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Daily Prelims Test – 14_June 2021

Consider the following statements regarding Operation Olivia:

  • It is an annual mission that aims to protect the Olive Ridley sea turtles during their breeding seasons and to conserve their natural breeding habitats.
  • It has been launched by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate change.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

A) 1 only

B) 2 only

C) Both 1 and 2

D) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: ‘Operation Olivia’ to the rescue of Olive Ridleys

  • Every year, the Indian Coast Guard’s “Operation Olivia”, initiated in the early 1980s, helps protect Olive Ridley turtles as they congregate along the Odisha coast for breeding and nesting from November to December.
  • For optimal results, round-the-clock surveillance is conducted from November till May utilising Coast Guard assets such as fast patrol vessels, air cushion vessels, interceptor craft and Dornier aircraft to enforce laws near the rookeries
  • Studies have found three main factors that damage Olive Ridley turtles and their eggs — heavy predation of eggs by dogs and wild animals, indiscriminate fishing with trawlers and gill nets, and beach soil erosion
  • Coordination of efforts is done at various levels, the officer explained, including enforcing the use of turtle excluder devices (TED) by trawlers in the waters adjoining nesting areas; prohibiting the use of gill nets on turtle approaches to the shore; and curtailing turtle poaching.

About Operation Oliva

  • Operation Oliva has been launched by the Indian Coast Guard in the state of OdishaHence statement (2) is correct.
  • It is an annual mission that aims to protect the Olive Ridley sea turtles during their breeding seasons and to conserve their natural breeding habitats. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The Mission has been launched this year jointly with the Odisha state forest department. Two dedicated ships of the coast guard and some aircraft have been engaged in this novel nature conservation activity.
  • The two ships will ensure that fishing vessels do not enter the major breeding sites of the turtles like Gahirmatha marine sanctuary, Dhamara River, and Rushikulya beach.
  • The Coast guard keeps a vigil on the illegal fishing and turtle catching in this area as a part of the mission.
  • The ICG also makes interactions with the fishermen and people of the local community to raise awareness on conserving the Olive Ridleys.

About Olive Ridley

  • The Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) is listed as vulnerable under the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red list.
  • All five species of sea turtles found in India are included in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, and in the Appendix I of the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora which prohibits trade in turtle products by signatory countries.
  • The Orissa Marine Fisheries Act empowers the Coast Guard as one of its enforcement agencies.

Nesting habits

  • The Olive Ridley has one of the most extraordinary nesting habits in the natural world, including mass nesting called arribadas.
  • The 480-km-long Odisha coast has three arribada beaches at Gahirmatha, the mouth of the Devi river, and in Rushikulya, where about 1 lakh nests are found annually.

Source: TH Pg:No: 1

Consider the following statements regarding Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Mk III Aircraft:

It is a multi-role chopper with the Shakti engine manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

It has an all glass cockpit and will be used for search and rescue, special operations and coastal surveillance.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

A) 1 only

B) 2 only

C) Both 1 and 2

D) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Coast Guard inducts three ALH Mk-III helicopters

  • The Coast Guard on Saturday inducted the first batch of three Advanced Light Helicopters (ALH) Mk-III designed and manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL).
  • The ALH Mk-III marine version has been designed and developed with in-house customization of 19 additional equipment by HAL to meet Coast Guard requirements,
  • 16 ALH Mk-III will be positioned at four Coast Guard squadrons in Bhubaneshwar, Porbandar, Kochi and Chennai.
  • The Navy inducted the first batch of three ALH Mk-III helicopters into service at INS Hansa

About Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Mk III Aircraft

  • It is a multi-role chopper with the Shakti engine manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • The Mk III version of the ALH has an all glass cockpit and will be used for search and rescue, special operations and coastal surveillance. Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It is a step up from Mk 1 which will be able to mitigate low visibility during search and rescue operations even at night.
  • The indigenously designed and developed Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH-DHRUV) is a twin engine, multi-mission new generation helicopter in the 5.5 ton weight class.
  • It is fitted with a Composite AirFrame and Glass Cockpit along with an automatic flight control system (AFCS).
  • The Helmet Pointing System (HPS) adds to the display of helicopter’s flight and platform information, mission data, target information as well as additional enhanced application capabilities.
  • It is loaded with Integrated Self Protection Suite (IDAS) which provides warning and situational awareness to the crew in a hostile threat environment.

Source: TH Pg: No: 7

Recently, the term Bharitalasuchus tapani is seen in news, it is related to

a) It is a carnivorous reptile that lived 240 million years ago

b) It is a long-necked herbivore from the Cretaceous period

c) It is the mosquito one of the world’s deadliest vector

d) None of the above

Answer: (a) It is a carnivorous reptile that lived 240 million years ago

Explanation:

In NEWS: Meet Bharitalasuchus tapani, a carnivorous reptile that lived 240 million years ago. Hence option (a) is correct.

  • The Indian fossil specimen was not studied earlier because it was not as complete as the specimens found in other countries.
  • In the mid 20th century, researchers from the Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, carried out extensive studies on rocks of the Yerraballi Formation in what is now Telangana, uncovering several fossils.
  • This reptile belongs to a genus and species previously unknown to science. They named it Bharitalasuchus tapani
  • The species is named after paleontologist Tapan Roy Chowdhury in honour of his contribution to Indian vertebrate paleontology and especially his extensive work on the Yerraballi Formation tetrapod fauna.
  • The team notes that Bharitalasuchus tapani were robust animals with big heads and large teeth, and these probably predated other smaller reptiles.
  • They were approximately the size of an adult male lion and might have been the largest predators in their ecosystems.
  • The first Erythrosuchidae remains were discovered in South Africa in 1905 and more were found in China and Russia. The South African one is about 245 million years old, while the ones from China and Russia are around 240 million years old. So the Indian one is one of the youngest fossil records we have of an

Source: TH Pg:No: 11What is the aim of the FAME scheme?

a)  It aims to give a boost to development of Electric Vehicles.

b)  It aims to lessen the financial burden of such Charitable Religious Institutions who provide food at free of cost without any discrimination.

c) It is a project for sanitation based integrated development of all 4470 villages along the River Ganga.

d) It aims to provide a reliable weather and climate forecast for the betterment of society.

Answer: (a) It aims to give a boost to development of Electric Vehicles.

Explanation:

In NEWS: FAME II to spur new tech, says Venu

  • The revision of FAME II subsidies for electric two-wheelers, and said the move would give a fillip to both increased adoption and technology development.
  • The improved incentives for electric two-wheelers will increase penetration. Such policy direction should lead to the indigenous development of future technology

About FAME scheme

  • FAME India is a part of the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan. Main thrust of FAME is to encourage electric vehicles by providing subsidies. Hence option (a) is correct.
  • Vehicles in most segments – two wheelers, three wheelers, electric and hybrid cars and electric buses obtained the subsidy benefit of the scheme.
  • FAME focuses on 4 areas i.e. Technology development, Demand Creation, Pilot Projects and Charging Infrastructure.
  • Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (FAME II), is a scheme launched by Government of India to give a boost to development of Electric Vehicles. This is important considering the efforts to combat climate change across the globe.
  • The Government of India has allocated a budget of Rs 10,000 crores for the second phase of this scheme.
  • This scheme was launched to achieve the goals of the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP). Phase I lasted from 2015 to 2019 and Phase II of FAME was launched in 2019 and is expected to be completed by 2022.

Source: TH Pg: No: 14

Consider the following statements regarding Brus or Reangs:

  • They are living mostly in Tripura, Mizoram, and Assam.
    • In Tripura, they are recognized as a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Bru rehabilitation in Tripura hits NGT hurdle

  • The National Green Tribunal (NGT) has sought replies from the Forest Department and a district administration in Tripura on a complaint that Bru refugees from adjoining Mizoram were being resettled in a forest

About Brus or Reangs

  • The Brus or Reangs is a community indigenous to the Northeast, living mostly in Tripura, Mizoram, and Assam. Hence statement (1) is correct.
  • In Tripura, they are recognised as a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTGs). Hence statement (2) is correct.
  • It is a classification by the Government for more vulnerable tribes among the tribal groups.
  • The tribe has a declining or stagnant population, low level of literacy, pre-agricultural level of technology and are economically backward.
  • They generally inhabit remote localities having poor infrastructure and administrative support.
  • More than 40,000 Brus have been living in six refugee camps in northern Tripura’s Kanchanpur sub-division since 1997 when they escaped ethnic violence in adjoining Mizoram.  Only about 7,000 refugees returned to Mizoram after nine phases of repatriation till November 30, 2019.
  • Most of the Brus declined the Centre’s rehabilitation packages citing insecurity and poor living conditions in Mizoram and had demanded the creation of an autonomous council for the community as a precondition for vacating the relief camps.
  • And conflicts between the Brus and the local Bengali non-tribal people have started taking place in Tripura.
  • In Mizoram, they were targeted by ethnic organisations who demanded that the Brus be excluded from electoral rolls.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/bru-rehabilitation-in-tripura-hits-ngt-hurdle/article34786750.ece

Consider the following Statements regarding PRAGATI Portal:

  • It has been designed by the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) team with the help of the National Informatics Center.
    • It is aimed at addressing common man’s grievances, and simultaneously monitoring and reviewing important programmes and projects of the Government of India as well as projects flagged by State Governments.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Slowing of projects worries Railways

  • The Prime Minister is monitoring several railway projects through the (Proactive Governance And Timely Implementation) PRAGATI portal. He has observed a lack of progress in key railway projects across the country.

About PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance And Timely Implementation)

  • PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance And Timely Implementation), as the name suggests, is aimed at starting a culture of Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation. It is also a robust system for bringing e-transparency and e-accountability with real-time presence and exchange among the key stakeholders. Hence statements (1) and (2) are correct.
  • The platform was launched on March 25, 2015.
  • The PRAGATI platform uniquely bundles three latest technologies: Digital data management, video-conferencing and geo-spatial technology.
  • It also offers a unique combination in the direction of cooperative federalism since it brings on one stage the Secretaries of Government of India and the Chief Secretaries of the States.

Key features

  • It is a three-tier system (PMO, Union Government Secretaries, and Chief Secretaries of the States)
  • Prime Minister will hold a monthly programme where he will interact with the Government of India Secretaries, and Chief Secretaries through Video-conferencing enabled by data and geo-informatics visuals; The programme will be held once in every month on Fourth Wednesday at 3.30 PM-to be known as PRAGATI Day.
  • The system will ride on, strengthen and re-engineer the data bases of the CPGRAMS for grievances, Project Monitoring Group (PMG) and the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. PRAGATI provides an interface and platform for all these three aspects.
  • It will take into consideration various correspondences to the PM’s office by the common people or from high dignitaries of States and/or developers of public projects.
  • The issues flagged are uploaded seven days prior to the PRAGATI day (i.e. on the third Wednesday of every month). These issues can be viewed by the Union Government Secretaries and Chief Secretaries after entering into the application.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/slow-progress-in-key-projects-worries-railways/article34791335.ece

Consider the following Statements regarding AISHE Report 2019-2020:

  • The AISHE report was initiated in the year 2011.
    • These AISHE reports are released annually by the Department of Higher Education.
    • Uttar Pradesh has the highest student enrolment in

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

a) 1 and 3 only

b) 2 only

c) 1, 2 and 3

d) 2 and 3 only

Answer: (c) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union Education Minister announces release of Report of All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE) 2019-20

  • Union Education Minister Shri Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ announced the release of the report of All India Survey on Higher Education 2019-20

About AISHE Report 2019-20:

  • The AISHE Report provides key performance indicators on the current status of Higher education in the country.
  • The report was initiated in the year 2011. Hence statement (1) is correct
  • This is the 10th in the series of AISHE reports released annually by the Department of Higher Education. Hence statement (2) is correct

Highest Number of Colleges:

  • The top 8 States in terms of the highest number of colleges in India are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat.

Total Student Enrollment:

  • During the last five years from 2015-16 to 2019-20, there has been a growth of 11.4% in student enrolment.
  • Total enrollment in higher education has been estimated to be 38.5 million, with 19.6 million boys and 18.9 million females. Females constitute 49% of the total enrolment.
  • Uttar Pradesh has the highest student enrolment in India. It has 49.1% male and 50.9% female students. It is followed by Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Hence statement (3) is correct.

Gross Enrolment Ratio:

  • The Gross Enrollment Ratio(GER) has increased by a minuscule 0.8% in 2019-20.
  • Gross Enrolment Ratio(GER) is the percentage of students enrolled in Higher Education from the eligible age group population.
  • In India, GER for higher education is calculated for the age group of 18-23.
  • GER in higher education in 2019-20 was 27.1% against 26.3% in 2018-19 and 24.3% in 2014-2015.

Enrolment of Girls:

  • There has been an overall increase of over 18% in female enrolment in higher education from 2015-16 to 2019-20.
  • However, the share of girl students is lowest in institutes of national importance. Also, female participation in professional courses is lower in comparison to academic courses.

Gender Parity Index:

  • Gender Parity Index(GPI) in Higher Education improved a bit. In 2019-20, it was 1.01 against 1.00 in 2018-19. This indicates an improvement in the relative access to higher education for females.

Teacher Pupil Ratio:

  • Total Number of Teachers stands at 15 lakh comprising 57.5% male and 42.5% female.
  • The Pupil-Teacher Ratio in Higher Education in 2019-20 is 26.

Attractive Disciplines:

  • Nearly 85% of the students (2.85 crores) were enrolled in the six major disciplines such as Humanities, Science, Commerce, Engineering & Technology, Medical Science, and IT & Computers.

Foreign Students:

  • The highest share of foreign students comes from the neighboring countries, of which Nepal is 28.1% of the total. It was followed by Afghanistan 9.1%, Bangladesh 4.6%, Bhutan 3.8%, and Sudan 3.6%.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.aspx?PRID=1725914

Consider the following countries:

  • Canada
    • France
    • Germany
    • Italy
    • Japan
    • India

Which of the above countries are considered as G7 group?

a) 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 only

b) 2, 4, 5 and 6 only

c) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 only

d) All of the above

Answer: (c) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: The G-7 agenda this year and what is in it for India

At the invitation of UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson, Prime Minister Narendra Modi will participate virtually in the Outreach Sessions of the G7 Summit on June 12 and 13.

About G-7 group

 The G7 (Group of Seven) is an organisation of the world’s seven largest so-called advanced economies. They are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK and the United States.

 The European Union is also represented within the G7. Hence option (c) is correct

The G-7 was known as the G-8 for several years after the original seven were joined by Russia in 1997. The inclusion of USSR in G-7 was meant as a signal of cooperation between East and West after the Soviet Union’s collapse in 1991.

The group meets annually to discuss issues such as global economic governance, international security and energy policy.

The group does not have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters. The decisions taken by leaders during annual summits are non-binding.

G7 summit in the UK

The UK is holding the G7 presidency for 2021, so this is where the summit is taking place.

Guest Countries: India along with Australia, the Republic of Korea and South Africa are guest countries for the Summit.

Theme: The theme for the summit is ‘Build Back Better’

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-the-g-7-agenda-this-year-india-7353336/

Global Liveability Index is released by which of the following international organisation?

 a) International Monetary Fund

b) World Economic Forum

c) World Bank

d) Economist Intelligence Unit

Answer: (d) Economist Intelligence Unit

Explanation:

In NEWS: Auckland tops Global Liveability Index 2021; Dhaka, Karachi in bottom 10

  • New Zealand and Australian cities dominated the Global Liveability Index 2021 published by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), owing to their strong response to the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic. Hence option (d) is correct.
  • According to the EIU report, the overall global average liveability fell by seven points as compared with the pre-pandemic score.
  • According to the EIU survey, six of the top 10 cities are in New Zealand and Australia, where tighter border controls from the early days of the pandemic allowed residents to live a relatively normal life.
  • The report also noted a decline in liveability in many European cities as they battled the second Covid-19 wave by closing schools and restaurants, and restructuring cultural and sporting events. 
  • Japanese cities of Osaka and Tokyo grabbed second and fourth place on EIU’s Global Liveability Index 2021, while two Swiss cities, Zurich and Geneva, were ranked seventh and eighth respectively.
  • The index assesses the locations that provide the best and the worst living conditions around the world. It assesses 140 cities around the world.
  • The index takes into account more than 30 qualitative and quantitative factors. These factors span five broad categories: stability (25%), healthcare (20%), culture and environment (25%), education (10%), and infrastructure (20%).
  • Top Five Liveable Cities: Auckland (New Zealand), Osaka (Japan), Adelaide (Australia), Wellington (New Zealand), and Tokyo (Japan).
  • Top Five Least Liveable Cities: Damascus (Syria), Lagos (Nigeria), Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea), Dhaka (Bangladesh), and Algiers (Algeria).

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/auckland-tops-global-liveability-index-2021-dhaka-karachi-in-bottom-10-101623236112255.html

One common agreement between Gandhism and Marxism is

a) the final goal of a stateless society

b) class struggle

c) abolition of private property

d) economic determinism

Answer: (a) the final goal of a stateless society

Explanation:

The similarity and dissimilarity between Gandhism and Marxism are as under: (1) Conception of Ideal State: There is a great similarity between Mahatma Gandhi and Kart Marx. However, while the final aim of both of them is the establishment of a stateless and classless society, their means for achieving this aim are different. Mahatma Gandhi wanted to achieve this end through non-violent means but Marx wanted to achieve it through violent means. (2) Capitalism: Though both Mahatma Gandhi and Karl Marx were opposed to capitalism and exploitation, yet they propagated different means to remove capitalism not by violent means but through economic decentralization, by encouraging cottage industries, and by making the capitalist trustees. Hence option (a) is correct.