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Daily Prelims Test – 14_October 2020

Consider the following statements regarding Tech for Tribals Initiative

  1. It will be a joint initiative of TRIFED and IIT-Kanpur.
  2. It aims at the holistic development of tribals with a focus on entrepreneurship development, soft skills, IT, and business development through SHGs operating through Van Dhan Kendras

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Chhattisgarh government launches ‘Tech for Tribals’ scheme

The Tribal Affairs Ministry on Tuesday launched an initiative that focuses on imparting entrepreneurship and business skills to tribals in Chhattisgarh.

About Tech for Tribals Initiative

  • It will be a joint initiative of TRIFED, Chhattisgarh MFP Federation and IIT-Kanpur. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The TRIFED has collaborated with MSME through its ESDP scheme for providing skill upgrading and entrepreneurial capacity building support to the Van Dhan tribal beneficiaries to establish their sustainable enterprise.
  • It aims at the holistic development of tribals with a focus on entrepreneurship development, soft skills, IT, and business development through SHGs operating through Van Dhan Kendras (VDVKs). Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Under this initiative, TRIFED has tied up reputed national institutions such as IIT, Kanpur; Art of Living, Bangalore; TISS, Mumbai; KISS, Bhubaneswar; Vivekananda Kendra, Tamil Nadu and SRIJAN, Rajasthan, for conducting Vandhan-ESDP Training Programs.
  • It is a unique program to make tribals of India “Aatmanirbhar”, focusing to bridge the gap between tribal entrepreneurs and urban markets.

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2020/oct/13/chhattisgarh-government-launches-tech-for-tribals-scheme-2209776.html


World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2020 a flagship report of the:

  1. International Energy Agency
  2. International Atomic Energy Agency
  3. International Renewable Energy Agency
  4. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

Answer: (a) International Energy Agency

Explanation:

In NEWS: India to lead global energy demand over next decade: New report

  • India will lead the demand for energy globally over the next 10 years, the World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2020, released October 13, has predicted.
  • Energy demand was projected to grow by 12 per cent between 2019 and 2030 before the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic struck, the WEO-2020, a flagship report of the International Energy Agency (IEA). Hence option (a) is correct
  • Growth over this period is now nine per cent in the STEPS, and only four per cent in the DRS. With demand in advanced economies on a declining trend, all of the increase comes from emerging market and developing economies, led by India
  • STEPS stands for Stated Policies Scenario. It assumes that COVID-19 would gradually be brought under control in 2021 and the global economy would return to pre-crisis levels the same year.
  • DRS stands for Delayed Recovery Scenario. It assumes that the global economy would return to its pre-crisis size only in 2023 and the pandemic would usher in a decade with the lowest rate of energy demand growth since the 1930s.
  • Global energy demand would drop by five per cent in 2020, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by seven per cent and energy investment by 18 per cent as a result of COVID-19, according to WEO-2020.
  • The Net Zero Emissions by 2050 or NZE2050 extends the SDS analysis. An increasing number of countries and companies are targeting net zero emissions, typically by 2050. All of these are achieved in the SDS, putting global emissions on track for net zero by 2070.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/energy-efficiency/india-to-lead-global-energy-demand-over-next-decade-new-report-73777


Consider the following statements regarding Mount Kilimanjaro

  1. It is an active volcano in Tanzania.
  2. It is the highest mountain in Africa and the highest single free-standing mountain in the world

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Firefighters battle to contain blaze on Kilimanjaro

  • A huge fire has broken on Kilimanjaro, Africa’s highest peak and a key attraction for tourists in Kenya and Tanzania.
  • The fire started at the Whona area, a rest centre for climbers using Mandara and Horombo, two of several routes up the mountain.Winds helped spread the fires.

About Mount Kilimanjaro:

  • Mount Kilimanjaro is a dormant volcano in Tanzania. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It has 3 volcanic cones: Kibo, Mawenzi and Shira.
  • It is the highest mountain in Africa and the highest single free-standing mountain in the world: 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level and about 4,900 metres (16,100 ft) above its plateau base. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Kilimanjaro is the 4th most topographically prominent peak on Earth.
  • The first people known to have reached the summit were Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller, in 1889.
  • It is part of Kilimanjaro National Park and is a major climbing destination.
  • Because of its shrinking glaciers and disappearing ice fields, it has been the subject of many scientific studies.

Source: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2020/oct/12/firefighters-battle-to-contain-blaze-on-kilimanjaro-tanzania-kenya


Consider the following statements regarding United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction

  1. It is mandated to serve as the focal point in the United Nations system for the coordination of disaster reduction and to ensure synergies among the disaster reduction activities.
  2. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: 20 years into 21st century: 70% global agriculture under climate threat

  • The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR)’s latest report on disasters in the last two decades delivers a dire warning on how climate change has become unbridled.
  • The report, The Human Cost of Disasters 2000-2019, said: Shifting rainfall patterns and greater variability in precipitation poses a risk to 70 per cent of global agriculture that is rainfed and the 1.3 billion people dependent on degrading agricultural land
  • Rainfed agriculture — farming that depends on only rainfall — plays a critical role in global food production and a significant number of poor populations depend on this agriculture for survival.
  • Rainfed agriculture accounts for more than 95 per cent of farmed land in sub-Saharan Africa, 90 per cent in Latin America, 75 per cent in West Asia and North Africa, 65 per cent in East Asia and 60 per cent in South Asia.
  • In India, 51 per cent of total sown areas are rainfedand these areas contribute nearly 40 per cent of the total food production in the country, according to the Union Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare.
  • The UNDRR report says that between 2000 and 2019, climate-related disasters killed over 0.51 million people while affecting 3.9 billion people worldwide.

United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR)

  • The UNISDR wasestablished in 1999 as a dedicated secretariat to facilitate the implementation of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR).
  • It is headquartered in Geneva, SwitzerlandHence statement 1 is correct
  • It is mandated to serve as the focal point in the United Nations system for the coordination of disaster reduction and to ensure synergies among the disaster reduction activities. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is an organisational unit of the UN Secretariatand is led by the UN Special Representative of the Secretary General for Disaster Risk Reduction (SRSG).
  • UNISDR’s Strategic Framework 2016-2021 has a vision to substantially reduce disaster risk and losses for a sustainable future with the mandate to act as the custodian of the Sendai Framework,supporting countries and societies in its implementation, monitoring and review of progress.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/20-years-into-21st-century-70-global-agriculture-under-climate-threat-73775


Recently seen in news, INAI initiative is related with which of the following?

  1. Oil spills prevention measures
  2. Particle Physics
  3. Reducing Gender inequality
  4. Artificial Intelligence

Answer: (d) Artificial Intelligence

Explanation:

In NEWS: Intel partners with Telangana govt to launch applied AI research centre

  • Intel India has collaborated with the Government of Telangana, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad (IIIT-H) and Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI) to launch INAI, an applied artificial intelligence research centre in Hyderabad. INAI is INtel AI
  • INAI is an initiative that applies AI to population-scale problems in the Indian context, with a focus on identifying and solving challenges in the healthcare and smart mobility segments through strong ecosystem collaboration. Hence option (d) is correct
  • INAI will act as a catalyst to accelerate India’s leadership in AI by driving innovation and entrepreneurship, creating national assets such as curated datasets, computing infrastructure, tools and frameworks with the aim to attract global talent for high impact research towards social sector development. PHFI is the founding healthcare partner in this initiative.

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/intel-partners-with-telangana-govt-to-launch-applied-ai-research-centre-120101201520_1.html


MOSAiC Mission , which was in news recently, is associated with

  1. Deep sea mission
  2. Blue Flag Beach certificate
  3. Exoplanet Research
  4. Largest arctic Expedition

Answer: (d) Largest arctic Expedition

Explanation:

In NEWS: Curtain falls on history’s biggest Arctic science expedition

  • The largest Arctic science expedition in history came to a close, as the German research vessel Polarstern sailed into the port at Bremerhaven, Germany
  • Spearheaded by the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany and known as the MOSAiC Expedition—short for Multidisciplinary Drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate—the mission involved collaborations from hundreds of scientists at research institutions around the world

About MOSAiC Mission

  • MOSAiC is an international research expedition to study the physical process, chemical processes and biologies that link the Arctic environment, the sea ice, the water and the ecosystems. Hence option (d) is correct
  • MOSAiC is the first year-round expedition into the central Arctic exploring the Arctic climate system.
  • The backbone of MOSAiC is the year-round operation of RV Polarstern, a German research vessel, drifting with the sea ice across the central Arctic during the years 2019 to 2020.
  • A distributed regional network of observational sites has been set up on the sea ice in an area of up to ~40 km distance from RV Polarstern.
  • The MOSAiC findings will contribute to a quantum leap in our understanding of the coupled Arctic climate system and its representation in global climate models.
  • The focus of MOSAiC lies on direct in-situ observations of the climate processes that couple the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem.
  • It better explains sea-ice loss regionally and internationally and helps in weather and climate forecasting.

Source: https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/10/curtain-falls-history-s-biggest-arctic-science-expedition


Consider the following statements regarding Opposition Event

  1. It is the event when the sun, Earth and an outer planet are lined up, with the Earth in the middle.
  2. The event of opposition can happen only for planets that are farther away from the earth than the sun.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why Mars is the brightest this month thanks to Opposition

Due to an event referred to as “opposition”, which takes place every two years and two months, Mars will outshine Jupiter, becoming the third brightest object (moon and Venus are first and second, respectively) in the night sky during the month of October.

What is Opposition?

  • Opposition is the event when the sun, Earth and an outer planet are lined up, with the Earth in the middleHence statement 1 is correct
  • The event of Opposition, in the case of Mars, takes place every two years and two months (26 months).
  • During this event,Mars outshines Jupiter and becomes the third brightest object (moon and Venus are first two) in the night sky.
  • Thetime of opposition is the point when the outer planet is typically also at its closest distance to the Earth for a given year.
  • An opposition can occur anywhere along Mars’ orbit, but when it happens when the planet is also closest to the sun, it is also particularly close to the Earth.
  • As per NASA, from an individual’s perspective on the Earth, Mars rises in the east and after staying up all night, it sets in the westjust as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
  • TheSun and Mars appear to be on the opposite sides of the sky and that is why Mars is said to be in “opposition” because of the perspective on the Earth
  • Occurrence of Opposition
  • Earth and Mars orbit the sun at different distances(Mars is farther apart from the sun than Earth and therefore takes longer to complete one lap around the sun).
  • The event of opposition can happen only for planetsthat are farther away from the sun than the Earth. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-mars-is-the-brightest-this-month-6723839/


Consider the following statements regarding Asia Pacific Group (APG)

  1. It is an intergovernmental organization established with the objective of implementing international standards against money laundering.
  2. It is headquartered in Sydney
  3. India is not a member of this group

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Pakistan likely to remain on FATF greylist, say sources

  • Pakistan’s chances at exiting the greylist suffered another blow as the APG released its evaluation of Islamabad’s actions in complying with the FATF, clearing it on only about 11 of 40 parameters.
  • The APG review, that only takes into account actions taken until February 2020, decided to recommend Pakistan be kept in “expedited (enhanced) Follow Up (EEFU), which means more regular scrutiny of its government’s progress, in addition to its FATF greylist commitments.

About Asia Pacific Group

  • APG is a regional affiliate of the Paris-based Financial Action Task Force (FATF).
  • Asia Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG) is an intergovernmental organization established with the objective of implementing international standards against money laundering. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It was established in 1997. It is headquartered in Sydney, Australia. Currently it has 41 nations as its members. Australia is the permanent Co-chair of APG. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • India became a member of APG in 1998. APG has 2 Co-chairs, one permanent and one two year term rotating co-chair. Hence statement 3 is incorrect
  • India held the rotating 2 year term Co-chair from 2010 to 2012. India has enacted anti-money laundering and terrorist financing legislation. India has even established a Financial Intelligence Unit to detect fraudulent financial activities.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/pak-likely-to-remain-on-fatf-greylist-say-sources/article32845713.ece


Consider the following statements regarding Thattekkad Bird Sanctuary

  1. It is the first Bird Sanctuary in Kerala harbours a wide range of flora and fauna.
  2. It is located on the northern bank of the Periyar River.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Eco-sensitive zone of Thattekad Bird Sanctuary notified

  • An extent of one kilometre around the boundary of Thattekkad Bird Sanctuary has been notified as its eco-sensitive zone (EZ).
  • The EZ, according to the draft notification published by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, will cover an area of 28.444 sq.km. Some parts of the Kuttampuzha and Keerampara villages will fall within the EZ of the sanctuary
  • The Thattekkad sanctuary is also the first bird sanctuary in Kerala and is considered a haven for nature lovers and birdwatchers with a wide variety of flora and fauna. The sanctuary is also considered as one of the richest bird sanctuaries of the State, with the presence of 284 bird species recorded from there.
  • The area was previously part of the Kuttampuzha section of Kuttampuzha Forest Range under Malayattoor Forest Division. Currently, it is under the administrative jurisdiction of Idukki Wildlife Division.
  • Rare bird species such as three-toed forest Kingfisher, Ceylon frogmouth, crimson-throated Barbet, bee-eater, sunbird, and Malabar grey hornbill are seen in the sanctuary.

About Thattekkad Bird Sanctuary

  • It is the first Bird Sanctuary in Kerala harbours a wide range of flora and faunaHence statement 1 is correct
  • It is also known as Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary which was constituted in 1983.
  • It is located in the Kothamangalam Taluk of Ernakulam district on the northern bank of the Periyar River. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/eco-sensitive-zone-of-thattekad-bird-sanctuary-notified/article32839021.ece


A constitutional government by definition is a

  1. government by legislature
  2. popular government
  3. multi-party government
  4. limited government

Answer: (d) limited government

Explanation:

Constitutionalism has a variety of meanings. Most generally, it is “a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law”. Constitutionalism’ means limited government or limitation on government. Hence option (d) is correct