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Daily Prelims Test – 13_June

1.Consider the following statements regarding Indian Gaur

  • They are found in the Himalayas with an altitude greater than 6,000 ft.
  • It is listed as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species since 1986

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: First estimation exercise of Indian gaur in Nilgiris in recent year

  • The first population estimation exercise of the Indian gaur was carried out in the Nilgiris Forest Division. It has revealed that more than an estimated 2,000 Indian gaurs inhabit the entire division.

About Indian gaur

  • The Indian Gaur (Bos Gaurus) also called the Indian bison is the largest extant bovine.
  • It is native to South Asia and Southeast Asia. Gaurs are grassland specialists and their main food is grass.
  • The Gaur is a social animal. They generally live in group size of about 30 to 40.
  • The Indian Bison is very much prevalent in the Western Ghats. They prefer evergreen forests and moist deciduous forests.
  • The species is listed as ‘vulnerable’ on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red Listof Threatened Species since 1986. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • They are not found in the Himalayas with an altitude greater than 6,000 ft. They generally stick to the foothills onlyHence statement 1 is incorrect
  • Threat: Food Scarcity and Poaching
  • Hence, the Indian Government has already included the protection of wild bison in the Schedule I of the Wild Life Protection Act, 1972.
  • It is the State animal of Goa.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/first-estimation-exercise-of-indian-gaur-in-nilgiris-in-recent-years/article31805462.ece

2.Consider the following statements regarding Integrated Flood Warning System

  • It is a monitoring and flood warning system that will be able to relay alerts of possible flood-prone areas anywhere between six to 72 hours in advance
  • Mumbai is only the second city in the country after Odisha to get this system

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: IFLOWS-Mumbai: How it works, and how it will benefit the Maximum City

  • Maharashtra’s Chief Minister Uddhav Thackeray and Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare, Science and Technology, Dr Harsh Vardhan launched an Integrated Flood Warning System called ‘IFLOWS-Mumbai’
  • A joint initiative between the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) and Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC)
  • IFLOWS is a monitoring and flood warning system that will be able to relay alerts of possible flood-prone areas anywhere between six to 72 hours in advanceHence statement 1 is correct
  • The system can provide all information regarding possible flood-prone areas, likely height the floodwater could attain, location-wise problem areas across all 24 wards and calculate the vulnerability and risk of elements exposed to flood.
  • Mumbai is only the second city in the country after Chennai to get this system. Similar systems are being developed for Bengaluru and Kolkata. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The primary source for the system is the amount of rainfall, but with Mumbai being a coastal city, the system also factors in tidal waves and storm tides for its flood assessments
  • The system has provisions to capture the urban drainage within the city and predict the areas of flooding. 
  • Based on the amount of rain recorded, time, location, topography and forecast, the system is designed to generate flood warnings for specific geographical areas of the city

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-iflows-mumbai-and-how-will-it-benefit-the-maximum-city6455840/

3.Consider the following statements regarding Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle system

  • It consists of a Submarine Rescue Vessel, a Remote Operations Vehicle, Side Scan Sonar and associated equipment
  • It can be rapidly mobilized by air or road to facilitate submarine rescue operations even at distant locations

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle Complex inaugurated at Visakhapatnam

DSRV Complex is designed to accommodate the newly inducted Submarine Rescue System with state of the art facilities to store the DSRV assets in a Rescue-Ready state.

The Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle (DSRV) Complex was inaugurated at Visakhapatnam.

DSRV system

  • The DSRV system consists of a Submarine Rescue Vessel, a Remote Operations Vehicle, Side Scan Sonar and associated equipmentHence statement 1 is correct
  • It also has Diver Decompression Chambers and hyperbaric medical equipment to decompress submariners after being rescued from a sunken submarine.
  • The DSRV system can be rapidly mobilised by air or road to facilitate submarine rescue operations even at distant locationsHence statement 2 is correct

Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle:

  • It is a type of Deep Submergence Vehicle that is used for the rescue of the downed clandestine missions and Submarines.
  • While DSRV term has been most often used by the United States Navy, other nations have different kinds of designations for their own vehicles.
  • The Indian Navy had inducted its first Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle in November 2018 and the second DSRV was inducted in 2019.

The Indian Navy has inducted two such systems which will provide rescue cover to submarines on the West and East coast of India respectively. Currently, there are about 40 nations that operate submarines in the world out of which only a few have any form of submarine rescue capability.

Source: http://newsonair.com/News?title=Deep-Submergence-Rescue-Vehicle-Complex-inaugurated-at-Visakhapatnam&id=390965

4.Consider the following statements regardingNature Index

  • It is a database of author affiliation information collated from research articles published in an independently selected group of 82 high-quality science journals.
  • It is compiled by Biotechnology Innovation Organization

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: 3 DST institutes among top 30 Indian Institutions in Nature Index 2020

  • The Nature Index 2020 has been released recently by Nature Research. Hence statement 2 is incorrect
  • The Nature Index is a database of author affiliation information collated from research articles published in an independently selected group of 82 high-quality science journ Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The United States topped the Index followed by China, GermanyUnited Kingdom and 
  • India has ranked 12thin the Index.
  • Globally the top-rated Indian institutions in this list are Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), a group of 39 institutions at the 160th position and Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Bangalore at the 184th position.
  • The ratings are based on the research published in the top journals.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.aspx?PRID=1630874

5.Consider the following statements regarding Bose-Einstein condensate

  • They are formed when atoms of certain elements are cooled to near absolute zero
  • It is the fifth state of matter which is produced when the atoms in a gas become ionised.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Quantum ‘fifth state of matter’ observed in space for first time

  • Scientists have observed the fifth state of matter in space for the first time, offering unprecedented insight that could help solve some of the quantum universe’s most intractable conundrums, research showed Thursday.
  • Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) — the existence of which was predicted by Albert Einstein and Indian mathematician Satyendra Nath Bose almost a century ago — are formed when atoms of certain elements are cooled to near absolute zero. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • When bosonic atoms are cooled to form a condensate, they can lose their individuali Hence statement 2 is correct
  • They behave like one big collective super atom, similar to how photons become indistinguishable in a laser beam.
  • The first BEC was shown experimentally in June 1995 by researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder in the US, by cooling a gas of around 2,000 Rubidium atoms.
  • BECs straddle (belong) between the macroscopic world governed by forces such as gravity and the microscopic world ruled by quantum mechanics.
  • BECs are extremely fragile and the slightest interaction with the external world is enough to warm them past their condensation threshold.
  • Scientists believe BECs contain vital clues to mysterious phenomena such as dark energy– the unknown energy thought to be behind the Universe’s accelerating expansion

Source: https://www.hindustantimes.com/science/quantum-fifth-state-of-matter-observed-in-space-for-first-time/story-NZsdJ7g8aOlktKeVYIqlTI.html

6.Consider the following statements regardingLonar lake

  • It is an ancient circular lake created by a meteorite strike in Manipur
  • It is the only known meteorite crater in basaltic rock

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Maharashtra’s Lonar lake turns pink; locals, experts baffled

  • Water in the crater lakes of Canada and Navi Mumbai creek too has turned pink. But we have collected the sample of the water from Lonar Lake and given to National Environment Research Institute (NEERI) for further scientific testing.
  • The change in colour of water of the lake, having a mean diameter of 1.2 km, has not only surprised locals
  • Last year, the water of this lake had turned reddish. The water level of this lake is always fluctuating. Again, the salinity and algae in the water causing the change in colour. Due to the evaporation of water, the salinity on the water has increased. The colour will soon turn normal when the lake gets rainwater

About Lonar lake

  • Lonar lake is an ancient circular lake created by a meteorite strike in Maharashtra. It is the only known meteorite crater in basaltic rockHence statement 1 is incorrect and Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Lonar crater became a geo-heritage site in 1979. It is relatively young geologically, at just 50,000 years old.
  • It was created by an asteroid collision with earth impact during the Pleistocene Epoch.
  • It sits inside the Deccan Plateau
  • The lake is also home to thousands of peafowls, chinkara and gazelles.
  • The area of 3.83Sq.km was declared as Lonar Wildlife Sanctuary by the government on 20 November 2015.

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2020/jun/11/maharashtras-lonar-lake-turns-pink-locals-experts-baffled-2155325.html

7.Consider the following statements regardingSahakar Mitra

  • It will help cooperative institutions access new and innovative ideas of young professionals while the interns will gain experience of working in the field to be self-reliant
  • It is an initiative by National Cooperative Development Corporation

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi’s clarion call for AtmaNirbhar Bharat(Self Reliant India) emphasizing the importance of local for vocal, Sahakar Mitra: Scheme on Internship Programme (SIP) was launched yesterday by Union Minister for Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare Shri Narendra Singh Tomar.

  • Union Minister for Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare Shri Narendra Singh Tomar launches Sahakar Mitra: Scheme on Internship Programme, an initiative by National Cooperative Development Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Sahakar Mitra scheme will help cooperative institutions access new and innovative ideas of young professionals while the interns will gain experienceof working in the field to be self-reliant. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • Sahakar Mitra: Scheme on Internship Programme (SIP) will provide the young professionals an opportunity of practical exposure and learning from the working of NCDC and cooperatives as a paid intern. NCDC has also introduced a complementary scheme to promote start-up cooperative ventures.
  • Sahakar Mitra would also provide an opportunity to professionals from academic institutions to develop leadership and entrepreneurial roles through cooperatives as Farmers Producers Organizations
  • Under this scheme, professional graduates in disciplines such as Agriculture and allied areas, IT etc. will be eligible for internship.  Professionals who are pursuing or have completed their MBA degrees in Agri-business, Cooperation, Finance, International Trade, Forestry, Rural Development, Project Management etc will also be eligible.
  • NCDC has earmarked funds for Sahakar Mitra paid internship program under which each intern will get financial support over a 4 monthsinternship period. Online application portal for internship application available on NCDC website, was also launched by the Union Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare Minister

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1631125

8.Consider the following statements regarding National Council for Science & Technology Communication

  • It is an apex organization of the Department of Science and Technology
  • It is mandated to formulate countrywide programmes, policies, and activities in the domain of science communication and popularization in the country

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: DST constitutes joint Science Communication Forum to promote common policy & best practices

  • The Department of Science & Technology has constituted a joint Science Communication Forum with a view to facilitate interaction, cooperation, and coordination amongst various public sector science communication institutions and agencies.
  • The Forum would be served by a Secretariat at the National Council for Science & Technology Communication (NCSTC), Department of Science & Technology, which is mandated for coordination with different organizations, programmes and activities focused on science communication in the country and orchestrating them for enhanced public understanding of science with a scientific bent of mind.

About the National Council for Science & Technology Communication:

  • The National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC) is a scientific programme of the Government of India for the popularisation of science, dissemination of scientific knowledge and inculcation of scientific temperHence statement 2 is correct
  • Established under the Department of Science and Technology. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • It is mandated to communicate Science and Technology to masses, stimulate scientific and technological temper and coordinate and orchestrate such efforts throughout the country.
  • Following the science communication plan introduced in the Sixth Five-Year Plan of India, NCSTC was established in 1982

NCSTC has three major objectives:

  • For developing a building capacity for informed decision and promote scientific thinking to the Indian communities.
  • For the development of society using scientific knowledge and organise programmes using different media to reach every citizen.
  • To conduct outreach activities, including training in science and technology communication, awareness programmes, dissemination of scientific knowledge, award incentives, promote scientific research, develop international co-operation, while providing special attention to women.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1630873

9.Consider the following statements regarding National Cooperative Development Corporation

  • It is a statutory Corporation under the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare
  • The objectives of NCDC are planning and promoting programmes for production, processing, marketing, storage, export and import of agricultural produce

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:

Recently, the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare has launched a Scheme on Internship Programme (SIP) i.e. Sahakar Mitra. It is an initiative by the National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) for young professionals.

About the National Cooperative Development Corporation

  • The National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) was established by an Act of Parliament in 1963 as a statutory Corporation under the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • The objectives of NCDC are planning and promoting programmes for production, processing, marketing, storage, export and import of agricultural produce, foodstuffs, industrial goods, livestock and certain other notified commodities and services on cooperative principles and for matters concerned therewith or incidental thereto. Hence statement 2 is correct
  • Planning, promoting and financing programmes for production, processing, marketing, storage, export and import of agricultural produce, food stuffs, certain other notified commodities e.g. fertilisers, insecticides, agricultural machinery, lac, soap, kerosene oil, textile, rubber etc., supply of consumer goods and collection, processing, marketing, storage and export of minor forest produce through cooperatives, besides income generating stream of activities such as poultry, dairy, fishery, sericulture, handloom etc.
  • NCDC will now be able to finance projects in the rural industrial cooperative sectors and for certain notified services in rural areas like water conservation, irrigation and micro irrigation, agri-insurance, agro-credit, rural sanitation, animal health, etc.
  • Loans and grants are advanced to State Governments for financing primary and secondary level cooperative societies and direct to the national level and other societies having objects extending beyond one State.
  • The Corporation can also go in for direct funding of projects under its various schemes of assistance on fulfilment of stipulated conditions.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1631125

10.With reference to Swadeshi Movement, consider the following statements:

  • It contributed to the revival of the indigenous artisan crafts and industries.
  • The National Council of Education was established as a part of Swadeshi Movement.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • 1 only
  • 2 only
  • Both 1 and 2
  • Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation: 

  • Swadeshi Movement had its genesis in opposition to the partition of Bengal in 1905.
  • It emphasized on self-reliance thus contributing to revival of indigenous artisans craft and industries. Hence statement 1 is correct
  • In August 1906 the National Council of Education was established to provide an impetus to program of national education as a part of Swadeshi movement. Hence statement 2 is correct