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Daily Prelims Test – 13_October_2021

1.Consider the following statements

1) Rubber is a tropical tree

2) Rubber requires heavy rainfall and high temperature throughout the year

3) Rubber trees can tolerate both acidic and alkaline soils

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   1 and 2 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:Rubber Board bets big on intercropping of medicinal plants in plantations

·      Intercropping of medicinal plants in rubber plantations has gained momentum with leading ayurvedic medicine manufacturing companies coming forward to take up the project by supplying necessary planting materials.

·      Rubber Research Institute of India (RRII) has conducted several experiments to evaluate the performance of medicinal plants in mature rubber plantations.

·      Light requiring medicinal plants such as Thechi (IxoraCoccinea), kattarvazha (Aloe Vera), Orila (DesmodiumGangeticum), Moovila (PserdarthisViscida), NeelaAmari can be cultivated with rubber

About Rubber 

·         India is currently the sixth largest producer of NR in the world with one of the highest productivity(694,000 tonnes in 2017-18).

·         Traditional rubber-growing states comprising Kerala and Tamil Nadu account for 81% of production.

·         Major non-traditional rubber growing regions are the North Eastern states of Tripura, Assam and Meghalaya, Odisha, Karnataka, Maharashtra and West Bengal.

·         Due to the major spike in the rubber consumption and deficit in the NR production in India, around 40% of NR is imported from other major rubber producing countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and China.

Conditions required for the growth of Rubber tree

·         Rubber is made from the latex of a tree called HeveaBrasiliensis, The British established the first rubber plantation in India in 1902 on the banks of the river Periyar in Kerala.

·         Rubber is a tropical tree. Hence statement 1 is correct

·         It requires high temperature throughout the year – ranging between 20°-35°C or average monthly mean of 27°C. Less than 20°C temperature is detrimental.

·         Similarly, rubber also requires heavy rainfall.The rainfall should be well-distributed throughout the year.Hence statement 2 is correct

·         Rubber trees can grow in a wide range of soils, including clay, sand and loam. They can tolerate both acidic and alkaline soils, but need good drainage.Hence statement 3 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/economy/agri-business/rubber-board-bets-big-on-intercropping-of-medicinal-plants-in-plantations/article36938752.ece

2.Consider the following statements regarding the status of geoheritage sites in India

1) It does not have any legislation and policy for conservation of geoheritages.

2) India is a signatory to the establishment of UNESCO Global Geoparks.

3) Currently, five geopark in India is recognised by the UNESCO.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   1 only

d) 1 and 2 only

Answer: (d) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Protecting India’s natural laboratories

·      India has a very unique geodiversity. India has tall mountains, deep valleys, sculpted landforms, long-winding coastlines, hot mineral springs, active volcanoes, diverse soil types, mineralised areas, and globally important fossil-bearing sites. It is long known as the world’s ‘natural laboratory’ for geo-scientific learning.

·      India’s geological features and landscapes evolved over billions of years through numerous cycles of tectonic and climate upheavals and are part of the country’s heritage.

·      Geo-heritage sites are educational spaces. They commemorate unique geological features and landscapes and promote geo-tourism that generates revenue and employment and they are of great scientific value.

·      For example, the Kutch region in Gujarat has dinosaur fossils and is our version of a Jurassic Park. The Tiruchirappalli region of Tamil Nadu, originally a Mesozoic Ocean, is a store house of Cretaceous (60 million years ago) marine fossils.

Status of geoheritage sites in India

·      Not a single geo-park in India which is recognised by the UNESCO. Though the Geological Survey of India (GSI) has identified 32 sites as National Geological Monuments. Hence statement 3 is incorrect

·      This is despite the fact that India is a signatory to the establishment of UNESCO Global Geoparks. Hence statement 2 is correct

·      Countries like Vietnam and Thailand have also implemented laws to conserve their geological and natural heritage.

·      Unfortunately, India does not have any such legislation and policy for conservation. Hence statement 1 is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/protecting-indias-natural-laboratories/article36951846.ece

3. Consider the following statements regarding Silicosis

1) It is a part of the pneumoconiosis diseases

2) It is an occupational disease

3) Recently, India has notified this disease as an epidemic

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  2 and 3 only

b) 1 and 3 only

c)   3 only

d) 1 and 2 only

Answer: (d) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS:Do not breathe easy on the silicosis prevention policy

·      One State — Rajasthan — with the top-most share of over 17% in value of mineral production in the country and a long history of civil society activism, was the first to notify silicosis as an ‘epidemic’ in 2015, under the Rajasthan Epidemic Diseases Act, 1957. Hence statement 3 is incorrect

·      In 2019, it announced a formal Pneumoconiosis Policy, only next to Haryana.

About Silicosis

·      Silicosis is one of the most important occupational health illnesses in the world. It is a progressive lung disease caused by inhalation of silica over a long period of time.

·      Silicosis is characterized by shortness of breath, cough, fever and bluish skin.

·      Silicosis is part of the pneumoconiosis family of diseases, described by the policy as “occupational diseases due to dust exposure… are incurable, cause permanent disability and are ‘totally preventable by available control measures and technology”. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is correct

·      In India silicosis is prevalent in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Pondicherry, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa and West Bengal among the workers of construction and mining.

·      Silicosis is an incurable condition with its potential to cause permanent physical disability

·      Factory Act of India (1948) mandates a well ventilated working environment, provisions for protection from dust, reduction of overcrowding and provision of basic occupational health care.

·      The main challenge of eliminating silicosis in India is in the informal, unregulated sectors of industry which do not fall under the control of the Factory Act of India.

Source: TH

4.Which one of the following statements is incorrect about Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code 2020?

a)  Code fixes the daily work hour limit to a maximum of eight hours

b) It provides for the constitution of a National Occupational Safety and Health Advisory Board

c)   It removes the manpower limit on hazardous working conditions

d) It defines an inter-state migrant worker as someone who has come on his/her own from one state and received employment in another state and earns more than Rs.18000 per month

Answer: (d) It defines an inter-state migrant worker as someone who has come on his/her own from one state and received employment in another state and earns more than Rs.18000 per month

Explanation:

In NEWS:Do not breathe easy on the silicosis prevention policy

·      According to Section 25 of the erstwhile Mines Act, 1952 and Section 12 of the now-effective Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions (OSHWC) Code, 2020.

Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code 2020 – Salient Features

·         The Code expands the definition of a factory as a premise where at least 20 workers work for a process with power and 40 workers for a process without power. Hence option (c) is correct

·         The Code fixes the daily work hour limit to a maximum of eight hours

·         It defines an inter-state migrant worker as someone who has come on his/her own from one state and received employment in another state and earns up to Rs.18000 per month

·         It also empowers women to be employed in all kinds of establishments and at night (between 7 PM and 6 AM) subject to their consent and safety

·         The OSH Code removes the manpower limit on hazardous working conditions and makes the application of the Code obligatory for contractors recruiting 50 or more workers (earlier it was 20)

·         It ensures that no charge is levied on any employee for maintenance of safety and health at the workplace including the conduct of medical examination and investigation for the purpose of detecting occupational diseases

·         The OSH Code provides for the constitution of a National Occupational Safety and Health Advisory Board (National Advisory Board) by the Central Government, which shall be empowered to advise the Central Government

Source: TH

5.In which of the following parts constitutional Provisions of forest in Indiaare present?

1) State List

2) Fundamental Duty

3) Directive Principles of State policy

4) Fundamental rights

Select the correct options from the given below codes

a)  1 and 3 only

b) 2 and 4 only

c)   1 and 2 only

d) 1,2 and 3 only

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:Explained: Why govt proposes to redefine forests, and the concerns this raises

·      Ministry for Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) published proposed amendments to the Forest Conservation Act, 1980, easing diversion of forests and exempting certain categories of development from the need to take clearance from the Ministry.

·      The Ministry has invited feedback from state governments and the general public within 15 days.

·      It has been amended only once before, in 1988. Ministry officials have said the current definition of forests has locked land across the country; even private owners cannot utilise their own property for non-forestry purposes. Under the Act, any diversion of any forest land for any purpose, including assignment of leases, needs prior approval of the Centre.

·      In 1996, ruling in T N Godavarman Thirumulpad v Union of India, the Supreme Court had expanded the definition and scope of forest land to include all areas recorded as forest in any government record, irrespective of ownership, recognition and classification.

The Forest Conservation Act of 1980 come with the following features:

·      The Act restricts the state government and other authorities to take decisions first without permission from the central government.

·      The Forest Conservation Act gives complete authority to the Central government to carry out the objectives of the act.

·       The Act levies penalties in case of violations of the provisions of FCA.

·      The Forest Conservation Act will have an advisory committee which will help the Central government with regard to forest conservation.

Constitutional Provisions:

·      Through the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976 Forests and Protection of Wild Animals and Birds were transferred from State to Concurrent List along with Education, Weights & Measures and Administration of Justice.

·      Article 51 A (g) of the Constitution states that it shall be the Fundamental Duty of every citizen to protect and improve the natural environment including forests and Wildlife.

·      Article 48 A in the Directive Principles of State policy, mandates that the State shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.Hence option (d) is correct

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/why-govt-proposes-to-redefine-forests-and-the-concerns-this-raises-7568889/

6. Consider the following statements regarding Retreating Monsoon

1) It is gradual and takes a longer duration compared to the advancing one.

2) During this time, the temperature comes down sharply

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c)Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Monsoon has withdrawn from most parts of east and northeast India

·      A cyclonic circulation is lying over north Andaman Sea and neighbourhood extending upto mid tropospheric levels

·      Monsoon has withdrawn from remaining parts of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, some more parts of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and West Bengal, most parts of Assam and entire north Arabian Sea, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and some parts of Telangana, Mizoram and Tripura

·      A cyclonic circulation is lying over north Andaman Sea and neighbourhood extending upto mid tropospheric levels.

·      Under the influence of this cyclonic circulation, a low pressure area is likely to form over the Eastcentral Bay of Bengal and adjoining north Andaman sea during next 48 hours. It is likely to move west-northwestwards and reach south Odisha-north Andhra Pradesh coasts during subsequent 24 hours.

Season of Retreating Monsoon

·      Retreating monsoon season commences with the beginning of the withdrawal of the south-west monsoon [mid-September – November] and lasts till early January.

·      It is a 3-month long process where it starts from the peninsula in October and from the extreme south-eastern tip by December.

·      The south-west monsoons withdraw from the Coromandel coast in mid-December. In Punjab, the south-west monsoons withdraw from there in the second week of September.

·      The withdrawal of the retreating monsoon is gradual and takes a longer duration compared to the advancing one.Hence statement 1 is correct
With the onset of retreating monsoon, skies become clearer and clouds disappear. The disappearance of clouds makes the climate of various places hotter gradually.

·      During this period, the temperature comes down sharply. The sky also becomes clear.Hence statement 2 is correct

·      As the monsoon starts retreating towards the south, the pressure gradient becomes low. Local pressure conditions usually affect the wind flow during that time.

·      It is during the retreating monsoon season in India that the southeastern coast receives a lot of rainfall; tropical cyclones also occur during this time.

Source: TH

7. In the context of economy, the term Layering is related to

a)  Corporate entities which do not have any active business operations

b) Style of trading that attempts to capture short- to medium-term gains in a stock

c)   Method to offset the capital gains made on equity against the capital loss

d) Involves moving funds from one shell-company in one tax haven to another in another tax haven and liquidating the previous company

Answer: (d)Involves moving funds from one shell-company in one tax haven to another in another tax haven and liquidating the previous company

Explanation:

In NEWS: Taking the lid of illicit financial flows

·      The Pandora Papers, published on October 3, once again expose the illegal activities of the rich and the mighty across the world. The Pandora Papers investigation is “the world’s largest-ever journalistic collaboration, involving more than 600 journalists from 150 media outlets in 117 countries”.

·      The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) has researched and analysed the approximately 12 million documents in order to unravel the functioning of the global fnancial architecture which helps illicit fnancialfows, in turn enabling the rich to throw a cloak over their incomes and activities

·      Tax havens enable the rich to hide the true ownership of assets by using: trusts, shell companies and the process of ‘layering’.

·      Financial frmsofer their services to work this out for the rich. They provide ready-made shell companies with directors, create trusts and ‘layer’ the movement of funds. Only the moneyed can afford these services.

·      The process of layering involves moving funds from one shell-company in one tax haven to another in another tax haven and liquidating the previous company. This way, money is moved through several tax havens to the ultimate destination. Hence option (d) is correct

·      Since the trail is erased at each step, it becomes difcult for authorities to track the fow of funds.

·      It appears that most of the rich in the world use such manipulations to lower their tax liability even if their income is legally earned.

·      The Panama Papers revealed the names globally of current and former leaders, politicians and public ofcials, billionaires, celebrities, sports stars, small and big businesses and professionals.

Source: TH

8. Material recovery facility model is related to which of the following options?

a)  E waste

b) Biodegradable Waste

c)   Urban plastic waste

d) Nuclear Waste

Answer: (c) Urban plastic waste

Explanation:

In NEWS:NITI Aayog – UNDP Launch Handbook on Sustainable Management of Plastic Waste for ULB’s

NITI Aayog Vice Chairman Rajiv Kumar has launched the NITI Aayog – United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Handbook on Sustainable Urban Plastic Waste Management in New Delhi.

·      It provides a comprehensive overview of managing plastic waste by representing and discussing components of the entire plastic waste value chain.

·      The Handbook can be adopted by urban local bodies to good effect.

·      NITI Aayog CEO, Amitabh Kant reiterated the significance of the Re-use, Reduce and Recycle model and the need to create a mass movement around the use of plastics.

Material Recovery Facility (MRF)

·      NITI Aayog in this handbook has suggested urban local bodies across states adopt the material recovery facility (MRF) model & implement it as a public-private partnership model for sustainable management of urban plastic waste. Hence option (c) is correct

·      A materials recovery facility, also known as a materials reclamation facility or recycling facility is a specialized plant that receives, separates, and prepares recyclable materials for marketing to end-user manufacturers.

·      The model is initially funded by private players, supported by urban local bodies, and operated by service providers including local organizations and waste management agencies.

·      This model ensures compliance with regulations and improves resource utilization.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1763333

9. Olivine is the most abundant component in the earth’s

a)  Inner Core

b) Crust

c)   Upper Mantle

d) Outer Core

Answer: (c) Upper Mantle

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: How an Indian meteorite helped study Earth’s formation

·      By studying the composition of these meteorite fragments, researchers have unravelled the composition expected to be present in the Earth’s lower mantle which is at about 660 km deep.

·      On May 22, 2012, a large meteor shower occurred near the town of Katol in Nagpur. As it happened at noon, the villagers missed the light show but the shower caused sonic booms or thunder-like noises, initially spreading rumours that an aircraft had crashed.

·      Initial studies revealed that the host rock was mainly composed of olivine, an olive-green mineral. Olivine is the most abundant phase in our Earth’s upper mantle. Our Earth is composed of different layers including the outer crust, followed by the mantle and then the inner core.Hence option (d) is correct

·      Studying the composition of these meteorite fragments, researchers have unravelled the composition expected to be present in the Earth’s lower mantle which is at about 660 km deep.

·      The researchers took a small sample of the meteorite and examined it using special microscopy techniques. The mineralogy was determined using a laser micro-Raman spectrometer.

·      These techniques helped the team identify, characterise the crystal structure of the meteorite and determine its chemical composition and texture.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/how-an-indian-meteorite-helped-study-earths-formation-7563160/

10. With reference to “Blockchain Technology” consider the following statements:

1) It is a public ledger that everyone we inspect, but which no single user controls.

2) The structure and design of blockchain is such that all the data in it are about crypto currency only.

3) Applications that depend on basic features of blockchain can be developed without anybody’s permission.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 1 and 2 only

c)   2 only

d) 1 and 3 only

Answer: (d) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

·      Blockchain technology is a structure that stores transactional records, also known as the block, of the public in several databases, known as the “chain,” in a network connected through peer -to -peer nodes. Typically, this storage is referred to as a ‘digital ledger.’ In simpler words, the digital ledger is like a Google spreadsheet shared among numerous computers in a network, in which, the transactional records are stored based on actual purchases. The fascinating angle is that anybody can see the data, but they cannot corrupt it. Hence statement 1 is correct.

·      The words “block” stands for digital information and “chain” stands for public database. Specifically, they have three parts: Blocks store information about transactions like the date, time, and dollar amount of your most recent purchase from any online site that works on a blockchain principle.

·      Blocks store information that distinguishes them from other blocks. Even though the details of your new transaction would look nearly identical to your earlier purchase, we can still tell the blocks apart because of their unique codes. Hence statement 2 is not correct.

·      Blockchains can be both permissioned and nonpermissioned (permissionless). Public blockchain, typically permissionless as well, is the type associated with Bitcoin (the application depends on the basic features), where access and validation are open to participants, achieving high degree of decentralization. In private permissioned blockchain a trusted entity controls the validation and writing of data permissions. Hence statement 3 is correct.