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Daily Prelims Test – 15 August

Consider the following statements regarding Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation(AMRUT) scheme.

  • Tamil Nadu is the top performer in implementation of the AMRUT Scheme.
  • It was launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs
  • It covers 500 cities that includes all cities and towns with a population of over one lakh with notified Municipalities.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 2only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Odisha bags 1st position in AMRUT scheme

  • Odisha continued to be the top performer in implementation of Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation Scheme (AMRUT) by making significant strides in providing piped water supply to households in urban areas of the State.Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • According to the ranking of the states released by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Odisha has secured first position by scoring 85.67 per cent.
  • Odisha is followed by Chandigarh, Telangana, Gujarat and Karnataka in the implementation of AMRUT.

About AMRUT Scheme

  • The AMRUT Scheme focuses on establishing an infrastructure for ensuring adequate sewage networks and water supply in the urban areas through the implementation of the urban revival projects. The first state to submit State Annual Action Plan under the AMRUT scheme was Rajasthan.
  • It was launched in 2015 by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It covers 500 cities that includes all cities and towns with a population of over one lakh with notified Municipalities.Hence statement 3 is correct

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/odisha/2020/aug/11/odisha-bags-1st-position-in-amrut-scheme-2181875.html

Consider the following statements regarding Naval Innovation and Indigenisation Organisation 

  • It has been launched by the Defence Minister of India
  • It aims to foster innovation and indigenisation for self-reliance in defence in keeping with the vision of atmanirbhar Bharat 

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Indian Navy sets up own organization, NIIO, to fulfill its technological requirements

  • The Indian Navy has set up a Naval Innovation and Indigenisation Organisation (NIIO) to bridge its technological gap through innovation and the involvement of both the academia and the industry.
  • Launched by the Defence Minister. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Aim: puts in place dedicated structures for end-users to interact with academia and industry towards fostering innovation and indigenisation for self-reliance in defence in keeping with the vision of Atmanirbhar Bharat.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Indian Navy already has a functional Directorate of Indigenisation (DoI) and the new structures will build upon the ongoing indigenisation initiatives, as well as focus on innovation.
  • A compendium (concise collection of information) of Indian Navy’s indigenisation perspective plans titled ‘SWAVLAMBAN’ has also been released.

The NIIO is a three-tiered organisation.

  • Naval Technology Acceleration Council (N-TAC) will bring together the twin aspects of innovation and indigenisation and provide apex level directives,
  • A working group under the N-TAC will implement the projects,
  • A Technology Development Acceleration Cell (TDAC) has also been created for induction of emerging disruptive technology in an accelerated time frame.

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2020/aug/13/indian-navy-sets-up-own-organization-niio-to-fulfill-its-technological-requirements-2183085.html

Consider the following statements regarding Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North East Region

  • It is a Central Sector Scheme, launched by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.
  • It is implemented in all the 8 North-Eastern states

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:India ranks first in number of organic farmers and ninth in terms of area under organic farming; Major organic exports from India are flax seeds, sesame, soybean, tea, medicinal plants, rice and pulses

  • Sikkim became the first State in the world to become fully organic.
  • North East India has traditionally been organic with very less consumption of chemicals.
  • Two dedicated programs- Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North East Region (MOVCD) and Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) were launched in 2015 to encourage chemical free farming.
  • It was aimed for assisting farmers to adopt organic farming and improve remunerations due to premium prices.
  • Both PKVY and MOVCD are promoting certification under Participatory Guarantee System(PGS) and National Program for Organic Production (NPOP) respectively to target domestic and exports markets.

About Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North East Region (MOVCD):

  • It is a Central Sector Scheme, launched by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is a sub-mission under National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).
  • It aims to development of certified organic production in a value chain mode (VCM).
  • VCM aims to link growers with consumers and to support the development of entire value chain.
  • It is implemented in all 8 North-Eastern states(Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura).Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1645497

Consider the following statements regarding JaivikKheti Portal

  • It is an initiative of the Ministry of Agriculture to promote organic farming globally.
  • It provides various price discovery mechanisms to help farmers get the best prices for their products through forward auction, price-quantity bidding, book building and reverse auction mechanisms.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Organic e-commerce platform being strengthened for directly linking farmers with retail and bulk buyers

  • Jaivikkheti portal is a unique initiative of the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), Department of Agriculture (DAC) along with MSTC to promote organic farming globally. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is a one-stop solution for facilitating organic farmers to sell their organic produce and promoting organic farming and its benefits.
  • The portal is an E-commerce as well as a knowledge platform. Knowledge repository section of the portal includes case studies, videos, and best farming practices, success stories and other material related to organic farming to facilitate and promote organic farming. The e-commerce section of the portal provides the whole bouquet of organic products ranging from grains, pulses, fruits and vegetables.
  • Through this portal buyers can now avail organic products at their doorstep through the portal at much lower prices.
  • This portal links various stakeholders like regional councils, local groups, individual farmers, buyers, government agencies and input suppliers for the all-inclusive development and promotion of organic farming.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The portal provides various price discovery mechanisms to help farmers get the best prices for their products through forward auction, price-quantity bidding, book building and reverse auction mechanisms.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1645497

 Consider the following statements regarding Online Performance Dashboard “Empowering Tribals, Transforming India”

  • It has been developed by Centre of Excellence of Data Analytics
  • It captures performance of 5 Scholarship Schemes of Ministry wherein every year about 30 lakh underprivileged ST beneficiaries reap benefit to the tune of INR 2500 crores.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Online Performance Dashboard “Empowering Tribals, Transforming India” developed by M/o Tribal Affairs launched

  • The Dashboard is part of Digital India Initiative to work towards empowering Scheduled Tribes.
  • It is aimed to bring efficiency and transparency in the system.
  • It has been developed by Centre of Excellence of Data Analytics(CEDA), organization under National Informatics Centre (NIC).Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Performance Dashboard is an interactive and dynamic online platform.
  • It showcases updated & real-time details of 11 schemes / initiatives of the Ministry for achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  • It captures performance of 5 Scholarship Schemes of Ministrywherein every year about 30 lakh underprivileged ST beneficiaries reap benefit to the tune of INR 2500 crores.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Dynamic Dashboard captures details of tribal students from one State to different States and to different countries.
  • It displays the details of functional schools under Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRS) scheme, schools under construction and district wise details of students in various EMRS schools.
  • It maps district wise NGO details, funds given to NGO and beneficiaries’ details.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1645464#:~:text=Sh.,goals%20framed%20by%20NITI%20Aayog.&text=The%20Dashboard%20captures%20performance%20of,tune%20of%20INR%202500%20crores.

Consider the following statements regarding Salmonella infection

  • It is a common viral disease that affects the intestinal tract.
  • It can transmit to humans through contaminated water or food.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Explained: Why onions are a new cause of concern in US and Canada

  • Onions have become a cause of concern in the United States and Canada. Over the past week, health agencies in both countries have put out alerts asking its citizens to discard onions supplied by California-based Thomson International Inc, linking a salmonella bacteria infection with the bulb.
  • In this case, the bacteria was transmitting through contaminated onions, cultivated by Thomson International.
  • The company recalled the red, yellow, white, and sweet yellow onions shipped since May 1.

What is Salmonellosis?

  • The salmonella bacteria resides in animals. When it enters a human body it causes salmonellosis, an infection that attacks the intestine, and can cause diarrhoea, abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, bleeding in stool and nausea. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The symptoms of the infection last anywhere between 2 and 7 days.In some cases, it spreads the infection from the intestine to the blood stream.
  • The infection hits children, below the age of five, and senior citizens the worst. The good news is less than 1 per cent of infected people succumb to the infection.
  • Salmonella can transmit to humans through contaminated water or food.Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/salmonellosis-onions-thomas-international-us-canada-6552963/

Consider the following statements:

  • The Indian National Flag was hoisted for the first time on the 15th of August 1947
  • The design of present day Indian tricolour is largely attributed to Pingali Venkayya.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Explained: How did India get its national flag?

  • The final design of the Indian National Flag, hoisted by PM Nehru on August 16, 1947 at Red Fort, had a history of several decades preceding independence.Hence statement 1 is incorrect

The first national flag of India:

  • An Indian flag was reportedly designed by Sister Nivedita, an Irish disciple of Swami Vivekananda, between 1904-1906.
  • Arguably the first national flag of India is said to have been hoisted on August 7, 1906, in Kolkata at the Parsee Bagan Square (Green Park).
  • It is believed to have been designed by freedom activists Sachindra Prasad Bose and Hemchandra Kanungo.
  • It comprised three horizontal strips of red, yellow and green, with Vande Mataram written in the middle.
  • The red strip on the flag had symbols of the sun and a crescent moon, and the green strip had eight half-open lotuses.

The origins of present-day flag:

  • The design of Indian tricolour is largely attributed to Pingali Venkayya. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • He was an Indian freedom fighter who reportedly first met Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa during the second Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902).
  • At the All India Congress Committee in Bezwada in 1921, Venkayya again met Gandhi and proposed a basic design of the flag.
  • It consisted of two red and green bands to symbolise the two major communities, Hindus and Muslims.
  • Gandhi arguably suggested adding a white band to represent peace and the rest of the communities living in India, and a spinning wheel to symbolise the progress of the country.
  • Several changes were made and in 1931, Congress Committee met in Karachi and adopted Tricolour as our national flag.
  • Red was replaced with saffron and the order of the colours was changed.
  • The flag was to have no religious interpretation.

A Flag for Independent India

  • The Tricolour was altered to become the flag of Independent India. Saffron on top symbolises “strength and courage”, white in the middle represents “peace and truth” and green at the bottom stands for “fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land”. The Ashok Chakra with 24 spokes replaced the spinning wheel as the emblem on the flag. It is intended “to show that there is life in movement and death in stagnation”.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-how-india-got-its-national-flag-6553812/

Consider the following statements regarding Earth Overshoot Day

  • It is the date when humanity annual demand on nature exceeds what Earth can regenerate over the entire year.
  • It is calculated by Global Footprint Network and World Wide Fund for Nature

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:COVID-19 has caused humanity’s ecological footprint to contract by 3 weeks

  • Earth Overshoot Day 2020 is on August 22, more than three weeks later than in 2019 (July 29), according to the Earth Overshoot Calculation Report 2020, brought out by international research organisation, Global Footprint Network.
  • This means human beings consumed 9.3 per cent lesser resources between January 1 and August 22, compared to the same period last year, which is a direct consequence of the coronavirus-induced lockdowns around the world.
  • Decreases in wood harvest and carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been the major drivers behind the historic shift in the long-term growth of humanity’s ecological footprint.
  • Humanity as a whole is currently using nature 1.6 times faster than our planet’s ecosystems can regenerate. This is akin to using 1.6 Earths.

About Earth Overshoot Day

  • Earth Overshoot Day marks the date when humanity’s demand for ecological resources and services in a given year exceeds what Earth can regenerate in that year. We maintain this deficit by liquidating stocks of ecological resources and accumulating waste, primarily carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • To determine the date of Earth Overshoot Day for each year, Global Footprint Network calculates the number of days of that year that Earth’s biocapacity suffices to provide for humanity’s Ecological Footprint.
  • The first Earth Overshoot Day was December 19, 1987.
  • The concept of Earth Overshoot Day was first conceived by Andrew Simms of the UK think tank New Economics Foundation, which partnered with Global Footprint Network in 2006 to launch the first global Earth Overshoot Day campaign. At that time, Earth Overshoot Day fell in October. WWF(World Wildlife Fund), the world’s largest conservation organization, has participated in Earth Overshoot Day since 2007.
  • It is calculated by WWF and Global Footprint Network.Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/covid-19-has-caused-humanity-s-ecological-footprint-to-contract-by-3-weeks-72820

Consider the following statements regarding Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana

  • It is a sub-component of Soil Health Management (SHM) scheme under National Mission of Sustainable Agriculture
  • It aims at supporting and promoting organic farming, in turn resulting in improvement of soil health.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Organic Food for Health and Nutrition #Atma Nirbhar Krishi

  • Organic e-commerce platform being strengthened for directly linking farmers with retail and bulk buyers.
  • India ranks 1st in number of organic farmers and 9th in terms of area under organic farming.

Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY):

  • Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) is a sub-component of Soil Health Management (SHM)scheme under National Mission of Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is launched in 2015 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
  • PKVY aims at supporting and promoting organic farming, in turn resulting in improvement of soil health.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Participatory Gurantee System under PGS-India programme will be the key approach for quality assurances under the PKVY.

Funding Pattern:

  • Funding pattern under the scheme is in the ratio of 60:40 by the Central and State Governments respectively.
  • In case of North Eastern and Himalayan States, Central Assistance is provided in the ratio of 90:10 (Centre: State) and for Union Territories, the assistance is 100%.

Objectives:

  • The objective is to produce agricultural products free from chemicals and pesticides residues by adopting eco- friendly, low- cost technologies.
  • Promote organic farming among rural youth/ farmers/ consumers/ traders
  • Disseminate latest technologies in organic farming
  • Utilize the services of experts from public agricultural research system in India
  • Organize a minimum of one cluster demonstration in a village.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1645497

Consider the following statements:

  • Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) to Reduce Short Lived Climate Pollutants is a unique initiative of G2O group of countries.
  • The CCAC focuses on methane, black carbon and hydrofluorocarbons.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

  • The Climate & Clean Air Coalition is the only global effort that unites governments, civil society and private sector, committed to improving air quality and protecting the climate in next few decades by reducing short-lived climate pollutants across sectors. The Coalition’s initial focus is on methane, black carbon, and HFCs.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The governments of Bangladesh, Canada, Ghana, Mexico, Sweden and the United States, along with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), came together to initiate the first effort to treat these pollutants as a collective challenge. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The coalition has 53 country partners and 17 International Governmental Organizations and 45 Nongovernmental organization partners. India is not a partner country however The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI ) is a partner NGO since 2015.Hence statement 2 is correct