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Daily Prelims Test – 14_February 2021

Consider the following Statements regarding Leader of opposition

It is leader of the largest party that has not less than one-tenth of the total strength of the house.

It is a non statutory office 

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Mallikarjun Kharge to succeed Ghulam Nabi Azad as Leader of Opposition in Rajya Sabha

  • Senior Congress leader Mallikarjun Kharge will replace Ghulam Nabi Azad as the leader of opposition in the Rajya Sabha
  • A letter from Congress President was sent to Rajya Sabha Chairman M. Venkaiah Naidu’s office to inform the Upper House of Mr. Azad’s replacement.

About Leader of opposition

  • The LOP is leader of the largest party that has not less than one-tenth of the total strength of the house. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The leader of the opposition in the houses of Indian parliament is a statutory post. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.
  • The Salary and Allowances of Leaders of Opposition in Parliament Act, 1977, defines the Leader of the Opposition.
  • The post is defined as ‘member of the Council of States or the House of the People, who is the Leader in that House of the party in opposition to the Government having the greatest numerical strength and recognised as such by the Chairman of the Council of States or the Speaker of the House of the People.
  • The procedure for recognising the leader of the opposition is well laid down.
  • On a request being made by the numerically largest party in the opposition, its designated leader be recognised as the leader of the opposition.
  • After the request is examined by her or his secretariat, the speaker/chairman accords recognition to that person.
  • In the British parliament, the leader of opposition is referred to as the ‘shadow prime minister’, so called because he or she is always in a state of readiness to take over the government if the incumbent government falls. 
  • There, the leader of the opposition forms a shadow cabinet too.
  • The LoP is critical to effective functioning of the opposition in the Parliament.
  • LoP plays a crucial role in bringing bipartisanship and neutrality to the appointments in institutions of accountability and transparency – CVC, CBI, CIC, Lokpal etc.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/mallikarjun-kharge-to-be-leader-of-opposition-in-rajya-sabha-congress-sources-7185345/


Recently, a rare Mandarin duck is spotted in which of the following wetland in India? 

Maguri Motapung Beel

Urpad Beel

Beas Conservation Reserve

Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary

Answer: (a) Maguri Motapung Beel

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why a rare duck has created a flutter in Upper Assam

Floating in the Maguri-Motapung beel (or wetland) in Assam’s Tinsukia district for over a week is the spectacular and rare Mandarin duck. Hence option (a)  is correct.

What is the Mandarin duck and why is it exciting?

  • Considered the most beautiful duck in the world, the Mandarin duck, or the (Aix galericulata) was first identified by Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist Carl Linnaeus in 1758.
  • Mandarin duck is the habitat of eastern China and southern Japan. It landed in Assam too by accident.
  • The duck does not come regularly to India. But some of the ducks may join other migratory birds and follow their migration path.
  • The spotted duck accompanied a flock of Indian spot-billed duck that was migrated either to China or Japan.
  • The last Mandarin duck was spotted in Assam in the year 1902.
  • The ducks were once widespread in East Asia region. But they were exported on large-scale so the population reduced in the eastern Russia and China.
  • Spotting of the Mandarin has raised hopes for the wetland which was affected by a blowout and inferno at a natural gas well in the year 2020.
  • The mandarin ducks were once widespread in East Asia region. But they were exported on large-scale so the population reduced in the eastern Russia and China. 
  • Further, the destruction of its forest habitat further accelerated the reduction in population so much so that the population reduced below 1,000 pairs in each of Russia and China. Japan has an estimated population of around 5000 pairs.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-a-rare-duck-has-created-a-flutter-in-upper-assam-7187927/


Consider the following Statements regarding DigiLocker

  1. It is a flagship initiative of Ministry of Electronics & IT under Digital India Corporation 
  2. It aims at ‘Digital Empowerment’ of citizen by providing access to authentic digital documents to citizen’s digital document wallet.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: IRDAI advises all insurance companies to issue digital policies via DigiLocker

  • The Insurance Regulatory Authority of India (IRDAI) in a circular recently, advised all Insurance companies for issuance of Digital Insurance Policies via DigiLocker.
  • The circular also mentioned that the insurers should inform their retail policyholders about Digilocker and how to use it. Insurers are also advised to enable the process by which the policyholders can place their policies in the digilocker. 
  • In the insurance sector, Digilocker will drive reduction in costs, elimination of customer complaints relating to non-delivery of policy copy, improved turnaround time of insurance services, faster claims processing and settlement, reduction in disputes, reduction in fraud and improvement in customer contactability

About DigiLocker

  • DigiLocker is a flagship initiative of Ministry of Electronics & IT (MeitY) under Digital India Corporation (DIC). Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • DigiLocker aims at ‘Digital Empowerment’ of citizen by providing access to authentic digital documents to citizen’s digital document walletHence statement 2 is correct.
  • The issued documents in DigiLocker system are deemed to be at par with original physical documents as per Rule 9A of the Information Technology (Preservation and Retention of Information by Intermediaries providing Digital Locker facilities) Rules, 2016 

Benefits to Citizens

  • Important Documents Anytime, Anywhere!
  • Authentic Documents, Legally at Par with Originals.
  • Digital Document Exchange with the consent of the citizen.
  • Faster service Delivery- Government Benefits, Employment, Financial Inclusion, Education, Health.

Benefits to Agencies

  • Reduced Administrative Overhead: Aimed at the concept of paperless governance. It reduces the administrative overhead by minimizing the use of paper and curtailing the verification process.
  • Digital Transformation: Provides trusted issued documents. Issued Documents available via DigiLocker are fetched in real-time directly from the issuing agency.
  • Secure Document Gateway: Acts as a secure document exchange platform like payment gateway between trusted issuer and trusted Requester/Verifier with the consent of the citizen.
  • Real Time Verification: Provides a verification module enabling government agencies to verify data directly from issuers after obtaining user consent.

Source: https://www.timesnownews.com/business-economy/industry/article/irdai-advises-all-insurance-companies-to-issue-digital-policies-via-digilocker/719708


Consider the following Statements regarding CHIRAAG Project

It aims to develop sustainable production systems that allow tribal households in remote areas of Chhattisgarh to practice round-the-year production of diversified and nutritious food.

It is supported by the World Bank

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: World Bank Signs Project to Support Nutrition-Supportive Agriculture in Tribal-Dominated Areas of Chhattisgarh

  • The Government of India, the Government of Chhattisgarh and the World Bank today signed a $100 million project to develop sustainable production systems that allow tribal households in remote areas of Chhattisgarh to practice round-the-year production of diversified and nutritious food. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • CHIRAAG – Chhattisgarh Inclusive Rural and Accelerated Agriculture Growth Project will be implemented in the southern tribal-majority region of the state where a large population is undernourished and poor. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The project will benefit over 180,000 households from about 1,000 villages in eight districts of Chhattisgarh.
  • The CHIRAAG project in Chhattisgarh will lay the foundation for a diverse and nutritive food and agriculture system, mobilize smallholders into farmer producer organizations and increase incomes by improving their access to profitable markets
  • Rice is one of the major crops in Chhattisgarh and constitutes 66 percent of the cropped area. However, the ‘rice bowl’ is restricted to the central plains where over half of the state’s irrigated area is concentrated.
  • The project will help mobilize tribal communities, especially women, in participatory planning and local economic development, and build their capacity to benefit from project interventions on diversified agriculture, natural resources and nutrition

Source: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2021/02/12/world-bank-signs-project-to-support-nutrition-supportive-agriculture-in-tribal-dominated-areas-of-chhattisgarh


Which of the following correctly describe the term NetWire?

It aims at studying the solar corona

It aims to provide space based internet services to the world.

It is an early warning system in the space to detect debris and other hazards to Indian satellites.

It is a remote access Trojan which gives control of the infected system to an attacker.

Answer: (d) It is a remote access Trojan which gives control of the infected system to an attacker.

Explanation:

In NEWS: Bait, plant and control

  • On Wednesday, activist Rona Wilson, who has been imprisoned since June 2018 in connection with the Bhima Koregaon violence case, filed a petition in the Bombay High Court seeking a stay on proceedings against him and others who are co-accused
  • His petition referred to a report brought out by Arsenal Consulting, a digital forensics consulting company based in Massachusetts, which was hired by Mr. Wilson’s defence team.
  • The Arsenal Consulting report states that for 22 months, Mr. Wilson’s computer was controlled by an attacker whose goal was to deliver incriminating documents onto his computer, which formed the basis of the case against him.

What is NetWire?

  • NetWire, which first surfaced in 2012, is a well-known malware. It is also one of the most active ones around.
  • It is a remote access trojan, or RAT, which gives control of the infected system to an attacker. Such malware can log keystrokes and compromise passwordsHence option (d) is correct.
  • Malware, according to cybersecurity experts, essentially do two things. One is data exfiltration, which means stealing data. 
  • Most anti-virus software are equipped to prevent this. The other involves infiltrating a system, and this has proven to be far more challenging for anti-virus software. 
  • NetWire is described as an off-the-shelf malware, while something like Pegasus, which used a bug in WhatsApp to infiltrate users’ phones in 2019, is custom-made and sold to nations.
  • The commands emerging from this server is what the infected system will carry out

Source: TH


With reference to cultural history of India, the terms ‘Mushaira’ are associated with which of the following?

  1. Poetic symposium
  2. Temple Architecture
  3. Buddhist literature 
  4. Rock-cut caves

Answer: (a) Poetic symposium

Explanation:

In NEWS: Minority Affairs Ministry to organise ”Mushaira” on ”Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat’ on Feb 20

  • Minority Affairs Ministry will organise Mushaira on the theme of ‘Ek Bharat, Shreshtha Bharat’ in New Delhi where renowned poets of the country will present their couplets. 
  • The Mushaira will be organised at Dr. Ambedkar International Centre, Janpath on 20th of February. Minority Affairs Minister Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi said that the renowned poets will present their poetry full of commitment to ‘Ek Bharat, Shreshtha Bharat’ and ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat

About Mushaira

  • Mushaira is a poetic symposium. It is an event (called mehfil, MUSHAIRI) where poets gather to perform their works. Hence option (a) is correct.
  • A mushaira is part of the Culture of North India, Pakistan and the Deccan, particularly among the Hyderabadi Muslims, and it regarded as a forum for free self-expression
  • Mazahiya Mushaira: If the poetry is humorous in nature, it is referred to as Mazahiya Mushaira. Some of the poets now developed it in the form of criticising with a deeper meaning.
  • Tarahi Mushaira: The Tarahi Mushaira is a competitive form of mushaira where a misra is given, and poets compose their ghazals using that misra and the behar (rhythmic metre) of the misra.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1697802


Consider the following Statements regarding MBT Arjun Project

  1. It was initiated by DRDO in 1972 with the Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment
  2. It is a state-of-the-art tank with superior fire power, high mobility, and excellent protection.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is the Arjun Main Battle Tank MK-1A?

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday handed over the indigenously developed Arjun Main Battle Tank (MK-1A) to the Indian Army at a ceremony in Chennai. 
  • The army will get 118 units of the Main Battle Tank, indigenously designed, developed and manufactured by CVRDE and DRDO along with 15 academic institutions, eight labs and several MSMEs.

What is the Arjun Main Battle Tank?

  • The Arjun Main Battle Tank project was initiated by DRDO in 1972 with the Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) as its lead laboratory.  Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The objective was to create a “state-of-the-art tank with superior fire power, high mobility, and excellent protection”. During the development, the CVRDE achieved breakthroughs in the engine, transmission, hydropneumatic suspension, hull and turret as well as the gun control system.  Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • Mass production began in 1996 at the Indian Ordnance Factory’s production facility in Avadi, Tamil Nadu.

What are the features of the Arjun tank?

  • The Arjun tanks stand out for their ‘Fin Stabilised Armour Piercing Discarding Sabot (FSAPDS)’ ammunition and 120-mm calibre rifled gun.
  • It also has a computer-controlled integrated fire control system with stabilised sighting that works in all lighting conditions.
  • The secondary weapons include a co-axial 7.62-mm machine gun for anti-personnel and a 12.7-mm machine gun for anti-aircraft and ground targets.

How is the Mk-1A different?

  • The Mk-1A version has 14 major upgrades on the earlier version. It is also supposed to have missile firing capability as per the design, but this feature will be added later as final testing of the capability is still on. 

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-the-arjun-main-battle-tank-mk-1a-7188226/


The term ‘BL Lacertae Blazar’, often seen in the news, is related to:

  1. A series of Solar System exploration missions
  2. Electric planes that can be used for commercial purposes
  3. Earth-sized exoplanets
  4. Supermassive Black hole 

Answer: (d) Supermassive Black hole 

Explanation:

In NEWS: Major achievement by Indian astronomers! Huge optical flare detected in one of the oldest astronomical objects

  • Indian astronomers have reported one of the strongest flares from a feeding super massive black hole or blazar called BL Lacertae.
  • Blazars, or feeding super massive black holes in far off galaxies, are known for their complicated emission mechanism. And for this reason alone they are of particular interest to the astronomical community around the world. Hence option (d)  is correct.
  • Blazars are one of the most energetic and luminous objects in the Universe and and they emit jets of charged particles travelling at nearly the speed of light.
  • BL Lacertae blazar is one among the 50 most prominent blazars which can be observed with the help of a relatively small telescope.
  • BL Lacertae blazar is located 10 million light-years away. The Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT), an international consortium of astronomers, had predicted that the BL Lacertae blazar is among the three or four blazars to be experiencing flares
  • Dr Gupta and his team have been following the BL Lacertae blazar since October 2020 and on January 16 this year they detected the exceptionally high flare with the help of Sampurnanand Telescope (ST) and 1.3m Devasthal Fast Optical Telescopes located in Nainital.

Source: https://www.financialexpress.com/lifestyle/science/major-achievement-by-indian-astronomers-huge-optical-flare-in-one-of-the-oldest-astronomical-objects-detected/2194124/


Consider the following Statements regarding Nanophotonics

  1. It is the study of the behaviour of light on the nanometer scale, and of the interaction of nanometer-scale objects with light.
  2. It has immense potential in fields ranging from biochemistry to electrical engineering.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Nanophotonics: Hyderabad scientists manipulate tiny crystals

  • Light, when left to itself moves along straight paths, so it is crucial to develop materials and technology that can cause its path to bend along what is required in the circuits. This is like using fibre optics, but at the nanoscale level using organic crystals.
  • The Hyderabad group has demonstrated how such crystals can be lifted, bent, moved, transferred and sliced using atomic force microscopy.
  • The researchers have named this technique “mechanophotonics” as this method can be used to generate the basic elements needed to build up a photonic integrated circuit.
  • The Hyderabad group has demonstrated how such crystals can be lifted, bent, moved, transferred and sliced using atomic force microscopy. They add a crucial piece to the jigsaw puzzle of building an “organic photonic integrated circuit” or OPIC.
  • The researchers have also been able to develop other crucial photonic elements like polymer microcavities or microresonators (light-trapping elements) using the same technique.

Nanophotonics:

  • Nanophotonics or nano-opticsis the study of the behaviour of light on the nanometer scale, and of the interaction of nanometer-scale objects with light. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Small lasers have various desirable properties for optical communication including low threshold current (which helps power efficiency) and fast modulation (which means more data transmission). Small photodetectors tend to have a variety of desirable properties including low noise, high speed, and low voltage and power.
  • Nanophotonics has immense potential in fields ranging from biochemistry to electrical engineering. Nanophotonics would make it possible to go beyond current electronics and build up circuits driven entirely by photons (light). Hence statement 2 is correct.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/nanophotonics-hyderabad-scientists-manipulate-tiny-crystals/article33829978.ece


Satya Shodhak Samaj organized 

  1. a movement for upliftment of tribals in Bihar 
  2. a temple-entry movement in Gujarat 
  3. an anti-caste movement in Maharashtra 
  4. a peasant movement in Punjab

Answer: (c) an anti-caste movement in Maharashtra 

Explanation:

  • In Poona, Jyotirao Phooley, though a Mali by caste and of comparatively little education started the association called the Satyashodhak Samaj in 1873 for asserting the worth of man irrespective of caste. He demanded representation of all classes of the Hindus in all the local bodies, in services and institutions and also established a primary school for the so-called untouchables in Poona. Hence option (c)  is correct.