers.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/delhi/delhi-board-of-school-education-signs-mou-with-international-baccalaureate-programme-to-be-implemented-in-30-govt-schools-7449455/

Consider the following statements regarding Greater adjutant stork:

  • It is classified as endangered on the IUCN’s Red List.
  • It is found throughout India.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. c) Neither 1 nor 2
  5.  

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Tag Garuda: Bihar plans GPS trackers for endangered Greater Adjutant Storks

  • In a first, Bihar has decided to tag endangered greater adjutant storks (Leptoptilos dubius), locally known as ‘Garuda’, with GPS trackers to monitor their movement as a part of efforts to conserve them
  • Initially, only four birds — including two healthy and two undergoing treatment at rehabilitation centres — will be tagged with GPS tracker on an experimental basis. More birds will be tagged early next year.

Greater adjutant stork:

  • The greater adjutant is one of the most threatened stork species of the world and is widely considered to be a rare bird.
  • The global population of the Greater Adjutant Stork is estimated to be roughly not more than 1,500 now. Greater adjutants numbered only 650-800 individuals in 2006 according to data from global organisation Wetlands International in 2006.
  • In India, eight species of residential storks are found, out of which Greater Adjutant is one of them.
  • Once abundantly distributed in Southeast Asia, this stork is now restricted to a few isolated pockets in Assam and Bihar in India and PrekToal in Cambodia. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • This colonial birds breeds in traditional nesting colonies within thickly populated villages in Assam
  • It breeds in tall tree species including Kadam, Dewa etc.
  • The greater adjutant stork is classified as ‘endangered ‘on the IUCN’s Red List 2004 of threatened species and listed under Schedule IV of the Indian WildLife (Protection) Act, 1972. Hence statement (1) is correct.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/tag-garuda-bihar-plans-gps-trackers-for-endangered-greater-adjutant-storks-78455

Consider the following statements regarding Forum of the Election Management Bodies of South Asia:

  • It is an initiative of SAARC Countries in 2012.
  • .2. Currently India is the chairman of that forum.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. c) Neither 1 nor 2
  5.  

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: CEC inaugurates 11th Annual Meeting of the Forum of the Election Management Bodies of South Asia (FEMBoSA) for 2021

  • Shri Sushil Chandra stated that FEMBoSA represents a very large part of the democratic world and is an active regional cooperation association of Election Management Bodies.
  • Its logo with golden pearls stands for the eternal values of transparency, impartiality, democracy and cooperation.
  • Shri Chandrashared India’s experience of conducting Assembly elections in Bihar in November 2020 and Assam, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Puducherry in March/April 2021 during the tough, testing times of COVID 19 pandemic

What is FEMBoSA?

  • The Forum of the Election Management Bodies of South Asia (FEMBoSA) was established at the 3rd Conference of Heads of Election Management Bodies (EMBs) of SAARC Countries in 2012. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The forum aims to increase mutual cooperation in respect to the common interests of the SAARC’s EMBs.
  • The Forum has eight Member Election Management Bodies from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.
  • The Election Commission of India was the latest Chair of the Forum (now Bhutan).
  • The first meeting of the representatives of Election Management Bodies of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal and Pakistan held in Dhaka, Bangladesh in the year 2010.
  • It was then decided at the conclusion that an organization representing those countries should be established.
  • Consequently, annual meets were held in the member countries and the charter for the organization also was adopted with the aim of fulfilling the objectives of the organization.
  • Since the creation of FEMBoSA, Annual Meetings were held in Pakistan (2011), in India (2012), in Bhutan (2013), in Nepal (2014),  in Sri Lanka (2015), in Maldives (2016), in Afghanistan (2017) and in Bangladesh(2018).

Objectives of FEMBOSA

  • Promote contact among the Election Management Bodies of SAARC countries
  • Facilitate appropriate exchange of experience and expertise among members
  • Share experiences with a view to learning from each other
  • Foster efficiency and effectiveness in conducting free, fair, transparent and participative election

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1744893

Consider the following statements regarding Quality of Life for Elderly Index:

  • It was released by the Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister of India.
  • This index is based on the Financial Well-being, Social Well-being, Health System and Income Security.
  • Among all the states, Rajasthan is the top-scoring region in the aged states

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 and 3 only
  3. c) 1 and 2 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Telangana ranks last in quality of life for elderly

  • The Quality of Life for Elderly Index sheds light on problems often not mentioned by the elderly and presents a deeper insight into how well India is doing in supporting its ageing population.
  • The Quality of Life for Elderly Index was released by Dr Bibek Debroy, Chairman, Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (EAC-PM). Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The Index has been created by the Institute for Competitiveness at the request of EAC-PM and it sheds light on problems often not mentioned by the elderly.
  • According to the index, Rajasthan has been placed right on top with a score of 54.61. In the aged states and relatively aged states categories, Telangana and Gujarat scored the lowest with 38.19 and 49.00, respectively. Hence statement (3) is correct.
  • The report identifies the regional patterns of ageing across States and assesses the overall ageing situation in India. The report presented a deeper insight into how well India is doing to support the well-being of its ageing population.
  • The index highlights that the best way to improve the lives of the current and future generations of older people is by investing in health, education and employment for young people today
  • The Index framework includes four pillars: financial well-being, social well-being, health system and income security, and eight sub-pillars such as economic empowerment, educational attainment and employment, social status, physical security, basic health, psychological well-being, social security and enabling environment. Hence statement (2) is correct.

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/hyderabad/2021/aug/12/telangana-ranks-last-in-quality-of-life-for-elderly-2343502.html

Consider the following statements:

  • The tiger survey is usually held in India once in four years and elephants are counted once in five years.
  • Tiger survey is conducted solely by the National Tiger Conservation Authority of India.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. c) Neither 1 nor 2
  5.  

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Common survey to count India’s elephant and tiger populations

  • From December, India will move to a system that will count tigers and elephants as part of a common survey.
  • The tiger survey is usually held once in four years and elephants are counted once in five years.
  • Given that 90% of the area occupied by elephants and tigers is common, and once estimation methods are standardized, having a common survey can significantly save costs.
  • Based on sightings in camera traps and indirect estimation methods, tiger numbers are computed.
  • Elephant numbers largely rely on States directly counting the number of elephants.
  • In recent years, techniques such as analyzing dung samples have also been deployed to estimate birth rates and population trends in elephants.

All India Tiger Estimation:

  • The tiger count, prepared after every four years by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) provides details on the number of tigers in the 18 tiger reign states with 50 tiger reserves. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • It is conducted by the NTCA and the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) in collaboration with the State Forest Departments. Hence statement (2) is incorrect.
  • The entire exercise spanned over four years is considered to be the world’s largest wildlife survey effort in terms of coverage and intensity of sampling.
  • Over 15, 000 cameras are installed at various strategic points to capture the movement of tigers.
  • This is supported by extensive data collected by field personnel and satellite mapping.

Elephant Census:

  • The Elephant Census is conducted once in five years.
  • Method: It largely relies on States directly counting the number of elephants. In recent years, techniques such as analysing dung samples have also been deployed to estimate birth rates and population trends in elephants.
  • According to the last count in 2017, there were 29,964 elephants in India.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/common-survey-to-count-indias-elephant-and-tiger-populations/article35885595.ece

  • 7. Consider the following statements regarding Swachh Survekshan:
  • It is an annual survey of cleanliness, hygiene and sanitation in cities and towns in India.
  • It was launched as a part of the Swachh Bharat Mission and has been conducted by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. c) Neither 1 nor 2
  5.  

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Indore becomes India’s first ‘Water Plus’ city

The Government announced Indore as the First Water Plus city under the Swachh Survekshan 2021.

What is Swachh Survekshan?

  • Swachh Survekshan was launched as a part of Swachh Bharat Mission. Conducted by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs since 2016, it is an annual survey of cleanliness, hygiene and sanitation in cities and towns in India. Hence statement (1) is correct and statement (2) is correct.
  • Swachh Survekshan is the world’s largest urban sanitation and cleanliness survey which has been instrumental in fostering a spirit of healthy competition among towns and cities to improve their service delivery to citizens and towards creating cleaner cities.
  • The primary objective of Swachh Survekshans is to encourage large scale citizen participation while creating awareness amongst all sections of society about the importance of collective efforts towards making towns and cities better places to reside in.
  • What is a Water Plus city?
  • As per the protocols of the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, a city can be declared as Water Plus provided, all wastewater released from households, commercial establishments etc. is treated to a satisfactory level before releasing the treated wastewater to the environment.
  • In order to become a Water Plus City, it must be ensured that the dirty water from the city does not go into any river or drain. 
  • Secondly, all public toilets in the city must be connected to sewer lines and must be cleaned. And finally, 30 percent of the city’s sewer water has to be recycled and reused.
  • Subsequently, a Water Plus city certificate is allocated to a city for maintaining cleanliness in rivers and drains under its administration.
  • The Water PLUS protocol provided by the government aims to provide a guideline for cities and towns to ensure that no untreated wastewater is released into the environment thereby enabling sustainability of the sanitation value chain. 
  • The focus of this mission goes parallel with the Government’s efforts towards conservation and reuse of water under the Jal Shakti Abhiyan in accordance with Sustainable Development Goals on clean water and sanitation.

Source: https://newsonair.com/2021/08/12/swachh-survekshan-2021-indore-becomes-indias-first-water-plus-city/

  • 8. What is the meaning of the term Intranasal Vaccine, recently seen in the news?
  1. a) It is a type of vaccine injected through the veins of the nose
  2. b) It is a type of vaccine taken via tablets orally
  3. c) It is a type of vaccine injected through the muscular area of the body
  4. d) It is a type of vaccine where the solution is sprayed into the nostrils and inhaled

Answer: (d) It is a type of vaccine where the solution is sprayed into the nostrils and inhaled.

Explanation:

In NEWS: First Nasal Vaccine Developed by Bharat Biotech supported by DBT-BIRAC gets nod of regulator for Phase 2 Trial

  •  
  • The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) and its PSU, Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC) have been at the forefront in the fight against the prevailing global crisis.
  • They together have strategized to fast-track R & D efforts especially for vaccine development, diagnostics, drug repurposing, therapeutics and testing. The development of vaccines has been the top priority of the Department of Biotechnology.
  • Bharat Biotech’s intranasal vaccine is the first nasal vaccine that has received regulatory approval for Phase 2 trials. This is the first of its kind COVID-19 jab to undergo human clinical trials in India.
  • BBV154 is an intranasal replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus SARS-CoV-2 vectored vaccine. 
  • BBIL has in-licensed technology from Washington University in St Louis, USA. 
  • What is Intranasal Vaccine?
  •  Vaccines are administered as injectable shots into the muscles(intramuscular). Or the tissue just between the skin and the muscles(subcutaneous).
  •  However, with intranasal vaccines, the solution is sprayed into the nostrils and inhaled instead of injecting it. Hence option (d) is correct.
  • Benefits of Intranasal Vaccine:
  • The nasal route has excellent potential for vaccination due to the organized immune systems of the nasal mucosa.
  • It is non-invasive, Needle-free.
  • Ease of administration – does not require trained health care workers.
  • Elimination of needle-associated risks (injuries and infections).
  • High compliance (Ideally suits for children and adults).
  • Reduces the overall cost of a vaccination drive as for example BBV154 requires a single-dose regimen.

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1745509

Consider the following statements regarding IndiGau:

  • It is India’s first Cattle Genomic Chip for the conservation of pure varieties of indigenous cattle breeds.
  • It is developed by the National Institute of Animal Biotechnology, Hyderabad.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. a) 1 only
  2. b) 2 only
  3. c) Both 1 and 2
  4. c) Neither 1 nor 2
  5.  

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: IndiGau is purely indigenous and the largest cattle chip of the world with 11,496 markers

  • “IndiGau’, India’s first Cattle Genomic Chip for the conservation of pure varieties of indigenous cattle breeds like, Gir, Kankrej, Sahiwal, Ongole etc. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • This indigenous chip was developed by the concerted efforts of scientists of National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (NAIB), Hyderabad, an autonomous institution under the aegis of the Department of Biotechnology. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • IndiGau is purely indigenous and the largest cattle chip in the world. It has 11,496 markers (SNPs) more than that placed on 777K Illumina chips of US & UK breeds.
  • The chip will have practical utility in the Government’s schemes to achieve the goal of conservation of our own breeds with better characteristics and help towards doubling farmers income by 2022.

About SNP Chip:

  • SNP stands for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism. It is a type of DNA microarray which is used to detect polymorphisms within a population.
  • SNP chips are DNA microarrays that test genetic variation at many hundreds of thousands of specific locations across the genome. SNP chips have proven to be excellent for studying common genetic variation, which can be used to assess ancestry as well as predisposition to many complex multifactorial diseases.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1745479

In which of the following regions of India are shale gas resources found?

  • Cambay Basin
  • Cauvery Basin
  • Krishna-Godavari Basin

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. a) 1 and 2 only
  2. b) 3 only
  3. c) 2 and 3 only
  4. d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

Shale gas is the natural gas that is trapped within shale formations. ONGC sought permission for drilling 11 exploratory wells for shale oil and shale gas in Cambay basin at Mehsana, Ahmedabad and Bharuch districts of Gujarat, one well in Cauvery basin at Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu and five wells in KG Basin at East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh. Other regions in India where shale gas resources are found – Cauvery, Ganga & Assam and Assam – Arakan; Gondwana basin (including Damodar). Hence option (d) is correct.