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Daily Prelims Test – 13_October 2020

 According to the central government notification, which of the following activities are permitted in the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) of the beaches?  

  1. Grey water treatment plant
  2. Solid waste management plant
  3. Solar power plant
  4. CCTV surveillance and control room
  5. Purified drinking water facility
  6. No Car Zone

Select the correct options from the given below codes

  1. 1,2, 3, 4, and 5 only
  2. 2, 3 and 5 only
  3. 1,2,3,4 and 6 only
  4. 1,2,3,4,5 and 6

Answer: (a) 1, 2,3,4 and 5 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: What is the Blue Flag certification, awarded to eight Indian beaches?

  • The beaches to get this tag are selected by an eminent international jury, which comprises members of the UN Environment Programme, UN World Tourism Organization, Foundation for Environmental Education and IUCN.
  • Earlier this year, the Centre issued an Extraordinary Gazette Notification declaring a list of activities and facilities that would be permissible in the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) areas of certain beaches, which have been identified for obtaining the ‘Blue Flag’ certification.

What activities are permitted in the CRZ of certain beaches?

According to the notification issued in January, the following activities and facilities would be permitted in the CRZ of the beaches, including islands, subject to maintaining a minimum distance of 10 meters from the High Tide Line (HTL):

  • Portable toilet blocks, change rooms and shower panels;
  • Grey water treatment plant;
  • Solid waste management plant;
  • Solar power plant;
  • Purified drinking water facility;
  • Beach access pathways;
  • Landscaping lighting;
  • Seating benches and sit-out umbrellas;
  • Outdoor play / fitness equipment;
  • CCTV surveillance and control room;
  • First aid station;
  • Cloak room facility;
  • Safety watch towers and beach safety equipment;
  • Beach layout, environment information boards and other signages;
  • Fencing, preferably vegetative;
  • Parking facilities;
  • Entry gate, tourist facilitation centre; and

Other associated facilities or infrastructure, as per requirements of Blue Flag Certification.

The notification also said that these activities and facilities would be exempt from prior clearance under the provisions of CRZ Notification, Island Protection Zone Notification and Island Coastal Regulation Zone Notifications. Hence option (a) is correct

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-the-blue-flag-certification-awarded-to-eight-indian-beaches-6722252/


Consider the following statements regarding Brahma Kamal

  1. It is a species of flowering plant and is the state flower of Uttarakhand.
  2. It is native to the Himalayas and is considered as a medicinal herb

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Rare Brahma Kamal flowers start blooming in Uttarakhand’s Chamoli in off- season due to climate change

  • Brahma Kamal flowers or the sacred Lotus, a rare and revered flower of the Himalayas that bloom from August to mid-September, have started blooming again in Uttarakhand’s Chamoli district due to climate change. It is the state flower of Uttarakhand. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The flowers usually bloom after sunset and just once a year.
  • The flower is named after God Brahma who is believed to have created the universe.
  • The Brahma Kamal flower, known by its scientific name Saussurea Obvallata, is offered in many holy shrines like Kedarnath, Badrinath, and Tunganth. It also finds mention in the scriptures and is of significant importance in the Hindu religion.
  • The flower is native to the Himalayas, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand. In the Himalayas, it can be found at an altitude of 4500 metres.
  • Brahma Kamal is considered a medicinal herb. It is used to treat liver infections, sexually transmitted diseases, bone pains, cold and cough. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.timesnownews.com/the-buzz/article/rare-brahma-kamal-flowers-start-blooming-in-uttarakhands-chamoli-in-off-season-due-to-climate-change-watch/665491


Consider the following statements regarding Convention on Migratory Species

  1. It is an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme
  2. Appendix II of Convention on Migratory Species lists Migratory species threatened with extinction.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India has launched National Action Plan for conservation of migratory birds: Prakash Javadekar

World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD) is observed every year on the second Saturday of May and October.

  • The day is celebrated as an awareness-raising campaign highlighting the need for the conservation of migratory birds and their habitats.
  • To celebrate the theme of World Migratory Bird Day “Birds Connect Our World”, chosen to highlight the importance of conserving the integrity of ecosystems that support the natural cycles essential for the survival and well-being of migratory birds

About Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) / Bonn Convention:

  • It is an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Hence statement 1 is correct
  • CMS (also referred to as the Bonn Convention) provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats.
  • CMS brings together the States through which migratory animals pass, the Range States, and lays the legal foundation for internationally coordinated conservation measures throughout a migratory range.
  • It is the only global convention specializing in the conservation of migratory species, their habitats and migration routes.
  • CMS acts as a framework Convention as it encourages the Range States to conclude global or regional agreements.
  • Appendix I – Migratory species threatened with extinction.
  • Appendix II – Migratory speciesthat need or would significantly benefit from international co-operationHence statement 2 is incorrect

Source: https://www.indiatoday.in/education-today/gk-current-affairs/story/world-migratory-bird-day-2020-list-of-most-beautiful-migratory-birds-coming-to-india-in-winter-and-summer-season-1730325-2020-10-10


Consider the following statements regarding National Supercomputing Mission

  1. It is implemented by Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Pune
  2. It aims to provide the country with supercomputing infrastructure to meet the increased computational demands of academia of supercomputers indigenously in India.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: More supercomputers, AI training mark beginning of phase II of National Supercomputing Mission

  • The Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) on Monday launched the second phase of the ambitious National Supercomputing Mission
  • The 7-year mission aims at establishing supercomputer facilities across 70 national research and academic institutions and connecting them onto a National Knowledge Network.

About National Super Computing Mission

  • It is first of its kind attempt to boost the country’s computing power, the National Super Computing Mission is initiated jointly by the Ministry of Electronics and IT (MeitY) and Department of Science and Technology (DST) and implemented by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Pune and the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Aim: To provide the country with supercomputing infrastructure to meet the increased computational demands of academia, researchers, MSMEs, and startups by creating the capability design, manufacturing, of supercomputers indigenously in India. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The target of the mission was set to establish a network of supercomputers ranging from a few Tera Flops (TF) to Hundreds of Tera Flops (TF) and three systems with greater than or equal to 3 Peta Flops (PF) in academic and research institutions of National importance across the country by 2022.
  • Under the mission, the first supercomputer assembled indigenously called Param Shivay which was installed in IIT (BHU). Similar systems Param Shakti and Param Brahma were installed at IIT-Kharagpur and IISER, Pune.
  • 11 new systems are likely to be set up in different IITs, NITs, National Labs, and IISERs across India by the end of 2020.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/pune/more-supercomputers-ai-training-mark-beginning-of-phase-ii-of-national-supercomputing-mission-6722398/


Consider the following statements regarding Jayaprakash Narayan

  1. He was a disciple of Mohandas Gandhi
  2. He was not a founder of Congress Socialist Party

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has bowed to Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan on his birth anniversary.

About Jayaprakash Narayan

  • Jayaprakash Narayan, born on October 11 1902 in Sitab Diyara, was an Indian political leader and theorist.
  • He was a disciple of Mohandas Gandhi and leader of India’s independence movement. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • In 1922, he went to the United States, where he studied political science and economics at the universities of California, Iowa, Wisconsin and Ohio State.
  • The nationalist and anti-imperialist convictions of JP Narayan developed into Marxist beliefs and participation in Communist activities.
  • Narayan was opposed to policies of the Soviet Union and rejected organized communism upon returning to India in 1929.
  • He repudiated his resistance movement’s commitment to non-violence, engineering strikes, train wrecks and riots.

Congress Socialist Party of JP Narayan

  • It was founded in 1934by socialists such as Jayaprakash Narayan and Acharya Narendra Dev.
  • It was a socialist groupwithin the Indian National Congress (INC). Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • It believed in Marxist Ideas, Gandhism, Liberal and Social democracyof the west and showed allegiance to Indian National Congress (INC),

Source: https://www.narendramodi.in/prime-minister-shri-narendra-modi-has-bowed-to-loknayak-jayaprakash-narayan-and-nanaji-deshmukh-on-their-jayanti-today–551829


Consider the following statements regarding Learning Adjusted Year of Schooling concept

  1. It is introduced by the United Nations Children’s Fund
  2. It combines quantity (years of schooling) and quality (how much kids know at a given grade level) into a single summary measure of human capital in a society.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: School closure over Covid-19 may cost over USD 400 billion to India: World Bank

  • The prolonged closure of schools due to the Covid-19 pandemic in India may cause a loss of over USD 400 billion in the country’s future earnings, besides substantial learning losses, according to a World Bank report.
  • The report titled “Beaten or Broken? Informality and Covid-19 in South Asia” claims that South Asia is set to plunge into its worst-ever recession in 2020 as the devastating impacts of Covid-19 on the region’s economies linger.
  • Temporary school closures in all South Asian countries have had major implications for students. They have kept 391 million students out of school in primary and secondary education, further complicating efforts to resolve the learning crisis
  • The report also noted that the pandemic may cause up to 5.5 million students to drop out from the education system 
  • Being out of school for that long means that children not only stop learning new things, they also forget some of what they have learned.
  • The projected learning loss for the region is 0.5 years of learning-adjusted years of schooling (LAYS), falling from 6.5 LAYS to 6.0 LAYS, an enormous setback from recent advances in schooling

About Learning Adjusted Year of Schooling’ (LAYS) concept

  • The ‘Learning Adjusted Year of Schooling’ (LAYS) concept, introduced by the World Bank, seeks to combine access and learning outcomes into a single measure. Hence statement 1 is incorrect
  • It combines quantity (years of schooling) and quality (how much kids know at a given grade level) into a single summary measure of human capital in a society. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/school-closure-over-covid-19-may-cost-over-usd-400-billion-to-india-world-bank/story-hxzbNLnXV46hi0bPyOvfVJ.html


Consider the following statements regarding FELUDA test

  1. It uses indigenously developed CRISPR gene-editing technology to identify and target the genetic material of SARS-CoV2, the virus that causes Covid-19.
  2. It is developed by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and TATA Group

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: FELUDA paper strip test for coronavirus

Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan said that the rollout of the FELUDA paper strip test for coronavirus is expected in the next few weeks.

About FELUDA

  • It is an accurate and low-cost paper-based test strip to detect Covid-19 in less than 30 minutes has been approved for commercial launch by the Drugs Controller General of India.
  • Developed by a research team led by Debojyoti Chakraborty and Souvik Maiti of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Tata Group. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Feluda, the acronym for FNCAS9 Editor Linked Uniform Detection Assay, uses indigenously developed CRISPR gene-editing technology to identify and target the genetic material of SARS-CoV2, the virus that causes Covid-19. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The Feluda test is similar to a pregnancy test strip that will just change colour upon detection of the virus and can be used in a simple pathological lab.
  • The Cas9 protein is bar-coded to interact with the SARS-CoV2 sequence in the patient’s genetic material.
  • The Cas9-SARS-CoV2 complex is then put on the paper strip, where using two lines (one control, one test) makes it possible to determine if the test sample was infected.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/feluda-coronavirus-covid-19-test-tata-sons-crispr-technology-6603573/


Consider the following statements regarding India Energy Modelling Forum

  1. It is a joint initiative of NITI Aayog and United States Agency for International Development
  2. It aims to engage Indian researchers, knowledge partners, think tanks and national and international government agencies and departments for modelling and long-term energy planning.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: NITI Aayog has released the governing structure of the India Energy Modelling Forum (IEMF).

  • Further to the constitution of the India Energy Modelling Forum (IEMF)—jointly launched by NITI Aayog and United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the US–India Strategic Energy Partnership—on 2 July, NITI Aayog announced its governing structure on 8 October

About India Energy Modelling Forum (IEMF)

  • It is a joint initiative of NITI Aayogand United States Agency for International Development (USAID) under the US–India Strategic Energy Partnership. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is the part of the Sustainable Growth pillarof the US–India Strategic Energy Partnership (SEP).
  • The IEMF aims to engage Indian researchers, knowledge partners, think tanks and national and international government agenciesand departments for modelling and long-term energy planning. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • The governing structure of IEMFwill consist of an inter-ministerial and a steering committee.
  • Theinter-ministerial committee will be convened by NITI Aayog and headed by its CEO and comprise senior officials from various ministries. The inter-ministerial committee will review the studies/modelling activities and provide directions and new areas of research.
  • The steering committee willcomprise representatives of the ministries, Industry Associations (FICCI and CII), Academia (IIT Bombay, Ahmedabad, and Delhi) and Policy research organizations, think tanks and funding agencies.
  • The steering committee will shortlist policy issues to be taken up for study and might form various taskforces depending on the specific studies/modelling exercises to be carried out.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1663864#:~:text=Further%20to%20the%20constitution%20of,governing%20structure%20on%208%20October.


Which of the following statements are correct regarding Nobel Prize for Economics 2020?

  1. Auction theory and inventions of new auction formats
  2. Experimental approach to alleviating global poverty
  3. Integrating innovation and climate with economic growth
  4. Contributions to behavioural economic

Answer: (a) Auction theory and inventions of new auction formats

Explanation:

In NEWS: Expained: The economics of auctions

  • The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics (2020) to Paul R Milgrom and Robert B Wilson for their work on auction theory and new auction formatsHence option (a) is correct

What is auction theory?

  • Essentially, it is about how auctions lead to the discovery of the price of a commodity. Auction theory studies how auctions are designed, what rules govern them, how bidders behave and what outcomes are achieved.

What are the key variables that determine the outcome of an auction?

Three key variables need to be understood while designing an auction.

  • One is the rules of the auction. Imagine participating in an auction. Your bidding behaviour is likely to differ if the rules stipulate open bids as against closed/sealed bids. The same applies to single bids versus multiple bids, or whether bids are made one after another or everyone bids at the same time.
  • The second variable is the commodity or service being put up for auction. In essence, the question is how does each bidder value an item. This is not always easy to ascertain. In terms of telecom spectrum, it might be easier to peg the right value for each bidder because most bidders are likely to put the spectrum to the same use. This is called the “common” value of an object. But this may not be the case with some other commodities, say a painting. Person A may derive considerably more “private” or personal value — just by looking at it endlessly — than person B. In most auctions, bidders allocate both “common” as well as “private” values to the object being auctioned and this affects their eventual bids.
  • The third variable is uncertainty. For instance, which bidder has what information about the object, or even the value another bidder associates with the object.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/economics-of-auction-nobel-prize-paul-r-milgrom-robert-b-wilson-6722558/


“Gold Tranche” (Reserve Tranche) refers to

  1. a loan system of the World Bank
  2. one of the operations of a Central Bank
  3. a credit system granted by WTO to its members
  4. a credit system granted by IMF to its members

Answer: (d) a credit system granted by IMF to its members

Explanation:

  • A reserve tranche is a portion of the required quota of currency each member country must provide to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) that can be utilized for its own purposes without a service fee or economic reform conditions. Hence option (d) is correct
  • The IMF is funded through its members and their quota contributions. The reserve tranche is basically an emergency account that IMF members can access at any time without agreeing to conditions or paying a service fee.
  • The reserve tranches that countries hold with the IMF are considered their facilities of first resort, meaning they will tap into the reserve tranche at a short notice before seeking a formal credit tranche.