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Daily Prelims Test – 14_August

Consider the following statements regarding Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

  • It is a space telescope for NASA’s Explorers program
  • It aims to survey the brightest stars near the Earth for transiting exoplanets over a two-year period.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:NASA’s Planet Hunter Completes Its Primary Mission

  • NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) finished its primary mission, imaging about 75% of the starry sky as part of a two-year-long survey.
  • In capturing this giant mosaic, TESS has found 66 new exoplanets, or worlds beyond our solar system, as well as nearly 2,100 candidates astronomers are working to confirm.

About TESS

  • The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a space telescope for NASA’s Explorers program, designed to search for exoplanets using the transit method.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The primary mission objective for TESS is to survey the brightest stars near the Earth for transiting exoplanets over a two-year period.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • One of TESS’s goals is to build a catalogue of small, rocky planets on short orbits around very bright, nearby stars for atmospheric study.
  • It aims to discover a number of planets whose atmospheric compositions, which hold potential clues to the presence of life.
  • It was launched in April 2018 on Falcon 9, SpaceX.
  • The spacecraft will be looking for a phenomenon known as a transit, where a planet passes in front of its star, causing a periodic and regular dip in the star’s brightness.

Source: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard2020/nasa-s-planet-hunter-completes-its-primary-mission

Consider the following statements regarding the term “Raman”

  • It is a 3-D printed upper stage rocket engine that can send satellites of 250-700 kgs into a lower earth orbit.
  • It was developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Hyderabad startup Skyroot Aerospace test-fires upper stage rocket engine ‘Raman’

  • SkyrootAerospace, a city-based startup has successfully test-fired here its upper stage rocket engine named ‘Raman, which can place multiple satellites into orbit
  • Aerospace startup Skyroot Aerospace has successfully test fired an upper-stage rocket engine, becoming the first Indian private company to demonstrate the capability to build a homegrown rocket engine.

About Raman

  • It was developed by the Skyroot firmthat is headquartered at Hyderabad.Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The 3-D printed rocket engine was named as Raman, after Nobel laureate CV Raman.
  • It is India’s first 100% 3D-printed bi-propellant liquid rocket engine injector.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It has fewer moving parts and weighs less than half of conventional rocket engines with a similar capacity.
  • The engine is capable of multiple restarts, enabling the launch vehicle to insert various satellites into multiple orbits in a single mission.
  • The company has designed in-house software for launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control functions, and is testing onboard its avionics modules.

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/companies/hyderabad-startup-skyroot-aerospace-test-fires-upper-stage-rocket-engine-raman/articleshow/77520662.cms

Which of the following northeastern state are not a part of Sixth Schedule of the Constitution?

  • Assam
  • Meghalaya
  • Mizoram
  • Arunachal Pradesh

Answer: (d) Arunachal Pradesh

Explanation:

In NEWS:Arunachal groups push for 6th Schedule status

  • The revival of the demand for two autonomous councils has made political parties and community-based groups call for bringing the entire Arunachal Pradesh state under the ambit of the Sixth Schedule or Article 371 (A) of the Constitution.
  • The Frontier State of Arunachal Pradesh, bordering Bhutan, China, and Myanmar is currently under the Fifth Schedule.
  • The groups in Arunachal Pradesh are making such demand as the provisions under Fifth Schedule “do not provide special rights for the indigenous communities” unlike the Sixth Schedule.Hence option (d) is correct
  • The Sixth Schedule currently includes 10 autonomous district councils in four northeastern States i.e Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Tripura.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/arunachal-groups-push-for-6th-schedule-status/article32348593.ece

Consider the following statements regarding Assam Accord

  • All those foreigners who had entered Assam between 1951 and 1961 were to be given full citizenship including the right to vote.
  • Those who entered between 1961 and 1971 were to be denied voting rights for ten years but would enjoy all other rights of citizenship.
  • Migrants those who had done so after 1971 were to be deported.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  • 1 and 2only
  • 2 and 3 only
  • 1 and 3 only
  • 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:Committed to implement Clause 6 of Assam Accord, says Assam govt

The Assam government on Wednesday assured that it is committed to implement the Clause 6 of the 1985 Assam Accord which pertains to safeguards for the preservation and promotion of Assamese identity and heritage.

About Assam Accord:

  • The Accord was a Memorandum of Settlement signed between representatives of the Government of India and the leaders of the Assam Movement in New Delhi on 15 August 1985.
  • As per this accord:
  • All those foreigners who had entered Assam between 1951 and 1961were to be given full citizenship including the right to vote.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Those who entered between 1961 and 1971were to be denied voting rights for ten years but would enjoy all other rights of citizenship.Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Migrants those who had done so after 1971 were to be deported.Hence statement 3 is correct

What is Clause 6?

  • Part of the Assam Accord that came at the culmination of a movement against immigration from Bangladesh, Clause 6 reads: “Constitutional, legislative and administrative safeguards, as may be appropriate, shall be provided to protect, preserve and promote the cultural, social, linguistic identity and heritage of the Assamese people.” .

What are the recommendations?

A 13-member committee headed by justice (Retd) Biplab Kumar Sarma submitted the report to chief minister SarbanandaSonowal on February this year. Clarity on who can be called an Assamese was one of the committee’s main tasks as the accord did not clearly define it.

  • For the purpose of implementation of Clause 6, the proposed definition includes indigenous tribals, other indigenous communities, all other citizens of India residing in Assam on or before January 1, 1951 and indigenous Assamese — and their descendants.
  • It covers anyone who can prove their presence (or that of their ancestors) in Assam before 1951.
  • For safeguards, the committee has recommended reservations in legislature and jobs for Assamese people and land rights be confined to them.

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/committed-to-implement-clause-6-of-assam-accord-says-assam-govt/story-2iaX79SCqrRDDIzwWUY4QI.html

Consider the following statements regarding Perseids meteor shower 

  • It peaks every year in mid-August
  • It occurs due to pieces of cosmic debris left behind by comet Swift-Tuttle

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Explained: The Perseids meteor shower, set to peak in mid-August

The Perseids meteor shower is going to be active from August 17-26.

What is the Perseids meteor shower?

  • The Perseids meteor shower peaks every year in mid-August. It was first observed over 2,000 years ago.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Perseids occur as the Earth runs into pieces of cosmic debris left behind by the comet Swift-Tuttle. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The cloud of debris is about 27 km wide, and at the peak of the display, between 160 and 200 meteors streak through the Earth’s atmosphere every hour as the pieces of debris, travelling at some 2.14 lakh km per hour, burn up a little less than 100 km above the Earth’s surface.

Where do the Perseids meteor showers come from?

  • The comet Swift-Tuttle, which was discovered in 1862 by Lewis Swift and Horace Tuttle, takes 133 years to complete one rotation around the sun.
  • The last time it reached its closest approach to the sun was in 1992 and will do so again in 2125.
  • Every time comets come close to the sun, they leave behind dust that is essentially the debris trail, which the Earth passes through every year as it orbits around the Sun.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-the-perseids-meteor-shower-set-to-peak-mid-august-6551905/

International Labour Organization’s Convention182 are related to

  • Child labour
  • Adaptation of agriculturalpractices to global climatechange
  • Regulation of food pricesand food security
  • Gender parity at theworkplace

Answer: (a) Child Labour

Explanation:

In NEWS:Historic ratification: On universal ratification of a labour standard

  • The universal ratification of a labour standard is cause for celebration and reflection. The welcome decision by the Kingdom of Tonga to outlaw the worst forms of child labour is the first time in the International Labour Organization (ILO)’s 101-year history that a labour standard has been universally ratified.
  • An estimated 152 million are trapped in child labour and 72 million of them are engaged in hazardous work.
  • The pandemic is threatening a reversal of recent gains, with widespread job losses, deterioration in conditions of work, the decline in household incomes and temporary school closures.
  • The current efforts would have to be stepped up significantly to achieve the ambitious goal of total abolition of the scourge of child labour by 2025.
  • As the world prepares to designate 2021 as the year to abolish child labour, governments must seize the moment to instil hope in the future generations.

About ILO’s Convention 182

  • It wasadopted in the 1999 annual international labour conference.Hence option (a) is correct
  • The convention prohibits the sexual exploitation of children, trafficking, deployment in armed conflict and other conditions that compromise their overall well-being.
  • The Convention 182 complements the ILO’s efforts under the 1973 Minimum Age Convention to prevent the employment of children below a lower age threshold. 
  • Under the influence of both these ILO standards, millions of young boys and girls have been rescued from hazardous conditions of work. 
  • Simultaneously, these have resulted in significant increases in enrolments in primary education. 

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/historic-ratification-the-hindu-editorial-on-universal-ratification-of-a-labour-standard/article32347515.ece

Consider the following statements regarding ‘Transparent Taxation- Honoring the Honest’ Scheme.

  • It will havefaceless assessments, faceless appeal and taxpayer charter.
  • It is aimed at bringing more transparencyin official communication through the newly-introduced Document Identification Number

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:PM Narendra Modi launches Transparent Taxation platform to honour honest taxpayers

  • In a bid to reward the taxpaying citizens of India, Prime Minister Narendra Modilaunched a platform which will honour the honest taxpayers.
  • Unveiling the “Transparent Taxation – Honoring the Honest” platform through video conferencing, the prime minister also laid out the next phase of reforms of the direct taxes which is aimed at easing the tax compliance and also rewarding honest taxpayers in the midst of coronavirus(COVID-19) pandemic which has severely hit the Indian economy because of the rising number of cases and the lockdowns.

About ‘Transparent Taxation- Honoring the Honest’ Scheme.

  • Recently, the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has launched the ‘Transparent Taxation- Honoring the Honest’ Scheme.
  • It will benefit the honest taxpayers of the country, whose hard work powers the progress of the nation.
  • It will havefaceless assessments, faceless appeal and taxpayer charter.Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is aimed at bringing more transparencyin official communication through the newly-introduced Document Identification Number (DIN).Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The implementation of the faceless assessment scheme is set to eliminate the human interface between the taxpayer and representatives of the income tax department.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/business/prime-minister-pm-narendra-modi-launches-transparent-taxation-honoring-the-honest-6552733/

Consider the following statements regarding Sarthak

  • Itis the 4th in the series of five OPVs deployed by the Coast Guard to enhance maritime security.
  • It has been designed and built indigenously by Goa Shipyard Limited

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Indian Coast Guard Offshore Patrol Vessel ‘Sarthak’ launched

  • An Offshore Patrol Vessel (OPV) for the Indian Coast Guard was launched today and re-christened as Indian Coast Guard Ship ‘Sarthak’.
  • The launching ceremony held at Goa Shipyard Limited was conducted through video conferencing from Coast Guard headquarters at New Delhi.
  • Sarthak is the 4th in the series of five OPVs deployed by the Coast Guard to enhance maritime security.Hence statement 1 is correct
  •  It has been designed and built indigenously by Goa Shipyard Limited in line with the Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision of ‘Make in India’. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The OPV is fitted with the state-of-the-art navigation and communication equipment, sensor and machinery
  • The 105 metre ship displaces approximately 2,350 tonnes and is propelled by two 9,100 KW diesel engines designed to attain a maximum speed of 26 knots, with an endurance of 6,000 nautical miles

Source: http://www.newsonair.com/News?title=Indian-Coast-Guard-Offshore-Patrol-Vessel-%26%2339%3BSarthak%26%2339%3B-launched&id=397209

Villingili, Gulhifahu and Thilafushi islands are recently seen in news, it is associated with

  • Maldives
  • Bali
  • Seychelles
  • Mauritius

Answer: (a) Maldives

Explanation:

In NEWS:India Announces $ 500 Million Assistance For Mega Infra Project In Maldives

  • India will fund the implementation of a major connectivity project in Maldives through a USD 400 million line of credit and $ 100 million grant
  • The 6.7 km Greater Male Connectivity Project (GMCP) will be the largest civilian infrastructure project in Maldives, connecting Male with three neighbouring islands – Villingili, Gulhifahu and Thilafushi. Hence option (a) is correct
  • The GMCP project will include construction of a bridge-and-causeway link spanning 6.7 kms.
  • India is also extending financial support for construction of a port in Gulhifahu.
  • The cargo ferry service will enhance sea connectivity and provide predictability in supplies for importers in Maldives and exporters in India. It will also reduce logistics costs and times for traders
  • India has sought to regain diplomatic influence in the islands after a new administration led by President Ibrahim Solih took power following the defeat of the pro-China strongman Abdulla Yameen in elections in 2018.
  • The Indian Ocean island nation, popular with tourists for its beaches and turquoise waters, has become a focal point in China’s Belt and Road Initiative aimed at building trade and transport links across the region.

Source: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/india-announces-500-million-for-maldives-project-to-counter-china-influence/articleshow/77527750.cms

Under which Schedule of the Constitution of India can the transfer of tribal land to private parties for mining be declared null and void?

  • Third Schedule
  • Fifth Schedule
  • Ninth Schedule
  • Twelfth Schedule

Answer: (b) Fifth Schedule

Explanation:

  • The Indian Constitution provides autonomy to tribal areas in matters of governance under the Fifth and Sixth Schedules, which is further fortified by the Samatha v. State of Andhra Pradesh &Ors (1997) judgment where the Supreme Court declared that the transfer of tribal land to private parties for mining was null and void under the Fifth Schedule. Hence option (b) is correct
  • The framework for protection of the rights of tribal and indigenous people is further strengthened by the Recognition of Forest Rights At, 2006 which protects the individual and community rights of tribal people in forest areas and their right to free and prior informed consent in event of their displacement and resettlement.