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Daily Prelims Test – 14_April 2021

What is the aim of Aahaar Kranti Mission?

To facilitate transportation of food grains and perishables during lockdown.

To aid, assist and advise farmers to improve their farming techniques and increase their incomes

To spread the message of the need for a nutritionally balanced diet

To provide a great platform to students of Atal Tinkering Labs

Answer: (c) To spread the message of the need for a nutritionally balanced diet

Explanation:

In NEWS: Dr Harsh Vardhan will launch a new mission called `Aahaar Kranti’

  • The `Aahaar Kranti’ movement is designed to address the peculiar problem being faced by India and the world called `hunger and diseases in abundance’
  • Vijnana Bharati (Vibha) and the Global Indian Scientists’ and Technocrats’ Forum (GIST) will launch Aahaar Kranti Mission.
  • The mission will aim to spread the message of the need for a nutritionally balanced diet. Further, it will highlight the importance of being accessible to all local fruits and vegetables. Hence option (c) is correct
  • In terms of objectives, it will seek to promote better awareness, better nutrition and better agriculture; the messages will be imparted through the curriculum in the form of `what’s and `why’s of nutrition, or through the forms of games or as instructions such as `how to’
  • The mission will especially focus on training teachers. Who in turn will pass on the message to the students and through them to their families and finally the society at large.
  • The mission will also utilize India’s rich knowledge of Ayurveda-based nutrition to practice.
  • It will work to arouse the people to the values of India’s traditional diet, local fruits and vegetables, and a balanced diet.
  • Further, the United Nations also declared 2021 as the International Year of Fruits and Vegetables. Hence, the Aahaar Kranti Mission vibes very well with this.
  • Moreover, UN sustainable goal # 3 also emphasizes human well-being. It reads, “Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.”

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1711185


Consider the following Statements with respect to National Centre for Sustainable Aquaculture

  1. It is an arm of Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) that operates under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  2. It aims to encourage and uplift small and marginal farmers through organisation of clusters and also by adopting best practices in shrimp culture.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: e-platform for aqua farmers, buyers

  • Government launched an e-commerce platform for marine products named e-SANTA, to connect aqua farmers and exporters by eliminating middlemen.
  • The term e-SANTA means Electronic Solution for Augmenting NaCSA Farmers’ Trade in Aquaculture. The National Centre for Sustainable Aquaculture (NaCSA) is an extension arm of the Kochi-based Marine Products Export Development Authority, under the Ministry of Commerce
  • About National Centre for Sustainable Aquaculture
  • National Centre for Sustainable Aquaculture is an arm of Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) that operates under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The main objective of NaCSA is to encourage and uplift small and marginal farmers through organisation of clusters and also by adopting best practices in shrimp culture. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • NaCSA started grouping these farmers into societies and educated them on better management practices (BMP) for safe and sustainable shrimp farming. 
  • NaCSA mainly functions as the prime mover of the extension activities among Aquaculture farmers. It organizes small scale farmers farming within the same creek to societies and promotes them about better management practices to improve their production and profit.
  • It conducts meetings on crop planning, technical updates apart from this technical support to society and non-society farmers during culture for sustainable and better production.
  • NaCSA also trained these farmer societies to follow cluster approaches in shrimp farming. 
  • Till date, NaCSA has organised 948 societies in nine coastal states of India comprising 20343 farmers and a total culture area of 18494.9 hectares.

Cluster refers to interdependent aquaculture ponds often situated in a specified geographical locality and in close proximity to each other with the following characteristics:

  • sharing resources or infrastructure (e.g. water sources or effluent discharge system)
  • having the same production system
  • involving the same candidate species

Source:https://www.livemint.com/news/india/piyush-goyal-launches-e-commerce-platform-for-aqua-farmers-11618316722994.html


Global Food Policy Report is published by which of the following international organizations?

  1. Food and Agriculture Organization
  2. International Rice Research Institute
  3. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
  4. International Food Policy Research Institute

Answer: (d) International Food Policy Research Institute

Explanation:

In NEWS: Covid-19 has pushed half of India’s poor away from nutritious food: report

  • The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic and the restrictions that followed has resulted in half of India’s poor people being deprived of nutritious food. 
  • In its 2021 Global Food Policy Report, the International Food Policy Research Institute has warned of severe and long lasting consequences due to the contraction in diet quality. Hence option (d) is correct
  • India was one of the first countries to implement a complete lockdown when cases and deaths due to the pandemic were relatively low. 
  • The midday meal programme of India that covers 80% of primary school age children in the country was affected due to the COVID-19 lockdown. The school closures are likely to exacerbate nutrition and food insecurity in the country especially in girls and disadvantaged populations.
  • 50% of households in India reported that women spent more time fetching firewood and water in comparison with the previous year.
  • Efforts of India to incorporate migrant workers into social protection programmes was a huge success.
  • Around 80 million hectares of land in India have been classified as commons. This included forest, water bodies, and pastures. The Commons provide a source of livelihood for more than 350 million people in the country. They are dependent on these areas for their forest products and fodder.
  • One of the key conclusions of the study is that India’s rapid policy actions and effective coordination across national, state, and local institutions helped buffer the initial shocks to health and nutrition programmes

Source:https://indianexpress.com/article/india/covid-19-has-pushed-half-of-indias-poor-away-from-nutritious-food-report-7272500/


With reference to Poshan Gyan, consider the following Statements

  1. It is a digital repository on health and nutrition
  2. It is launched by the NITI Aayog in partnership with Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: NITI Aayog launches ‘Poshan Gyan’, a digital repository on health, nutrition

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Raisina Dialogue is sometime seen in news, it is related to

Strengthening the processes of election management in member countries.

Eliminate direct contact between Taxpayer and Income Tax officer.

Enhancing the cyber security posture

Explore advancement in integration of Asia with the world

Answer: (d) Explore advancement in integration of Asia with the world

Explanation:

In NEWS: Equitable access to vaccines critical: S Jaishankar

Participating in a session at the Raisina Dialogue that focused on vaccines and global expectations, Jaishankar held up India’s ability to manufacture a range of Covid-19 vaccines as an example of global cooperation 

About The Raisina Dialogue

  • The Raisina Dialogue is India’s premier conference on geopolitics and geoeconomics committed to addressing the most challenging issues facing the global community. 
  • Every year, leaders in politics, business, media, and civil society converge in New Delhi to discuss the state of the world and explore opportunities for cooperation on a wide range of contemporary matters.
  • The Dialogue is structured as a multi-stakeholder, cross-sectoral discussion, involving heads of state, cabinet ministers and local government officials, who are joined by thought leaders from the private sector, media and academia.
  • The conference is hosted by the Observer Research Foundation in partnership with the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India.
  • It was structured on the lines of Shangri-La-Dialogue.
  • It was held for the first time in 2016.

Objectives of Raisina Dialogue

  • To explore future opportunities for Asian integration.
  • To explore advancement in integration of Asia with the world. Hence option (d) is correct
  • It also asserts the crucial role played by India in the Indian Ocean Region.
  • It also focuses on how India can build a stable, regional and world order.
  • It addresses the most challenging issue faced by the global community.

Source:https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/raisina-dialogue-jaishankar-roots-for-more-vaccine-production-facilities-in-india-101618311401500.html


Consider the following Statements with respect to Tritium

  1. It is a rare and radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
  2. It is used as the energy source in radio luminescent lights for watches
  3. Naturally occurring tritium is extremely rare on Earth.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Japan To Release Treated, Radioactive Water From Fukushima Nuclear Plant Into Sea In Two Years

  • Japan’s government decided to start releasing massive amounts of treated radioactive water from the wrecked Fukushima nuclear plant into the Pacific Ocean in two years — an option fiercely opposed by local fishermen and residents.
  • The accumulating water has been stored in tanks at the Fukushima Daiichi plant since 2011, when a massive earthquake and tsunami damaged its reactors and their cooling water became contaminated and began leaking.
  • The plant’s operator, Tokyo Electric Power Co., says its storage capacity will be full late next year
  • TEPCO and government officials say tritium, which is not harmful in small amounts, cannot be removed from the water, but all other selected radionuclides can be reduced to levels allowed for release. Some scientists say the long-term impact on marine life from low-dose exposure to such large volumes of water is unknown.
  • TEPCO will start releasing the water in about two years after building a facility under the regulatory authority’s safety requirements.

About Tritium

  • Tritium or hydrogen-3 is a rare and radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The nucleus of tritium (sometimes called a triton) contains one proton and two neutrons. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • Naturally occurring tritium is extremely rare on Earth. The atmosphere has only trace amounts, formed by the interaction of its gases with cosmic rays. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  • It can be artificially produced by irradiating lithium metal or lithium-bearing ceramic pebbles in a nuclear reactor
  • Tritium is used as the energy source in radioluminescent lights for watches, numerous instruments and tools, and even novelty items such as self-illuminating key chains. Hence statement 2 is correct. 
  • It is used in a medical and scientific setting as a radioactive tracer.
  • Tritium is also used as a nuclear fusion fuel, along with more abundant deuterium, in tokamak reactors and in hydrogen bombs.
  • Tritium was first detected in 1934 by Ernest Rutherford, Mark Oliphant, and Paul Harteck after bombarding deuterium with deuterons

Source:https://www.outlookindia.com/website/story/world-news-japan-to-release-treated-radioactive-water-from-fukushima-nuclear-plant-into-sea-in-two-years/380098


Angami and kuki tribes are related to which of the following states?

  1. Gujarat
  2. Nagaland
  3. Manipur
  4. Tripura

Answer: (b) Nagaland

Explanation:

In NEWS: Tribal body flags concerns over Nagaland’s version of NRC

  • An apex body of Naga tribes has asked the Nagaland government not to be hasty with the exercise to prepare the Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland
  • The State government had formed a three-member panel headed by retired bureaucrat Banuo Z. Jamir for “examining and advising” on the implementation of RIIN.
  • The State government had tasked the RIIN committee with determining the eligibility criteria to be an indigenous inhabitant, authority to authenticate claims of being indigenous, place of registration as indigenous inhabitant, the basis of claims of being indigenous, and the nature of documents that will be acceptable as proof.
  • But the exercise was suspended following protests from community-based and extremist organisations.
  • The major-recognized tribes of Nagaland are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Khiamniungan, Kuki, Konyak, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Yimchunger and Zeliang. The Naga languages differ from tribe to tribe, and sometimes even from one village to another. Hence option (b) is correct

About Angami

  • The Angamis are a major Naga ethnic group native to the state of Nagaland in North-East India.
  • Angami Nagas are hill people depending basically on cultivation and livestock-rearing. The Angamis are known for terraced wet-rice cultivation

About Kuki Tribe

  • Kuki tribe is majorly found in Manipur with other states of North Eastern India.
  • ‘Mim Kut’ is the main festival of the Kuki tribe.
  • The Chin-Kuki group consists of Gangte, Hmar, Paite, Thadou, Vaiphei, Zou, Aimol, Chiru, Koireng, Kom, Anal, Chothe, Lamgang, Koirao, Thangal, Moyon and Monsang.
  • The term Chin is used for the people in the neighboring Chin state of Myanmar whereas Chins are called Kukis on the Indian side. Other groups like Paite, Zou, Gangte, and Vaiphei identify themselves as Zomi and have distanced themselves from the name, Kuki.

Source:https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/tribal-body-flags-concerns-over-nagalands-version-of-nrc/article34314341.ece


Consider the following Statements with respect to Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary

  1. It is lies on the northern bank of the Brahmaputra River
  2. It is a notified buffer area of the Kaziranga Tiger reserve.
  3. It is a home to the great Indian-one horned rhinoceros, elephants, royal Bengal tigers and Asiatic water buffaloes

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct? 

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Answer: (c) 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Last rhinos translocated in Assam under Vision 2020 to increase population

  • The ambitious Indian Rhino Vision 2020 (IRV 2020) came to a close with the release of two rhinos — an adult male and a female — in Assam’s Manas National Park transported from Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary about 185 km east.
  • Assam had at least five rhino-bearing areas till the 1980s. Better conservation efforts helped maintain the population of the one-horned herbivore in Kaziranga, Orang and Pobitora, but encroachment and poaching wiped the animal out of Manas and Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • The lesser-known Laokhowa slipped under the radar of international watchdogs.
  • Manas, in focus for the near-extinction of the pygmy hog, lost the World Heritage Site tag it received in 1985 along with Kaziranga from UNESCO.
  • The translocated rhinos helped Manas National Park get back its World Heritage Site status in 2011.

About Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary

  • Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary covers an area of around 70.13 sq km and lies on the southern bank of the Brahmaputra River. Hence statement 1 is incorrect.
  • It forms an integral part of the Laokhowa-Burachapori ecosystem and is a notified buffer of the Kaziranga Tiger reserve. Hence statement 2 is correct.
  • The sanctuary is home to the great Indian-one horned rhinoceros, elephants, royal Bengal tigers, Asiatic water buffaloes and more than 225 species of birds. Hence statement 3 is correct.
  • The barking deer, fishing cat, leopard cat, civet and wild pig are some of the other animals seen in the sanctuary. 
  • The sanctuary is also a breeding ground for around 39 species of fishes, 9 species of amphibians and 14 species of reptiles.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/last-rhinos-translocated-in-assam-under-vision-2020-to-increase-population/article34309773.ece


Consider the following

  1. Visakhapatnam Port
  2. Gangavaram Port
  3. Kakinada
  4. Krishnapatnam Port

What is the correct order of sea port from north to south direction?

  1. 4-3-2-1
  2. 2-3-4-1
  3. 1-4-3-2
  4. 1-2-3-4

Answer: (d) 1-2-3-4

Explanation:

In NEWS: 

  • The Competition Commission of India (CCI) has approved acquisition of 89.6 percent of equity shareholding in Gangavaram Port Ltd (GPL) by Adani Ports and Special Economic Zones Ltd (APSEZ) under Section 31(1) of the Competition Act 2002.
  • APSEZ is an integrated port infrastructure services provider currently present across 11 domestic ports in six maritime states of Gujarat, Goa, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Odisha, according to a statement released by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.
  • GPL is engaged to own, develop and operate the deep-water port at Gangavaram in Andhra Pradesh pursuant to a concession agreement on Build-Own-Operate-Transfer basis with the government of Andhra Pradesh for a concession period of 30 years from the date of commercial operations and entitled for a further period of 20 years (two periods of 10 years each).

About The Port

  • Gangavaram Port concession was awarded to Mr. DVS Raju led consortium through an international bidding process. The Concession Agreement was signed in August, 2003.
  • Gangavaram Port has the unique distinction of being one of the few Greenfield port projects in India which has been implemented on schedule. Construction at the site commenced in December 2005 and the Port commenced trial operations in August 2008.
  • Gangavaram Port has been developed as an all weather, multipurpose port with water depth upto 21 meters, making it the deepest and capable of handling fully laden Super Cape size vessels of upto 200,000 DWT. Hence option (d) is correct
https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/CEAoDbD_qXrbN75IcfkUrr4RbM25EmKfUD7Gy4WZPx56r0llkdsu26gky0bp9jKmlaT1AuRk-sWpHZez2Qk6XK4Ex80h6CwpFFdF4CsJkX8QzMPaU2-njIqIVG87Nc1PYkHQ0lo

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/cci-approves-apsez-acquisition-of-89-6-of-equity-in-gangavaram-port-121041300955_1.html


with the print state of development, Artificial Intelligence can effectively do which of the following?

  1. Bring down electricity consumption in industrial units 
  2. Create meaningful short stories and songs 
  3. Disease diagnosis 
  4. Text -to -Speech Conversion 
  5. Wireless transmission of electrical energy 

Select the correct answer using the code given below: 

  1. 1, 2, 3 and 5 only 
  2. 1, 3 and 4 only 
  3. 2, 4 and 5 only 
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Answer: (d) 1, 2,3,4 and 5

Explanation:

  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. Artificial Intelligence has various applications in today’s society.
    • In multiple industries, such as Healthcare, entertainment, finance, education, etc. AI has been used in disease diagnosis, creating songs like ‘I am AI’ and ‘Daddy’s Car’ and creating short stories and fictions. AI has been used in Text -to -speech conversion, e.g. Cerewave AI. 
  • Artificial Intelligence has also found use in the power industry, e.g. Machine learning assisted power transfer (based on AI) using magnetic resonance and AI used for energy efficiency. Hence option (d) are correct.

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