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Daily Prelims Test – 14_July

1.Consider the following statements regardingT Cells

  • It is a type of White Blood Cells that is an essential part of the immune system.
  • It originate in the blood marrow and mature in the thymus.
  • Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2
  • Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2
  • Explanation:
  • In NEWS:Unexposed people may have COVID-19-specific memory T cells
  • At least five studies (one of which has been published in Cell and the remaining are pre­ prints yet to be peer­ reviewed) have shown that people unex­posed to and not infected with novel coronavirus may still ex­hibit T cell responses specific to this virus.
  • About T Cells
  • T Cells also called T lymphocyte, type of leukocyte (white blood cell) that is an essential part of the immune system.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • T cells are one of two primary types of lymphocytes—B cells being the second type—that determine the specificity of the immune response to antigens (foreign substances) in the body.
  • T cells originate in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus.Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • T cells secrete chemical messengers called cytokines, which stimulate the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells (antibody-producing cells).
  • There is a possibility that pre-existing T cell memory might influence vaccination outcomes.
  • Pre-existing immunity could help elicit better immune responses against novel coronavirus, and these responses can manifest faster.
  • Meanwhile, pre-existing immunity could be mistaken as an enhanced efficacy of the vaccine in eliciting immune responses.
  • The pre-existing immunity can reduce the immune responses that the vaccine causes through a mechanism called the “original antigenic sin”.
  • It can also lead to antibody-mediated disease enhancement, where antibodies present at sub-neutralizing concentrations can actually augment virus infection and cause more severe disease.
  • This was seen in the case of chikungunya and dengue.
  • Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/unexposed-people-may-have-covid-19-specific-memory-t-cells/article32052605.ece

2.Consider the following statements regarding the Paris agreement

It was adopted at the UNFCCC COP21.

It aims to keep global temperature rise in the 21st century well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Avg global temperature can rise by 1.5°C in next 5 years: WMO report

One of the next five years may be witness to global average temperatures of 1.5 degree Celsius above pre-industrial levels (defined as the average of global temperatures between 1850-1900), according to a recent World Meteorological Organization (WMO) report. 

There is also a 70 per cent chance that the 1.5°C rise above pre-industrial levels barrier will happen in one or more months in this time.

The forecast for global temperatures in the next five years showed a significant upward trend when compared to the temperatures in the recent past, which is considered to be between 1981 and 2010. Between 2020 and 2024, all regions of the world, except the southern oceans, are likely to be warmer.

The period will also witness an increase in the number of storms in the European region.

About Paris agreement:

It was adopted at the UNFCCC COP21 held in Paris in 2015.Hence statement 1 is correct

It aims to keep global temperature rise in the 21st century well below2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/climate-change/avg-global-temperature-can-rise-by-1-5-c-in-next-5-years-wmo-report-72233

3.Consider the following statements regarding Epiphytes

It grows on the surface of another plant.

Like parasitic plants, epiphytic plants harm its host.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:The flowering ‘tigers’

The ‘Tigers’ are in full bloom at the Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute (JNTBGRI), but given the COVID-19 scenario, the public may not get an opportunity to view them this time

The bloom of Tiger orchids (Grammatophyllum speciosum) flowers resembles the tiger skin.

It flowers alternate years.

It is endemic to South East Asia (countries like Indonesia, Philippines etc) and is an epiphytic plant.

Epiphytic Plant grows on the surface of another plantand derives its nutrients from rain, air, water or from debris accumulating it.Hence statement 1 is correct

Unlike parasitic plants, epiphytic plants use other plants as a base and do not harm its host. E.g. Lichens, Algae, Orchids etc.Hence statement 2 is incorrect

Picture4-Jul-20-2020-05-29-00-55-AM

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/the-flowering-tigers/article32043886.ece

4.Consider the following statements regarding United Nations High-level Political Forum (HLPF)

It is the foremost international platform for follow-up and review of progress on the 17 Sustainable Development Goals.

It meets annually under the auspices of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the UN.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

1 only

2 only

Both 1 and 2

Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:NITI Aayog presents India’s second Voluntary National Review at UN’s High-Level Political Forum

NITI Aayog presented India’s second Voluntary National Review (VNR) at the United Nations High-level Political Forum (HLPF) on Sustainable Development, 2020.

About United Nations High-level Political Forum (HLPF)

The HLPF is the foremost international platform for follow-up and review of progress on the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).Hence statement 1 is correct

The HLPF meets annually in July for eight daysunder the auspices of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the UN.Hence statement 2 is correct

HLPF, comprising the political representatives (heads of states or ministers) of the members, meets every July at the UN in New York to review progress on Agenda 2030.

Voluntary National Reviews, which are voluntary and country driven, form the basis of this review.

The Forum adopts inter-governmentally negotiated political declarations.

India VNR 2020:

NITI Aayog prepared and presented India’s first VNR in 2017.

The India VNR 2020 report titled – Decade of Action: Taking SDGs from Global to Local. 

India’s VNR this year has undertaken a paradigm shift in terms of embodying a whole-of-society approachin letter and spirit. 

NITI Aayog engaged with sub-national and local governments, civil society organizations, local communities, people in vulnerable situations and the private sector. 

As part of this process, NITI Aayog partnered with the UN in Indiaand engaged in consultation fourteen population groups including women, children, elderly, Persons with Disabilities (PWDs), People Living with HIV (PLHIV), among others.

The report is a comprehensive account of the adoption and implementation of the 2030 Agenda in India. 

Apart from presenting a review of progress on the 17 SDGs, the report discusses at length the policy and enabling environment, India’s approach to localising SDGs, and strengthening means of implementation.

Leveraging science, technology and innovation for SDGs, and costing and financing of SDGs are the two levers of strengthening means of implementation which have been introduced this year.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1638261

5.Consider the following statements regarding Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) movement 

It works with governments to enable 120 million more women and girls to use contraceptives by 2020.

It is an outcome of the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning.

India is not a signatory to FP2020.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1 and 2 only

Answer: (d) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Nearly 1.8 million unsafe abortions averted in 2019, says Harsh Vardhan

  • Nearly 55 million unintended pregnancies, 1.8 million unsafe abortions and 30,000 maternal deaths were averted as a result of contraceptive use in 2019
  • India is a fundamental part of the global FP2020 movement and the government of India has invested substantial domestic funding to achieve the ambitious Family Planning (FP) 2020’s goals.
  • The major initiatives under family planning include Mission Parivar Vikas, Injectable Contraceptive MPA, Family Planning- Logistics Management Information System and Family Planning Communications Campaign.

About Family Planning 2020(FP2020) movement 

  • FP2020 works with governments, civil society, multilateral organizations, donors, the private sector, and the research and development community to enable 120 million more women and girls to use contraceptives by 2020.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • An outcome of the 2012 London Summit on Family Planning. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Achieving the FP2020 goal is a critical milestone to ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health services and rights by 2030, as laid out in Sustainable Development Goals 3 and 5.
  • FP2020 is in support of the UN Secretary-General’s Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health.
  • Led by an 23-member Reference Group, operated daily by a Secretariat, and hosted by the United Nations Foundation
  • India is a signatory to FP2020. Hence statement 3 is incorrect

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/in-2019-50-5-mn-pregnancies-1-8-mn-unsafe-abortions-averted-vardhan-120071101220_1.html

6.‘Antara’ programme was in news recently. What is it associated with?

Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes

Controlled Human Infection Model

Integrated Solution for Vehicle Registration

Injectable contraception prescribed to women

Answer: (d) Injectable contraception prescribed to women

Explanation:

In NEWS: Over 99,000 women in Rajasthan bat for injectable contraceptive Antara

  • More women in the state are adopting injectable contraceptives popularly known as Antara.
  • Compared to 88,000 injectable contraceptives used by women in 2018-19, the numbers rose to 99,496 in 2019-20.

About Antara Programme

  • Antara — the injectable contraception prescribed to womenunder the National Family Planning Programme of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW). — is gaining popularity among women in parts of India, according to recent reports.Hence option (d) is correct
  • According to the National Health Mission (NHM), an injectable contraceptive is an intramuscular hormonal contraceptive method for women that prevents pregnancy. 
  • The injectable contraception called Antara consists of depot-medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) according to the All India Institutes of Medical Sciences (AIIMS).
  • According to AIIMS and the NHM, injectable contraceptives should be taken only after proper screenings are done by a gynaecologist
  • The side-effects of injectable contraception may include changes in menstrual bleeding patterns, irregular spotting or bleeding, scanty periods, breast tenderness, weight gain, acne and depression

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/over-99k-women-in-raj-bat-for-injectable-contraceptive-antara/articleshow/76916303.cms

7.Consider the following statements with reference to Asiatic Lion

They are found throughout the Indian subcontinent

It has been listed as an endangered species under the IUCN Red List.

They are listed in Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 2and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1 and 2 only

Answer: (a) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: More than Rs 25 crore for Asiatic lions unspent despite 331 deaths

  • The Gujarat government has not spent Rs 26 crore since 2018-19 that was meant for the conservation of the endangered Asiatic lion in the state’s Asiatic Lion Landscape (ALL), despite 331 leonine deaths in 2018-19.
  • After the 2018 Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) outbreak, 20 positions of veterinary doctors were sanctioned by the government. But they are lying vacant as recruitment hasn’t taken place.

About Asiatic lions

  • Until the 19th century it occurred in Saudi Arabia, eastern Turkey, Iran, Mesopotamia, and from east of the Indus River to Bengal and Narmada River in Central India but now it is restricted to the Gir Forest National Park, Gujarat and surrounding areas.
  • The Asian Lion is a subspecies of the lion which survives today only in India and therefore it is also known as the Indian or Gir lionHence statement 1 is incorrect
  • The lions are listed as Endangeredin the IUCN Red List.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • It is listed in Schedule I of Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, and is listed on Appendix I of CITES.Hence statement 3 is correct
  • Like their African cousins, Asian lions are highly sociable animals living in social units called prides.The Asian lion pride is smaller.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/wildlife-biodiversity/more-than-rs-25-crore-for-asiatic-lions-unspent-despite-331-deaths-72266

8.Recently seen in news, the Shahid Kalantari and Shahid Beheshti port is located within which of the following?

Iran

Philippines

Papua New Guinea

Yemen

Answer: (a) Iran

Explanation:

In NEWS: Iran drops India from Chabahar rail project, cites funding delay

  • Four years after India and Iran signed an agreement to construct a rail line from Chabahar port to Zahedan, along the border with Af­ghanistan, the Iranian go­vernment has decided to proceed with the construc­tion on its own, citing delays from the Indian side in fund­ing and starting the project
  • Last week, Iranian Transport and Urban Development Minister inaugurated the track-laying process for the 628 km Chabahar-Zahedan line, which will be extended to Zaranj across the border in Afghanistan.
  • The entire project would be completed by March 2022, and that Iranian Railways will proceed without India’s assistance, using approximately $400 million from the Iranian National Development Fund. The development comes as China finalises a massive 25-year, $400 billion strategic partnership deal with Iran.
  • The railway project, which was being discussed between the Iranian Railways and the state-owned Indian Railways Construction Ltd (IRCON), was meant to be part of India’s commitment to the trilateral agreement between India, Iran and Afghanistan to build an alternate trade route to Afghanistan and Central Asia.
  • In May 2016, IRCON had signed an MoU with the Iranian Rail Ministry for the same.

About Chabahar port

  • It is located in the Sistan, Baluchistan province of Iran in the Gulf of Oman.Hence option (a) is correct
  • It consists of two port complexes, named shahid Kalantari port and Shahid beheshti port.
  • It is a seaport in Chabahar in South-Eastern Iran.
  • Its location lies in the Gulf of Oman.
  • It is the only Iranian port with direct access to the ocean.
  • The port gives access to the energy-rich Persian Gulf nations’ southern coast.
Picture5-Jul-20-2020-05-27-46-22-AM

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/iran-drops-india-from-chabahar-rail-project-cites-funding-delay/article32072428.ece

9.Consider the following statements with reference to FASTag

  • It is a device that employs Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for making toll payments directly from the prepaid account linked to it.
  • It has a validity of 5 years.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Govt. links FASTags with vehicle registration portal

  • When you buy a new car, you will not have to worry about updating your vehicle’s registration number with your FASTag device as this will be done automatically. The Centre has completed an integration process between the electronic toll system and the vehicle registration portal to ensure FASTags don’t become redundant.

About FAStag

  • It is a prepaid radio­frequency identification-enabled tag that facilitates automatic deduction of toll charges.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The new system will now do away with a stop­over of vehicles and cash transactions at toll plazas.
  • It is affixed on the windscreen of your vehicle and enables you to drive through toll plazas.
  • FASTag has a validity of 5 years and after purchasingit, you only need to recharge/ top up the FASTag as per your requirement.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The FASTag electronic toll collection programme is being implemented by the Indian Highways Management Company Limited (IHMCL), a company incorporated by the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), and the National Payments Corporation of India in coordination with Toll Plaza Concessionaires, tag issuing agencies and banks.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/govt-links-fastags-with-vehicle-registration-portal/article32058835.ece

10.Consider the following statements:

Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) is the first regulatory body set up by the Government of India.

One of the tasks of PNGRB is to ensure competitive markets for gas.

Appeals against the decisions of PNGRB go before the Appellate Tribunals for Electricity.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (b) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

  • Statement 1 is not correct:The Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (PNGRB) was constituted under The Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006.
  • Statement 2 is correct: The Act provide for the establishment of Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board to protect the interests of consumers and entities engaged in specified activities relating to petroleum, petroleum products and natural gas and to promote competitive markets and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • Statement 3 is correct: The Appellate Tribunal established under section 110 of the Electricity Act, 2003 (36 of 2003) is the Appellate Tribunal for the purposes of Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006.